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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



JANUARY 



DECEMBER, 1899. 



VOL. XXI. TWENTY-NINTH SESSION. 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 
37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1899. 



HARRISON AND SONS, 

PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, 

ST. martin's lane LONDON. 



COUNCIL, 1899. 



President. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, LL.D., &c., &c. 

Vice-Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury. 

Arthur Gates. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Barl., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 



Council. 

Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 1 Rev. James Marshall, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. T. K. Che)Tie, D.D. j Claude G. Montefiore. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. j Prof. E. Naville. 

Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S. ! J. Pollard. 

F. LI. Griffith, F. S. A. Edward B. Tylor, LL. D. , F. R. S. 

Gray Hill. &c. 

Rev, Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 
Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 
Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 
Honorary Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



CONTENTS. 



Donations to Library ... 2, 51, 83, 145, 181, 258, 287 

Nomination of Candidates 2, 52, 84, 182, 260 

Election of Members 3, 52, 84, 147, 182, 288 

Notices of decease of Members ... ... i, 257, 258, 287 

Alteration in the time of the Meetings ... ... ... 85 

No. cLviii. January. 

Secretary's Report, 1898 4-8 

Council and Officers for the year 1898 ... ... ... 9 

Prof. A. H. Sayce {President). — The New Babylonian 

Chronological Tablet ... ... ... ... ... 10-22 

Contract from the Country of Khana ... ... 22-24 

An Early Babylonian Document relating to the 

Shuhites 24, 25 

Miss M. Brourick, Ph.D., and Mjss A. Anderson 
Morton. — The Tomb of Pepi Ankh (Khua) near 
Sharona (5 Plates) 26-33 

Alfred Boissier. — Deux Fables Assyriennes. K. 3456 34-48 

Prof. Dr. August Eisenlohr. — Letter to Mr. Rylands 

referring to the Mathematical Papyrus... ... ... 49, 50 

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year 
ending 31st December, 1898. 



CONTENTS. 



No. CLix. February. 

Prof. J. Lieblein. — L'Exode des Hebreux {suite) 

Stanley A. Cook, B. A.— Some recent Palmyrene Inscrip- 
tions (2 TYa/^'j-) ... 



NOTES- 



J. Herbert Walker. — Analysis of Egyptian 

Cosmetic 
Rev. C. H. W. Johns. — The words Adar and Sartu 
Walter L. Nash. — Scarab of Ahmes 
Joseph Offord. — Portrait Statue of Psammetic- 

Neith 

Dr. Hayes Ward. — The Inscribed Stones from 

Hamath 
E. Towry Whyte. — Egyptian Bronze Mummy-case 

for a Fish ... 



I'AGU 
53-67 

68-78 



79 
79 
80 

80 

80 

82 



No. CLX. March. 

The Consecration of a Church, Altar and Tank, according 
to the Ritual of the Coptic-Jacobite Church, with Note 
by the Bishop OF Salisbury ... ... ... ... 86-107 

Prof. A. H. Sayce {President). — A New Egyptian King ; 

the predecessor of Kheops (/*A?/d') ... ... ... 108- no 

Prof. A. H. Sayce {President). — Some Old Empire In- 
scriptions from El-Kab (/'A?/^') ... ... ... ... 111-114 

Prof. Dr. Hommel. — Assyriological Notes {Continuation) 115-139 

Notes — 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns. — Assyriological Notes ... 140 

Prof. A. H. Sayce. — Discoveries at Karnak ... 141 

J. Offord. — Yanoem of the Menepthah Stele ... 142 

J. W. Fraser. — The Tomb of Pepi-ankh ^hua ... 143 
E. TowRY Whyte. — Egyptian Musical Instrument 

■ {Piate) 143 



vi CONTENTS. 

No. CLXi. May. 

r/VGE 

G. WiLLOUGHBY Fraser. — Notcs Oil Scarabs (3 Fla/es) 148-157 
Theophilus G. Pinches. — A New Babylonian King of 
the Period of the First Dynasty of Babylon ; with 
Incidental References to Immerum and Anmanila 

{Plate) ... 158-163 

Theophilus G. PiNCHES.^Major Mockler-Ferryman's 

Tablet giving the Names of Temple-Overseers {Plate) 164-167 
Theophilus G. Pinches. — An Interesting Cylinder-Seal 168-169 
Notes — 

Walter L. Nash, — Cylinder of Pepi 1st 

Stanley A. Cook. — Palmyrene Inscriptions 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns— The Official Title lu-su- 

PA-MES 

Joseph Offord. — Ashteroth-Karnaim 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns. — The Biblical Account of 

Sennacherib's Murder 
W. H. Rylands. — Sketch of an Engraved Shell 
Rev. Dr. T. K. Cheyne. — The Land of Cabul 

No. clxii. June. 

F. Legge. — Recent Discoveries at Abydos and Negadah 

{■^ Plates and Plans) ... ... ... ... ... 183-193 

Prof. A. H. S-\yce {President).— \i\ii\te Notes 194-223 

Prof. Dr. Hommel. — Notes on the Hittite Inscriptions 224-238 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. — Notes on some Egyptian 

Deities, Set, Apuat, and Anupt (/Yrt/f) ... ... 239-241 

Dr. Cheyne. — The Blessings of Asher, Naphtali, and 
Joseph ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 242-245 

Dr. Cheyne. — On the Hebrew words iDIZ^b^ and "nilD 246 
W. E. Crum. — Notes on — 

I. — The Name Pachomius ... ... ... 247-249 

II.--" Above" and "Below" in Coptic 249-251 

III. — ^ Egyptian " Orantes "( G/-/) .. . ... ... 251,252 

Joseph Offord.— Dancing Worship ... ... ... 253 

C. H. W. Johns. — Assyriological Notes ... ... ... 254 255 

Joseph Offord. — Chedorlaomcr ... ... ... ... 256 



'y 





170- 


-172 


172, 


173 


173, 


174 


174, 


175 


175, 


176 


177- 


-179 



CONTENTS. Vii 

No. CLxiii. November. 

PAGE 

F. Legge. — Report on the Xllth Congress of Orientalists 

held at Rome, October 3-15 ... ... ... ... 261-268 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. — Notes on Hieroglyphics The 

Head. The Papyrus Roll. The Soldier ... ... 269-272 

Ancient Egyptian Models of Fish (4 Fiafes) 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. — Transliteration of Demotic ... 273-276 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. — Notes on Mythology. Eileithyia 

in Egypt. The God of Busiris. Hermes Trismegistus 277-279 
General Hastings. — The XXHnd Egyptian Dynasty... 280, 281 
Percy E. Newberry. — Note on a new Egyptian King of 

the XHIth Dynasty 282,283 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns. — Notes on Assyriology ... ... 284, 285 

E. TowRY Whyte, M.A., F.S.A. — Note on an Egyptian 

^o\t {Plate) 286 

No. CLXiv. December. 

Sir H. H. H. Howorth, K.C.S.L, M.P.— On the Earliest 

Inscriptions from Chaldea (/Y(7 A') ... ... ... 289-302 

Percy E. Newberry. — Extracts from my Notebook : — 

1. The Story of Sanehat, and the Inscription of 

Amenemheb : a Correction ... ... 303 

2. The Persea Tree in Ancient Egypt {Plate) . . . 303 

3. A Stone Vase of Ptahmes, High Priest at 

Memphis under Amenhetep III {Plate) ... 305 

4. A Statue of User, Vezir of Upper Egypt under 

Thothmes III ... ... ... ... 306 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns. — Babylonian Weights and 

Measures ... ... ... ... • ■ • ... ... 308 

F. W. Re.\d. — A supposed Eclipse of the Moon under 

the XXIInd Egyptian Dynasty ... ... ... ... 309,310 

F. Legge. — The Sign | (Nutir or Neter) ... ... 310,311 

Walter L. N.vsh. — Egyptian Models of Fish (4 Plates) 311, 312 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



F. G 



151 



Tomb of Pepi Ankh (Khua) near Sharona (5 Plates) 
Palmyrene Inscriptions (2 Plates) 
Scarab of Aahmes, wife of Thothmes I ... 
Portrait Statue of Psammetic-Neith 
Egyptian Bronze Mummy Case for a Fish 
Cartouches of Sharu and Khufu {Plate I) 
Old Empire Inscriptions from El-Kab {Plate II) 
Bronze Musical Instrument in the Collection of 

Hilton Price, Esq., Dir. S.A. ... 
E.Q;yptian Scarabs (3 Plates) 
Tablet belonging to the Rev. J. P. Way, M.A. ... 
Tablet from Lagas (Tel-loh) in the possession of Major 

Mockler-Ferryman 
Tablet with the name of Manamaltel 
Cylinder-Seal in the De Sarzec Collection 
Cylinder of Pepi 1st 
Sketch of an Engraved Shell .... 
Recent Discoveries at Abydos and Negadah (3 Plates) 
Map of the Kingdom of the Hittites ... 
Figures of some Egyptian Deities in the Collection of 

F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., Dir. S.A. ... 
Sketch of an Egyptian " Orante '"' 
Wooden Bolt, Egyptian, in the Collection of E. Towry 

Whyte, M.A., F.S.A 

Tablets, with early Inscriptions, from Chaldea 

The Persea Tree in Ancient Egypt 

Stone Vase of Ptahmes, High Priest at Memphis under 

Amenhctep III... 
Ancient Egyptian Models of Fish (4 Plates) 



32 
68 
80 
80 
82 
III' 
114 

M3 

i53> 155 

159 

166 
168 
168 
170 
176 
186-18S 
201 

239 
251 

286 
294 
304 

306 
312 



VOL. XXI. 



Part i. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



-^;#- 



VOL. XXL TWENTY-NINTH SESSION. 

First Meeting, Jammry loth, 1899. 
[anniversary.] 



-#i^- 



CONTENTS. 

Secretary's Report, 1898 

Council and Officers for the year 1898 ... .„ 

Prof. A. H. Sayce {President). — The New Babylonian Chrono 

logical Tablet... 

Contract from the country of Khana .. . 
An Early Babylonian Document relating to the Shuhites .. 
Miss M. Brodrick, Ph.D., and Miss A. Anderson Morton.— 

The Tomb of Pepi Ankh (Khua) near Sharona (5 plates) 
Alfred Boissier. — Deux Fables Assyriennes. K. 3456 
Prof. Dr. August Eisenlohr. — Letter to Mr. Rylands 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year ending 31st 

December, 1898. 



-^K^ 



PAGE 
4-8 

9 

10-21 

22-24 
24-25 

26-33 
34-48 
49-50 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 
37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

18 99. 



No. CLVIII.] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



TRANSACTIONS. To 


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Session 


1878-79 




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1899 




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Vol. 


XXI, 


Part I 


1899 




2 





in progress) 




2 


6 



A few complete sets of the Transactions and Proceedings still remain for 
sale, which may be obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Ryi.ands, 
F.S.A., 37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-NINTH SESSION, 1899. 
VOLUME XXL 



First Meeting, loth January, 1899, 
[anniversary.] 

Dr. J. HALL GLADSTONE, F.R.S., Member of Council, 

IN THE CHAIR, 



The Chairman announced with regret the loss 
suffered by the Society by the death of one of its 
earliest Members, Prof. Thomas Hayter Lewis, 
F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., etc., etc., etc. Born in 1818 : died 
loth December, 1898. 



[No. CLVIII.] 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/IiOLOGY. [1899. 

The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From R. A. Rye, Esq. : — Histoire du Peuple d'Israel par 
Ernest Renan. Deuxieme edition. 5 volumes, 8vo. Paris. 
1887-93. 

From J. Legge, Esq. : — Handbooks on the History of Religions. 
The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. By Morris Jastrow, 
jun., Ph.D. 8vo. Boston. 1898. 

Syria and Egypt, from the Tel el-Amarna tablets. By 

W. M. Flinders Petrie,D.C.L., LL.D., &c.,&c. 8vo. London, 



From the Author : — Stanley A. Cook, Esq., B.A., etc. A Glossary 
of the Aramaic Inscriptions. Cambridge University Press. 
8vo. 1898. 

From the Author : — ^Rev. T. Witton Davies, B.A., Ph.D. Magic, 
Divination and Demonology among the Hebrews and their 
Neighbours. 8vo. London. 1898. 

From the Author : — Jean Capart. Notes sur les origines de 
I'Egypte d'apres les fouilles recentes. Rev. de PUniv. de 
Bruxelles. Tome IV. 1898-99. 

From the Author:— Rev. P. A. C. de Cara, S.J. Gli Hethei- 
Pelasgi in Italia o gl' Itali della storia. Messapi-Japigi. Civilt. 
Cait. Dec, 1898. 

From the Author : — A Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities in 
the possession of F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S.A. 4to. London. 
1897. 



The following Candidate was nominated for election at 
the next Meeting, to be held on the 7th February, 1899 • — 

John Ward, F.S.A., Lenoxvale, Belfast. 



Jan. io] proceedings. [1899. 

The following Candidates were elected Members of the 
Society, having been nominated at the Meeting held on 
the 1st November, 1898 : — 

Henry Beard, 86, Fitzjohn's Avenue, N.W. 

Hope Waddell Hogg, M.A., M.R.A.S., 4, Winchester Road, 
Oxford. 

Rev. W. O. Oesterley, 39, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Rev. Robertus F. Olsen, Hjorundfjord, Norway. 



The Secretary's Report, and the audited Statement of 
Receipts and Expenditure to the 31st of December, 1898, 
were received, and ordered to be printed. 



A Paper by the President, entitled, " The New Babylonian 
Tablet," was read by the Secretary. 

Remarks were added by Mr. Boscawen, Mr. Stanley A. 
Cooke, and the Chairman. 



N.B — The two Plates of a Tablet from the Library of 
Nineveh, illustrating the President's Paper printed in Pro- 
ceedings, November, 1898, page 258, are issued with the 
present Part. 



A 2 



Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 
FOR THE YEAR 1898. 



In submitting to you my twentieth annual report, reference must be 
again made to the severe losses the Society has sufifered by the death 
of some of its most distinguished members ; it has been a sad duty to 
announce these losses from time to time ; and even during the past month, 
as noticed this evening, an old and valued friend has gone from among 
us, one whose learning was universally appreciated, and one of our 
earliest members, whose interest in our Society never ceased. 

The number on the roll of Members has, however, been fairly main- 
tained, and it is a pleasure to thank those friends who have so kindly 
obtained the names of new Members ; there is still, however, much 
more that might be done, if a determined effort was made in this 
direction. There must be many who would be willing, if only they were 
asked, to help us to place a greater quantity of material, of a more 
varied character, in the hands of scholars and students, and at the same 
time gain the opportunity of reading it themselves. I have many times 
appealed to the whole body of Members to assist the Society in this 
manner ; I again repeat the appeal, in the hope that it may not be 
overlooked. 

The Twenty-eighth Session commenced in November, 1897, but the 
present volume, like its immediate predecessors, includes the Proceedings 
from January to December, 1898. 

The papers read before the Society, and printed in this volume, will 
be found not inferior in value and interest to those of former years, and 
the best thanks of the Society are due to the many writers who have 
thus contributed to the success of our meetings and publications. 

In the last report I mentioned that some papers dealing with subjects 
more nearly connected with the Bible had been promised, several of these 
have appeared in the Proceedings during the past year, and it is hoped 
that Members and others having suitable information in their possession 
will not fail to submit it to the Council. 

The scheme of widening the operations of the Society is still under 
consideration, but it is only by the assistance of the Members that it can 
be fully carried out. It should be remembered that it is not always 
necessary to write a paper, and that any notes occurring during the study 

4 



Jan. io.] proceedings. [189^. 

of a subject, could find a fitting place in the Pfocccdings, which arei of 
course open to the Members. I need hardly point out that such notes 
would be a useful addition to our publications, and be of interest and 
service to the Members. 

The various papers and notes, many of them illustrated, printed in 
the volume just completed, are as follows, classed as usual under their 
divisions : — 
Prof. Dr. Jules Oppert : 

Noli me tangere ; a mathematical demonstration of the exactness of 

Biblical Chronology (January). 
John E. Gilmore : 

An account of some fragments of the Sahidic version of the Pauline 

Epistles and St. John's Gospel, obtained by him in Egypt (January). 
Joseph Offord : ■ ■. . 

Has collected the Roman Inscriptions relating to Hadrian's Jewish 

War (February and May). 
Hormuzd Rassam : 

Abraham and the land of his nativity (February). ■ ' 

Admiral J. H. Selwyn : 

A note on Biblical Chronology (March). 
Dr. Paul Ruben : 

An Oracle of Nahum (May). 
Prof. J. Lieblein : 

Mots Egyptiens dans la Bible (May) ; and again, L'Exode des 

Hebreux (November), which will be continued in future parts of the 

Proceedings. 
Rev. Dr. Horner : 

Biblical Chronology (June). 
E. J. Pilcher : 

Herodian Pottery and the Siloam Inscription (June). 
Prof. J. Lieblein : ' 

Asks the question, Thotmes III, etait-il fils de Thotmes I .^ 

(February). 
Prof. Sayce {President) : 

The beginnings of the Egyptian monarchy (February). 
Prof. Dr. Wiedemann: • 

Observations on the Nagadah period (March). 
Prof. G. Maspero : 

Continued his notes au jour le jour, V (March), of which it is hoped 

other parts will be published during the present session. 
Walter L. Nash, F.S.A. : 

Described a bronze urasus of unusual form (March) ; the ushabti 

box of Nes-pa-chred, a Priest of Mentu (May) ; also an ancient 

Egyptian toilet box, to which was added an analysis of its contents 

by W. GOWLAND, F.C.S., F.S.A. (November). 

5 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF lilBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

Prof. Ur. Kart. Piehl : 

Contributions au Dictionnaire Hieroglyphique (May and December) ; 

also a note on the goddess □ ^ ^ ^ri<^ on the sign ^^ (June). 

To these must be added the Coptic notes : 
VV. E. Crum : 

On the Coptic Spell, referring to a former note printed in the 

Proceedings^ Vol. XIX, pp. 183, 302 (February) ; also a Coptic letter 

of Orders (November). 
F. Legge : 

Added some notes on the Coptic Spell given in Vol. XIX, pp. 183, 302 

(March). 
Under the title, A Dictionary of the Egyptian Language, an .Appeal 
to custodians and owners of Inscriptions and Papyri, appeared the 
translation of a circular, to which I may again well call special attention. 
The circular explains very clearly the objects of the work, the cost of 
which has been provided by the German Emperor (March). 
Rev. C. J. Ball : 

Babylonian Hieroglyphs (January). 
HORMUzn Rassam : 

Door lintel discovered by Mr. George Smith at Kouyunjik, referring 

to a note by M. Boissier which appeared in the Proceedings for June, 

1897 (January). 
Joseph Offord : 

Two texts referred to in his report of the Oriental Congress, being 

the story of the Deluge, from a tablet discovered at Sippara, and the 

stela of Menepthah mentioning the Israelites (January), and again 

(March) on the letter of Hammurabi to Siniddina king of Larsa. 
S. Arthur Strong : 

A Hymn to Nebuchadnezzar (March). 
Alfred Boissier : 

Notes d'Assyriologie (March). 
Professor Sayce {President) : 

The Kuthaean Legend of the Creation (May) ; and Assyriological 

Notes (November). 
Rev. C. H. W. Johns : 

Note on some tablets in the Kouyunjik Collection, in the British 

Museum (June). 
Some of the new "Hittite" antiquities have been brought to the 
notice of the Society — 
K. J. Basmadjian : 

Gave an account of two silver seals bearing inscriptions (June) 
and in the November part, I called attention to an inscription and a 
small gold figure, at the same time making some remarks on the inscribed 
stones from Hamatli. In the same part of the Proceedings, the Presi- 

6 



Jan. lo] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

dent in his paper entitled Assyriological Notes, No IV, refers to inscrip- 
tions of this class. 

As stated in the last report, Lady Renouf very kindly placed at the 
disposal of the Society all the notes left by our late lamented President, 
Sir Peter Renouf, in order to assist as far as possible in the completion 
of his translation of the Book of the Dead. I am happy to say that the 
completion of the work has been most kindly undertaken by one of our 
Honorary Members, M. Naville, whose monumental work of the text of 
the Book of the Dead is so universally valued. 

Six Parts of the Large Paper Edition have been issued to the sub- 
scribers, two more being required to complete the work ; it is hoped that 
before many months have gone by the remaining chapters will begin to 
appear in print. 

During the past year another separate publication of interest has been 
issued by the Society, in a limited edition, which will be found noticed 
on the cover of the Proceedings^ the Palestinian Syriac Version of the Holy 
Scriptures, being four recently discovered portions (together with verses 
from the Psalms and the Gospel of St. Luke). Edited by the Rev. G. 
Margoliouth. It contains a photographic facsimile from this unique MS. 
in the British Museum, with a Transcription, Translation, Vocabulary 
and Notes. 

It will be remembered that on the completion of the tenth volume of 
the Proceedings, an alphabetical table of contents was issued by the 
Society. The end of the twentieth volume having been reached, it 
became desirable that an index of Volumes XI to XX should be made 
on more extended lines than that of the early volumes. The labour of 
making this index has been very kindly undertaken by Mr. Walter 
L. Nash, F.S.A., who has also seen the whole of it through the press. 
It will appear about the same time as the January part of the Pro- 
ceedings, and I am sure that I shall be expressing the feelings of the 
whole of the Members in offering to Mr. Nash our best thanks for 
having presented his labours to the Society. 

Several notices of its publication have been issued, and a number of 
names of subscribers have been received ; it is, however, to be hoped 
that other names will be sent in, in order that as far as possible the 
whole cost of printing the Index may be forthcoming, without any call 
on the ordinary funds of the Society. 

The number of kindred Societies with which publications are ex- 
changed has been increased. Many donations of books have also been 
made by various authors, to whom the best thanks of the Society are 
due for thus placing their works within the reach of many to whom they 
may be of real service, and others have been purchased by the Council, 
but it is to be regretted that the funds at their disposal for this purpose 
are not sufficient to make this department of the Library as complete as 
could be wished. 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

A list of many works especially wanted for the use of the Members 
has been printed many times at the end of the ProceediJigs. This list is 
necessarily altered from time to time, owing to the kind responses 
made by the presentation of some of the Books required. It is 
sincerely to be hoped, for the benefit of those students who use our 
Library, that the Members who have duplicate copies of those works 
entered in the list, or others connected with the objects of the Society, 
will present them, and thus give to students the opportunity and 
benefit of using them. 

The cost of printing the publications is necessarily very great, and it 
surely ought to be unnecessary for me to point out year after year, that, 
in order that the work may be properly carried out, liberal contributions 
are to be desired from the Members. 

Much inconvenience, and correspondence which should be unneces- 
sary, has been caused by some Members not paying their subscriptions 
regularly. I must call attention to the notices issued in the Proceedings 
at the end of each year, one of which points out that the siibscrip tions 
are due in advance in January. I need hardly point out that if subscrip- 
tions are not paid regularly, difficulty and trouble occurs as to the amount 
of money at the disposal of the Council. 

The audited Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year 
1898 shows that the funds available for that year have been ^684 i6s. gd., 
and the expenditure for the same period has been ^617 gs. ^d. The 
balance carried forward from 1897 was ^103 I'^s. 6d., and that from the 
year just ended is £67 js. ^d. 



-^fr- 



Jan. io] proceedings. [1899. 

The following^ Officers and Council for the current year 
were elected : — 



COUNCIL, 1899. 



President. 
PROF. A. H. SAYCE, LL.D., See, &c. 

Vice-Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury. 

Arthur Gates. 

F. D. MocATTA, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 



CounciL 
Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 
Rev. Prof. T. K. Cheyne, D.D. 
Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 
Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S. 
F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 
Gray Hill. F.R.S., &c 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 



Rev. James Marshall, M.A. 

Claude G. Montefiore. 

Prof. E. Naville. 

J. Pollard. 

Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., 



Honorary Treasurer. 
Bernard T. Bosanqukt. 

Secretary. 
W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Hon. Secretary for Foreign Correspondence. 
Rev. R. G WYNNE, B.A. 

Honorary Librarian, 
William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 



THE NEW BABYLONIAN CHRONOLOGICAL TABLET. 

By Prof. A. H, Sayce. 

Among the Babylonian tablets recently acquired by the British 
Museum is one which has been published in the new volumes of 
Cuneiform Inscriptions issued by the Trustees of the Museum. It 
bears the press-mark Bu. 91-3-9, 284, and throws fresh and 
important light on the chronology of early Babylonia. Babylonian 
chronology was reckoned by the chief event in each year of a king's 
reign, the year being thus called after the event which was officially 
considered to characterize it. In a commercial community like 
that of the Babylonians, accurate dating was a matter of vital import- 
ance : the validity of contracts and other legal documents often 
depended on it, and an endeavour was therefore made at an early 
period to discover a way in which their dates could be ascertained 
with the least possible amount of difficulty. The event which 
characterized a year was accordingly the equivalent of its date. 
Among these dates were necessarily the accession and death of a 
king. Lists were consequently drawn up and kept which gave the 
successive years of a king's reign with the events attached to them as- 
well as those of a particular dynasty or of a succession of dynasties. 
These lists constituted a series of chronological annals which placed 
Babylonian chronology on a firm and accurate footing, and enabled 
the later historian who had access to tliem to determine the date 
of any given event in the past history of the country. Dynastic 
summaries, moreover, were compiled on the basis of them, in which 
the length of each dynasty was recorded along with that of the 
several reigns which comp^ sed it. One of these summaries was 
brought to light many years a^o by Mr. Pinches, and is generally 
known as the Dynastic Tablet. Unfortunately its mutilated condi- 
tion has made its interpretation a matter of considerable difficulty, 
and has given rise to a variety of rival chronological systems. But 
it has hitherto been assumed tiiat the dates found in it were to be 
trusted. 



Tan. io] proceedings. [1899. 

The newly-discovered tablet, however, throws doubt on its 
accuracy. The tablet contains one of the lists of dates or chrono- 
logical annals out of which the Dynastic Tablet was compiled. It 
was written, as we learn from the colophon, in the reign of Ammi- 
zadok, the great-grandson of Samsi-iluna, with whose death it ends, 
and it furnishes us with a complete chronological register of the 
earlier reigns of the first dynasty of Babylon to which these two 
kings belonged. The years are enumerated one by one with the 
events which characterized each, and at the end of each king's reign 
comes a summation of the number of years it lasted. The chro- 
nology therefore seems to be exact, and it is consequently curious 
that it disagrees very materially with the chronology of the same 
period as given in the Dynastic Tablet. 

The following is a translation of the text, so far as it is intelligible 
to me. It is written for the most part in Sumerian, and a con- 
siderable portion of the tablet has unfortunately been destroyed : — 

Obverse, Col. I. Lines i and 2 are destroyed. 

3. The year when the fortress of . . . bitim [was built]. 

4. The year when the temple of the goddess Nin-Sinna* was 

[built]. 

5. The year when the chief temple of the Moon-god was built. 

6. The year following that in which the chief temple of the 

Moon-god was built. 

7. The third yearf after the building of the chief temple of 

the Moon-god. 

8. The year when the great palm-stems were worked for the 

temple of the Moon-god. 

9. The year when the fortress of Dilbat (the modern Delem) 

was built. 

10. The year when the crown of the god Yahu (?)t of Kis was 

made. 

* Nin-sl-anna, the planet Venus. 

+ In modern English idiom, " the second year ;" the Babylonians, however, 
reckoned it as the third. 

X Yahu is given as the equivalent of the ideograph M in S^, i, 18, of which 
Hi "god " is another value (S-"" i, 20). I have hitherto supposed it to be a gloss 
added at the time when the name of the Hebrew God became known to the 
Assyrians, but since my discovery of the name of Yahum-ilu (or Joel), " Yahu is 
god," in a letter of the age of Khammurabi, it is possible to suppose that it goes 
back to an early date, and that Vahu was already worshipped by the " Amorites " 
in Babylonia before the time of Abraham. 

II 



[AN. loj SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1899. 

11. The year following that when the crown of the god Yahu (?) 

of Kis was made. 

12. The year when the garden* of the gods was made. 

13. The year when the country of Kazallu was conquered. 

14. The year following that when Kazallu was conquered. 

The 14 years of Su(mu)-aba t the king. 



1. The year when Sumu-la-ilu became king and the canal 

Samas-khegallu was dug. 

2. The year following that when the canal Samas-khegallu was 

dug. 

3. The year when the Khalibu J was slain with the sword. 

4. The year following that when the Khalibu was slain [with 

the sword]. 

5. The year when the great fortress of Babylon was built. 

6. The year following that when the great fortress [of Babylon] 

was built. 

7. The year when the temple of Rimmon . . . was built. 

8. The year following that when the temple of [Rimmon was 

built]. 

9. The third year after [the building of the temple of Rimmon]. 

10. The year when Asdumma .... 

11. The year when Sumu-[la-ilu] .... 

12. The year when the canal of Sumu-la-ilu [was dug]. 

13. The year when Kis [was conquered]. 

14. The year following that of [the conquest of] Kis. 

15. The third year after the conquest of Kis. 

16. The fourth year after the conquest of Kis. 

1 7. The fifth year after the conquest of Kis. 

18. The year when Yakhzir-ilu§ fled from Kazallu. 

19. The year when the fortress of the god Yahu (?) at Kis was 

destroyed. 

* Gis-KHIU is translated by the Semiiic kirn " garden " z.x\^ pirSii " paradise " 
(W.A. I., II, 38, 13), and signifies tlie enclosure or sacred domain attached to a 
temple which corresponded with the Greek rf^tvoc. 

t The omission of inu in writing the royal name may imply that it was 
pronounced Suwu, contracted into Su. 

X " The native of Khalib" or Aleppo. The second character is li, not lam. 

§ A West-Semitic and non- Babylonian name, Hel)rew ^X'lTy- Comp. 
Azriel. 



Jan. io] proceedings. [1899. 

20. The year when the fortress of Kazallu was destroyed and 

its troops slain with the sword. 

21. The year following that when the fortress of Kazallu was 

destroyed and its troops slain with the sword. 

22. The year when the throne of the chief mercy-seat was 

completed with gold and silver and constructed for the 
god Merodach. 

23. The year following that when the throne of the chief mercy- 

seat was completed with gold and silver and constructed 
for the god Merodach. 

24. The year when the image of the goddess Zarpanit was made. 

25. The year when Yakhzir-ilu was slain with the sword. 

26. The year when the image[s] of Istar and Nana were made. 

27. [The year when] . . . Cutha, and the shrine * dibba (?) was 

made. 

28. [The year when Suma-]la-ilu entered Borsippa. 

29. [The year when the fortress of] Sippara was built. 

30. [The year when the fortress called ?] Ursanu was built. 

31. [The year when the fortress] of Opis was built. 

32. [The year when at ... ] the temple was ruined and the 

canal of Sumu-la-ilu was dug. 

33. [The year following that when the temple] fell and the canal 

of Sumu-la-ilu was dug. 

34. [The year when . . . ] was slain [with the sword]. 

35. [The year when the king] entered . . . 

36. [The year following that when the king] entered . . . 

[The 36 years of the reign of Sumu-la-ilu.] 



Col. II. The first 7 lines are destroyed. 

8. The year when the temple .... [was built]. 

9. The year when the temple of Igas .... [was built]. 
TO. The year when the temple of Ristum .... [was built]. 

11. The year when the image of Zabum [the king was made]. 

12. The year when the fortress called Sikur-pi f [was built]. 

* AN-ZA-QAR, the Assyrian annan{tii\ " a shrine," or " place of prayer " 
(W.A.I., II, 54, 11). Early Babylonian contracts call one of the gates of 
Sippara "the gate of the shrine," and couple the word with kizlakh "a high 
place," the an-za-qar and kizlakh being conjointly described as constituting a 
tiarakku or " mercy-seat." 

t " The closing of the mouth." But the second ideograph in the name is 
broken and may be nir instead of khil. 

13 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1899. 

13. The year when the basin of the sea swarmed [with fish] . . . 

14. The year following that when the basin [of the sea swarmed 

with fish] . . . 
The 14 years [of the reign of Zabum] the king. 



1. The year when [Abil-] Sin became king and built the fortress 

of Borsippa. 

2. [The year when] the gate of Babylon called . . . was built. 

3. [The year when the throne of the] chief mercy-seat was 

completed with gold and silver and constructed for Samas 
and Merodach. 

4. [The year when the canal . . • ] was dug. 

5. [The year when the . . . ] of Anunit (?) appeared. 

6. [The year when . . • ] was renewed. 

7. [The year following that when • • • ] was renewed. 

8. [The year when the canal . . • ] was dug. 

9. [The year when the . . . ] was made for the priest of the 

Sun-god. 

10. [The year when the throne of the mercy-seat] was completed 

with [gold and silver] and constructed [for the Sun-god?]. 

11. The year when the . . . was built. 

12. The year when at Sippara .... kahirum. 

13. The year when .... 

14. The year when .... 

15. The year when .... 

16. The year when the .... was built to the east of . . . 

17. The year when the throne of the chief [mercy-seat] was 

made for Samas of Babylon. 

18. The year following that when the throne of the chief mercy- 

seat was made for Samas of Babylon. 
The 18 years (of the reign) of Abil-Sin the king. 



1. The year when Sin-mubalidh became king and built the 

fortress of Libba (?)tum. 

2. The year when the canal of Sin-mubalidh was dug. 

3. The year when the statues (?) of the gods Samas and Sunirda 

were constructed of two kinds of stone. 

4. The year following that when [the statues] of Samas and 

Sunirda (were made) of two kinds of stone. 
14 



Jan. 10] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

5. The year when the crown (?) of the god Igi-kukki was made. 

6. The year following that when the crown (?) of Igi-kukki 

was made. 

7. The year when the fortress of Anzaqar-dada was built. 

8. The year when the canal A-khegallu was dug. 

9. The year following that when the canal A-khegallu was dug. 

10. The year when the fortress of Sin-mubalidh was built. 

11. The year when the fortress of the city of Muru was built. 

12. The year when the fortress of the city of Marad was built. 

13. The year when the canal Tutu-khegallu was dug. 

14. The year when the troops of Ur were [slain] with the sword. 

15. The year when the fortress of the city of Eres was [built]. 

16. The year when the throne of the chief mercy-seat of . . . 

[was made]. 

17. The year when the city of Isin .... 

18. The year when the fortress of ... . [was built]. 

19. The year when .... 

20. The year when the city of Dilbat (?).... 

The 20 [years of the reign of Sin-mubalidh]. 



Reverse, Col. III. i. The year when Khammur[abi became king]. 

2. The year when the word .... 

3. The year when the throne of Merodach [was made]. 

4. The year when the fortress of Malga [was built]. 

5. The year when the lawgiver .... 

6. The year when the fortress of the god . . . [was built]. 

7. The year when Isin .... 

<S. The year when the ... of the canal of Dilbat .... 

9. The year when the canal of Khammurabi [was dug]. 
10. The year when the windows (?) of Bit-Algi [were 

constructed ? ]. 
IX. The year of the ... at Kis. 

12. The year when the throne of [Zar]panit (was made). 

1 3. The year when .... greatly. 

14. The year when the throne [of Merodach?] at Babylon (was 

made). 

15. The year when the image . . . of stone (?). 

16. The year when the throne .... 

17. The year when the image of the god of the . . of heaven 

and earth was made .... 

15 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 1899. 

18. The year when the Moon-god .... 

19. [The year] . . akh asaridu (?). 

20. [The year when the god] Rimmon flooded (the land). 

21. [The year of Bor]sippa. 

22. [The year of the canal (?) of Kham]murabi. 

23. [The year when] .... 

24. [The year when] 

25. [The year when] .... 

26. [The year when] 

27. [The year when] .... 

28. [The year when] .... 

29. [The year of An]sar (?) the god of* . . . 

30. The year when the army of Elam . . . 

31. The year when the land of Emud[balum] . , 

32. The year when the army of the land [of Emudbalum] . . . 

33. The year when the canal of Khammurabi [was dug ? ]. 

34. The year when the gods .... 

35. The year when the fortress .... 

36. The year .... 

37. The year .... 

38. The year of the great [inundation ?]. 

4 lines destroyed. 
43. [The year when] .... the old town. 

[The 4] 3 years of the [reign] of Khammura[bi]. 



1. [The year when Sams'u-]iluna became king. 

2. The year of abundant crops (?) in Sumer and Akkad. 

5 lines destroyed. 



Col. IV. The first 3 lines are destroyed. 

11. [The year when] . . . Kis. 

12. [The year when] the city .... 

13. [The year when] he filled .... 

14. [The year when] . . . and an ally was united with him. 

15. [The year when] .... 

16. [The year when] . . . the city of Eres was destroyed. 

17. [The year when] the god . . . 

* Or " the goddess Sala. 
16 



Jan. io] proceedings. [1899. 

18. [The year] of the great oracle (?). 

19. The year when Bit-Urri, (the temple) of the Sun-god at 

Sippara, (was repaired). 

20. The year when the throne of the Deep was made the second 

time. 

21. The year when the country was unfortunate [and there was] 

f^re (?). 

22. The year when the throne [was made] of nmimu wood. 

23. The year when the temple-tower of Kidur-makh (at Kis) 

(was built). 

24. The year when the forces .... 

25. The year when .... 

26. The year when . . . 

27. The year when .... 

2 lines destroyed. 

30. The year following that when the forces .... 

31. The third year after that when the forces .... 

32. The year when his {i.e., the king's) image [was made] of 

nimmu wood. 
2y2i- The year when the canal Qar .... [was dug]. 

34. The year when the city of justice* (was built), the palace 

of sovereignty. 

35. The year of the cities of Abal and Pan-rubi-sum (?). ■ 

36. The year of the troops of the Amorites. 

37. The year of the revolt of Ararat (?). f 

38. The year when .... 

The 38 years of the reign of Samsu-iluna. 

Colophon. — The 2nd day of the month lyyar, the year when 
Ammi-zadok the king 

* Isarratum. 

+ Ki-BUR-(J. Ki -BUR seems to be a formation like Ki-mas, " the land of Mas " 
or northern Arabia, or Ki-sarra, " the land of hordes," or northeastern Arabia, 
and to signify " the land of mountains." It will consequently be equivalent to 
BUR-BUR-Ki, which denoted not only Akkad but also Ararat. In W.A-I.j .H, 48, 
13, BUR-BUR-KI is coupled with Annwru as ki-bur is here, and is explained as 
" Urdhu " or Armenia, its name in Sumerian being Tilla. Here, therefore, I 
read Aiinirrd and Urdha. Urdhas is found in the Vannic texts (Sayce, LXXXII, 
6). 



17 



Jan. lo] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

Between these chronological tables and the Dynastic Tablet there 
are, as has already been remarked, very serious discrepancies. 
Sumu-^bu is said in them to have reigned 14 instead of 15 years, 
Sumu-la-ilu 36 instead of 35 years, Sin-muballidh 20 instead of 
30 years, Khammurabi 43 instead of 55 years, and Samsu-iluna 
38 instead of 35 years. In the first two cases the discrepancy may 
depend merely on a difference in the mode of dating the accession 
of Sumu-la-ilu, but the divergencies in the last three are difficult to 
explain. That the chronological tables are correct admits of no 
dispute ; they were drawn up while the dynasty of Sumu-abu was 
still on the throne, and register the events of each year of a king's 
reign. Moreover, as I pointed out several years ago, the round 
numbers in the Dynastic Tablet, which repeat themselves from time 
to time, are more than suspicious. 

It IS possible, however, that the discrepancies may be due to the 
fact that the compiler of the Dynastic Tablet included in the reigns 
of those whom he regarded as legitimate kings, the reigns of rival 
princes whom he regarded as illegitimate. We know that he did so in 
the case of the Kassite dynasty, where the seven years' reign of the 
Assyrian conqueror Tiglath-Ber is ignored. We know also from the 
contract tablets that under Sumu-la-ilu, Sin-muballidh, and Kham- 
murabi rival sovereigns held sway in Babylonia. Pungun-ila, the 
son of Lilium, is mentioned along with Sumu-la-ilu (or Samu-la-ilu, 
"Is not Shem a god? "), Immerum is referred to as reigning shortly 
afterwards, and the Elamite conquerors Eri-Aku and Rim-Anum 
(who may be the same personage) governed southern Babylonia in 
the time of Sin-muballidh and his successor. Eri-Aku, indeed, held 
rule there for about 30 years, which would fully account for the 
additional 22 years assigned to Sin-muballidh and Khammurabi 
in the Dynastic Tablet. We should then have to ascertain whether 
these 22 years have been omitted in the chronological tables, no 
contracts with the names of Sin-muballidh and Khammurabi having 
been dated in them, or whether they merely represent a series of 
dates relating to Eri-Aku, and really contemporaneous with the dates 
to which the names of Sin-muballidh and Khammurabi were attached, 
Imt erroneously supposed by the compiler of the Dynastic Tablet to 
he additional to the latter. 

The compiler calls the dynasty that of Babylon. The chrono- 
logical tables, however, seem to show that Babylon was not made the 
capital of tlie kingdom, or perhaps even captured, until the reign of 

18 



Jan. io] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

the second king of the dynasty. The dynasty probably followed 
that of Ur, and represented a conquest of the older native princes by 
invaders from Arabia. At all events the reign of its founder was 
characterised by the erection of " the chief temple of the Moon-god," 
the patron deity of Ur. while " the fortress of Babylon " was not 
built until the 5th year of the reign of Sumu-la-ilu. It was not until 
the 13th year of his reign that the neighbouring city of Kis was 
taken and the way opened to the north. Accordingly we hear of 
the fortress of Sippara being built in the king's 29th year, and that 
of Opis, still further to the north, in his 31st. Kis appears to have 
been dependent on the non-Babylonian kingdom of Kazallu, the 
revolt of which, under its king Kastubila, had been crushed by 
Sargon of Akkad centuries before. I should place Kazallu on the 
w^est bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon, in the direction of Hit. 
We possess chronological tables of the reigns of two of the kings 
who belonged to the second (or third) dynasty of Ur, which was 
superseded by that of Sumu-abu. The first of these kings, as has 
been shown by M. Thureau-Dangin, is Dungi 11, and the tablet 
which gives the dates of his reign has been published by Dr. Hil- 
precht {The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania^ 
No. 125). The following is my translation of it : — 

X. [The year when Dungi became king]. 

2. The ) ear when the priest of Bit .... 

3. The year when the king of Ur . . . . 

4. The year when Bel repelled the enemy. 

5. The year when the Moon-god of Kar*-Zida (Karu-Kenu) 

entered his temple. 

6. The year when the king built E-Kisag (Bit-Asri). 

7. The year when the god Gusa of the great fortress of heaven 

and earth entered his temple. 

8. The year when the god Nu-ku-kul-da of Kazallu entered his 

temple. 

9. The year when the king built the temple of his god. 

10. The year when Sin the lord of E-ki (Bit-Irtsiti) entered his 

temple. 

11. The year when the priest of Ser-zi-anna, the priest of Sin, 

commemorated the first-fruits. 

* So on the " bulla" published by M. Thureau-Dangin, Tablettts aineifoi-rr.es 
inedites^ No. 83. 

19 B 2 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

12. The year when the couch of the god . . . [was made]. 

13. The year when the priest of Ser-zi-anna^ the priest of Sin, 

prophesied. 

14. The year when Nigir(?)midasu the daughter of the king 

became mistress of Markhasi [the modern Mer'ash]. 

15. The year when the palm-tree (?) was restored to its place. 

16. The year when the people of Ur imprisoned the captives. 

17. The year when Nin-ip (Ber), the great high-priest of Ellil 

(Bel), was (in his) temple. 

18. The year when El-lil and Nin-lil (were in their) temple. 

1 9. [The year when ?] * 

20. The year following that when .... 

21. The year when the king(?) .... 

22. The year when the country of Gan-mur was conquered. 

23. The year when the land of Simurumf was conquered. 

24. The year when Simurum was conquered for the second 

time. 

25. The year when the land of Mu(?)khusi was conquered. 

26. The year when the priest of Eridu gave the oracle. 

27. The year following that when the priest of Eridu gave the 

oracle. 

28. The year when the daughter of the king married the high- 

priest of Ansan.f 

29. The year when Gan-mur was conquered for the second 

time. 

30. The year when Simurum was conquered for the third time. 

31. The year following that of the third conquest of Simurum. 

32. The year when Ansan was conquered. 

33. The year following that when Ansan was conquered. 

34. The year when Sin of Kar-zida entered his temple for the 

second time. 

35. The year when Dur-mada ("the Eortress of the Country") 

was built. 

* Perhaps this line is a continualion of the preceding one and not the record 
of a separate year. 

t Prof. Hommel has identified Simurum with the Phccnician Zemar, the 
Tsumurra of the Tel el-Amarna tablets, but it must be remembered that in 
W.A. I., V, 12, 44, " the land of Simutra" is said to be the same as Zaban on 
the Lower Zab. 

t It is also possible to translate, with Dr. Scheil, " when the daughter of the 
king became high-priestess of Ansan." 

20 



Jan. io] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

36. The year following that when Dur-mada was built. 

37. The year when the temple at the edge of the mound of 

Dagon was built. 

38. The year following that when the temple at the edge of the 

mound of Dagon was built. 

39. The third year after that when the temple at the edge of 

the mound of Dagon was built. 

40. The year when the land of Sasru* was conquered. 

41. The year when 

The rest of the tablet is destroyed. 



The second tablet contains a chronological record of the reign of 
Pur-Sin II, and is as follows (Hilprecht : The Babylonian 
Expedition, No. 127): — 

Obverse. — i. The year when Pur-Sin became king. 

2. The year when Pur-Sin the king conquered the land of 

Urbillum. f 

3. The year when the chief throne of Sin was made. 

4. The year when the chief priest of Anu gave the oracle. 

5. The year when the priest of the shrine of Istar gave the 

oracle. 

6. The year when Sasru was conquered. 

7. The year when the land of Ribannukhu was conquered. 

8. The year when the priest of Eridu gave the oracle. 

9. The year when Sin .... 

Here the tablet is broken. On the Reverse we read : — 

[The year when] the priest 

[The year when] the foundation 

The year when the great tower of El-lil was built (at Nippur). 
The year when the deified Gimil-Sin became king in Ur, and 
conquered the mountain of Zabsali (in the Lebanon). 

The system of reckoning time by the chief event of each year, 
among which the accession and death of a king were included, must 
go back to a remote period in Babylonian history. The fact that 
the record continued to be kept in Sumerian under the rule of 

* Or Sassub. 

t Perhaps Arbela, which a punning etymology in the Assyrian age transformed 
into Arba-ilu " the four god(s)." 

21 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

Semitic sovereigns implies that it was of Sumerian origin. We find 
it already in use in the age of Sargon of Akkad. M. Thureau- 
lOangin, for example, has published texts of Sargon and Naram-Sin 
(in his Tablettes cimeiformes inedites) which are dated in this way. 
Thus in one (No. 13) we have : " In the year when Sargani the king 
of the city built the temples of Girsu and Ae (?) in Babylon and 
Sarlak king of Kutim (Kurdistan) submitted," and in another 
(No. 14) : "In the year when Sargani king of the city [built] the 
platform (?)* of the temple of Bel [at] Nippur." In others, again, 
we read : " The year when the campaign was made against Gutium 
(Kurdistan) for its . . " (No. 15) : " In the year when Sargani king 
of the city (made) a campaign against . . . and Zakhara, in the 
neighbourhood of Opis, and set up the boundary-stone " (sag-gub) 
(No. 16) ; " In the year when Sargani the king of the city (invaded) 
the Amorite land " (^w«rr«:?;/) (No. 17); " In the year when the 
deified Naram-Sin built the platform (?) of the temple of Bel at 
Nippur and of the temple of Asherah in the city of Asherah . . "t 
(No. 19). 



Contract from the Country of Khana. 

A very interesting contract has been published by M. Thureau- 
Dangin in his Tablettes cimeiformes inedites, pi. XXXII. , the original 
of which is now in the Louvre. It is in the Babylonian script and 
language, but was drawn up in the country of Khana on the eastern 
side of the Babylonian frontier. That the Babylonian language was 
employed in Khana, we already knew from the monument of one of 
its kings, Tukulti-Mer, which was dedicated to the Sun-god of Sippara, 

* Us-sig, see No. 19, where it is said that the same work was continued by 
Naram-Sin. As Mr. Haines's excavations have shown that it was the great 
brick pavement of the temple which was constructed by .Sargon and Naram-Sin, 
iissig must signify "a pavement" or "platform." The word is probably of 
Sumerian origin, and is certainly not the first person of a Semitic verb, as 
Meissner conjectures in his Supplement zu den assyrischen IVorlerbii hern, p. 19. 

t According to M. Thureau-Dangin {Revue d'Assyriologie, IV, 2), who 
provisionally reads the name " Ninab," " the city of Asherah " must be sought in 
the neighbourhood of Erech. The name is represented by two ideographs, one 
representing the goddess Asherah (whom the Babylonians identified with their 
Istar), and the other umi (not ab) " city." 

22 



Jan. io] proceedings. [1899. 

and has been published by Mr. Pinches in the Trattsadio?is of this 
Society. The proper names, however, contained in the document 
show that although the language of the country was Semitic, it was 
not Babylonian, but belonged to the West Semitic or " Hebraistic " 
branch of the Semitic family of speech. Thus the king of Khana, 
in whose reign the contract was made, is called Isarlim or Israel 
(where the vowel of '^^ is lost as in the name of the Hamathite 
king Irkhulena, " the Moon is our god"), and among the witnesses are 
the judge Ilesukh, whose name corresponds with that of Abesukh, 
the Hebrew Abishua', and Yazi-Dagon ; while Igitlim, Joktheel in 
Hebrew, is described as " the priest of Amurru," the " Amorite 
god." Like other " Hebraistic " names met with in Babylonian 
documents of the age of Khammurabi, the Khana names, it will be 
observed, are provided with the mimmation, which was preserved 
also in the Minsan dialect of South Arabia, while traces of it are 
found in Hebrew as well as in the names Milcom and Jerahmeel.* 

The contract relates to the sale of house property which was 
situated " in the city of the country of Kas[daim], in the district of 
the city of the country of Tirqa," and is dated from " the great gale 
of the palace of the city of the country of Kasdaim." The last 
character in the name of the city of Kasdaim is read akh by 
M. Thureau-Dangin, but his copy gives im rather than akh. The 
name is important, as it throws light on the Chesed and Casdmi 

of the Old Testament. Kasda, as I have pointed out in a 
previous paper {Assyriological Notes, No. i), was a city of the Sute 
or Bedawin according to the cuneiform tablets, and the Sute 
extended not only across Mesopotamia, but, as Prof. Delitzsch has 
shown, adjoined the eastern frontier of Babylonia as well. One of 
the " Hebraistic " names found in a document of the age of Kham- 
murabi is stated to have belonged to a Sutia, and we may therefore 
conclude that they characterised not only the Amorites from 
Canaan who settled in Babylonia, but also the Bedawin tribes of 
Mesopotamia and the eastern bank of the Tigris, together with the 
population of South-eastern Arabia. Light is thus thrown on the 
Biblical use of the term Casdim to denote the people of Chaldsea, 



* Compare the name of Yarkhamu in contracts from Tel Sifr, dated in the reign 
of Samsu-iluna (Strassmaier : Die altbabylonischen Verircige aus Warka in the 
Verhaiidlungen des fiinften htternatiotialen Orientalisten-Congresses., II, pp. 95, 
98, 100). It seems to be the origin of the Orchamus of Ovid's Metamorphoses, 
IV, 212. 

23 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

and it is possible that we may have to look for Arphaxad among the 
Sute to the east of Babylonia. It is interesting to note, in con- 
nection with the name of Arpha-xad, that one of the witnesses to the 
Khana contract is " the messenger Iripu." 



An early Babylonian Document relating to the 
Shuhites. 

Among the Babylonian texts recently published by the British 
Museum is one (Bu. 88-5-12. 5), which is the beginning of a letter 
written in the age of Khammurabi, and relates to the affairs of the 
Babylonian empire in the West. A revolt, it seems, was meditated 
by the Sukhi or Shuhites (Job ii, 11) on the western bank of the 
Euphrates, who extended from the mouth of the Balikh to that of 
the Khabur, and news of it was sent to the intelligence department 
of the Babylonian government. The following translation of the 
text will show what the letter is about : — ■ 

" As, my lord, thou knowest, when Sin-ikisam the envoy to the 
Shuhites was living in the citadel of the Shuhites, Zimredda the son 
of Dadu-rabi sent to his brother, his sons and the sons of Nisi-ilisu, 
bidding them revolt according to his message, but for 3 months 
no one revolted. (Then) Zimri-khammu the son of Napsu-nandara 
listened to his counsel and the counsel of his sons : he set his lips 
accordingly, saying that he would flood his waves above the banks 
of the Euphrates and set up the rocks (?)* of the mountain like a 
lofty tamarisk (?) t This is the plot which at that time they plotted. 
(But) Yakiri the son of Issi-Dagon and 6 fighting-men from the 
country of Khanat who had heard of this plot from his lips spoke (of 
it) to Zimri-khanata the Amorite ; Zimri-khanata the Amorite com- 
municated the said plot to Sin-ikisam the envoy to the Shuhites ; 
they seized the aforesaid Zimri-khammu and his associates. After 
they had described in an assembly how he had plotted, they took 
them to the temple of the god Yabliya for examination.^ When 

* Kaputtim may be connected with kapii, " rock." 
t Ki-ma bi-ni e-la. 

X Burri,hoxa.bar{i, "toexamine," "decide," like j«^/w-;-m, "they described," 
in the previous line. 

24 



Tan. io] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

they had established the existence of this plot in the temple of the 
god Yabliya, Sin-ikisam demanded* men for a guard. Every day 
for a month he inspects {ipdkkid) [the prisoners] . . . O my lord, 
thee he " 

The rest of the letter is unfortunately lost. 

Sin-ikisam, as is shown by his name, was the Babylonian 
ambassador or minister resident among the Shuhites. The name of 
Zimridda is familiar to us from the Tel el-Amarna tablets, where 
we hear of two Canaanites of that name, one the governor of 
Lachish, the other of Sidon. In Zimri-khammu the second element, 
as in Khammu-rabi, is the equivalent of the Hebrew Qy. Zimri- 
khanata is more difficult to explain, unless khanata represents a 
Canaanitish Anata or ]^^^, the goddess Anath."t Yabliya must be 
a Shuhite deity, like Emu, who is stated in W.A.I. II, 54, 65, to 
correspond with the Babylonian Nergal, and Adgi, who in K. 2100, 
I, 19 is stated to be the Hadad-Rimmon of the Shuhites. The six 
companions of Yakiri, we are told, came from the country of Khanat, 
which must be the same as Khana, more especially as the last 
character at is not quite certain. It is possible that the territory of 
Khana extended across the Tigris, westward through Mesopotamia 
to the Euphrates and the towns of the Shuhites, though its original 
position was to the east of the Tigris, adjoining the land of Lulubi. 

* I read ;7/;-r/j. 

t Zimri-khammu would signify "famous in song is the god 'Am," Zimredda, 
" famous in song is the god Addu " or Hadad. Zimri occurs alone in the Old 
Testament. 




25 



Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 



THE TOMB OF PEPI ANKH (KHUA), NEAR SHARONA. 

By M. Brodrick, Ph.D., and A. Anderson Morton. 

The tomb of Pepi Ankh (Dynasty VI) stands about three-quarters 
of a mile inland from the Nile, and is on the east bank of the 
river. It is immediately behind a small village called Kom el- 
Ahmar Suares, which is midway between Sharona and Shekh Fadl. 
Sharona is opposite to Behnesa (Oxyrhinchus), and the name of the 



Oxyrhynchite nome appears in that of the son 

Nestor I'Hote, during his first visit to Egypt, in the beginning of 
this century, saw part of it, and made a small sketch of this, together 
with a ground plan of that portion which was then excavated. 
(Nestor I'Hote's MSS. in the Bibl. Nationale, Vol. III., pp. 21 1-2 14.) 
The tomb is mentioned also in a letter of Jan. 3, 1839. (Nestor 
I'Hote's Letters, p. 31.) Since then, so far as we know, no account 
of it has been given. In 1896 we spent a few hours near Sharona 
and made the following very rough and incomplete sketch of the 
tomb, the upper part of which has been excavated. The shafts, 
though open for two or three feet at the top, are still choked with 
sand and rubbish. The underground chambers on Plan II, which 
are under B, are so silted up that we could only crawl through them 
on hands and knees. D has evidently been used by the Arabs as 
a stable for goats, etc. The whole of the visible part of the tomb 
shows signs of severe ill-treatment. 

The walls are covered with the usual tomb scenes of this period 
and hieroglyphic inscriptions. Pepi Ankh, or Khua, and his wife 
Merut are both represented ; as also two youths, whom, though not 
expressly stated to be their sons, we may presume to be so. The 
owner of the tomb is seen fowling in the marshes with decoy birds ; 
a hippopotamus has seized a crocodile in his mouth ; well executed 
fish swim about in the water, and the lotus and papyrus plants are 
admirably represented. There are still traces of colour on the 
walls. 

26 



Jan. io] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1S99. 



On the east wall (Plan I a) of the tomb is a boating scene, 
unfortunately much mutilated ; but, apparently on the high deck of 
the dahabiya, a woman with a child in her lap has seated herself 
with extended legs, but with the body in an upright position (see 
sketch). 

The tomb proper consists of a chamber cut in the rock A, 
27 ft. X 16 ft., the roof of which has nearly disappeared, as have also 
the upper parts of the south wall and a large portion of the east 
wall. To the right on entering is a shaft with oblong mouth sunk in 
the rock, round the top of which a ledge has been cut, in which 
to insert a slab intended to cover the opening. This open shaft is 
now filled with sand and rubbish to within a few feet of the surface ; 
but at the north end can be seen the top of an opening, nearly 




silted up. At the left of the entrance is the descending passage 
(Plan II), with the chambers leading out of it already alluded to 
In the furthest chamber ^, lies the top of a fine white limestone 
sarcophagus, face downwards. The Arabs have tilted it up in order 
that the face may be seen, and the features are already blackened 
by the smoke of candles placed underneath them. The date of 
this sarcophagus is much later than the tomb ; so one must 
conclude either that at some subsequent period Pepi Ankh's 
tomb was re-used, or that the Arabs have broken in from some of 
the XXVIth dynasty tombs close by and dragged the sarcophagus 
lid thus far, meaning to bring it up to the light of day by Pepi 
Ankh's staircase. We were told by the natives that " beyond " {e) 
was a well, in which were " statues and mummies." 

In the north-west corner is another shaft with descending stairs. 

27 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

On the west side is a chamber B, containing two false doors with 
inscriptions ; one is for Pepi Ankh, the other for Merut his wife. 
The walls are covered with scenes and inscriptions (Plan VI). 
Before the false doors are what appear to be the mouths of shafts ; 
one, however, proved to be only an imitation covering slab cut in 
the rock, the other was full of soft earth, and gave out a dull hollow 
sound when struck. 

On the north wall of Plan I, A, the Bedawin have excavated a 
grotto (D), thus destroying a large portion of the scene and the inscrip- 
tion. Another hole (C) has been forced in the same wall, and this leads 
into a shaft open to the air from the top, and down the side of 
which holes have been cut at regular intervals. Standing in this 
shaft, on the present level of sand and loose stones, the top of an 
entrance into a chamber or passage is distinctly seen, above which 
is roughly sculptured the sign P^^ kres, " burial." The walls show 
traces of red paint. Probably this portion is not part of the tomb 
of Pepi Ankh at all, but is a separate tomb of later date. 

Among the various titles held by Pepi Ankh (Khua), were 
those of: — 

Ha, prince. 

S7ner udli, confidential friend of the king. 

kher heb, lector. 

k/ier heb her dddd, chief reciter. 

/ner res, overseer of the south. 

7ner kheiit, " overseer of the garden " {Erman). 

seten an, the royal scribe. 

haq het, ruler of the palace or fortress. 
There is an allusion (P. Plan VIII) to the pyramid Men-nefer 
of Pepi I. 

Plan I. 
A, A, A. Walls roughly faced. A-, has holes at regular intervals 
down the sides. 

1. z. I I roughly cut over entrance to a shaft (?) 

3 ft. 5111. 

2. Doorway not original, as it is broken through the decorations. 

3. Top of shaft. At a, about 3 ft. deep, a passage leads off. 

4. p-i I Section of doorstep. 

5. Unexcavated shaft filled up with loose earth. 

28 



Jan. io] proceedings. [1899. 

6. To imitate 5, but is cut in the natural stone floor to imitate 

a covering slab. 

7. Figures at entrance of door almost obliterated. 

8. Height of door, 4 ft. 7 ins. 
Portions marked M^ are roofed in. 

Plan II. 

a. Few rough steps. 

b. Chamber almost silted up with rubbish and sand. 

c. Narrow passage in westerly direction. 

d. Chamber, (?) from which {e) another chamber leads off, having 

square pillar in the middle ; on the floor lies the 
sarcophagus lid. 

Plan HI. — North Wall of Outer Court. A. 
A. Man with throw-stick, holding two decoy birds ; a child at 
his feet. 

B. B. Papyrus and lotus marsh. 

C. C. Hippopotamus devouring crocodile. 
D. Man spearing fish. 

E. E. Several well-drawn varieties of fish and lotus heads. 

F. Man carrying a huge fish. 

G. Split fish. 






I. k fiA ffi II "jj-s^wm 



J. Inscription almost illegible. 

Plan IV. — East Wall of Outer Court. A. 

A. Hole patched up with mud and bricks. 

B. Boat with figures, much damaged (see sketch), probably 

woman nursing child. 

C. Two greyhound-like dogs. 

D. Feet of geese ; upper part of wall destroyed. 

E. Scenes obliterated ; a few hieroglyphs left, but not 

consecutive. 

F. Man with bare feet carrying his sandals. 

Plan V. — West Wall of Outer Court. A. 
A. Owner of the tomb, standing. 

29 



.1 . lO] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



L1899. 



□ □ 
B. his name n 



m 



C. Wife of owner of tomb, standing. 
I), her name V- -^ 

E. Slender lotus column. 

F. Tables of offerings. 

G. Knee-high neure of standing child. 



M^^I 



L. Offerings. 
M. Pepi Ankh, standing. 
N. N. Two short male figures 

p.lj 



^^r 



R. Lists in minute incised hieroglyphs 






V 



1 



II II! II I iCi n Wv 

/W\AAA 



ll^ffi:^*^^ 






Description of Chamber B. 
Plan VI. — North Wall. 
Pepi Ankh is seen seated in front of a table of offerings. There 
are three registers of scenes representing the presentation of 
funerary offerings. 



Jan. io] 
A. ^ 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



B. 



05 



^-■■^•rapfrri'^j 



[|^#$ D. D. D. Almost effaced hieroglyphs. 



J1 



. uiqq 



{(f. p. Plan V.) 



G. ()^^(./Q. PlanV.) 

Plan VII. — East Wall, to right of Entrance. 

A. Man carrying porcupine (?) in cage. 

B. Man with offerings. 

over him : 

beside him : ^^^X^ I ? 



J' 

1 



C. Similar figure to B. 

over him : 

in front of him 

D. Similar figure to B. 






rzzi] 



over him 

in front of him 



u-^ 



31 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY, 



[1899. 



Plan VI 1 1. —West Wall of B. 

«. Ka door of JNIerut, wife of owner of tomb. 
/3. Ka door of Pepi Ankh, owner of tomb. 



\ 



B. 



C. Undecipherable. 



''•5vrrA''/'5- 



0*0 
CD 



1 



T ®c. 



^1 ^1 ''■\^-X^\tI\-^\ 



1! 



^■V'^mzjwt 



«•« 



11 



PI 



^ 



i^m%j(^ 



m u - -iHPfrr^j«^ii 



L. and M. ^^ 

m 



f 



32 



'/i'H 



ftAAAAA 









1 









VL 5? 






n T 



^ 



f^ 



I±3 



1 



I 



1^ 






-/^^'i^^^^ 



i*/X //V-yVNA 



O D 



ToMn At K(im i:i.-AiiM.\K h 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch.., January, 1899. 






! 



J1 ^ ll S.q-;:j 1^ If 

1 - '!-••< ^v-v^^y^/^ I -1-1 ^^ /N ; rV 

E mk f ii %i m ii 

j ^ L« s Ik 



M 



^A-. I I I 









& 



o 






I1. 



S1IAU..KA ANli SltKKtt FADt,, 




P L A 
Tomb of Pepi Ankh (Ki 



Proc SocBiJbl. Aroh, Jcuv. 1899 




NEAR ShARONA. 



z 
< 

D. 



o 

Z 



a: 
o 
ql 
ui 
Q 
Z 
D 



c6 



■ ^xno o jayfto ?o Xye^^'M 




I r- 



n 



< 

h 

Qi 

D 

o 
o 

a! 

ILi 

h 

O 
U. 

o 

-J 
-J 
< 



(7 



Z 
< 

CL 



fp 



CO 




< 

h 

3 
O 

o 
a: 

LU 

o 

ix. 

o 

_J 

< 



> 

Z 
< 

-J 

CL 



< 

h 

D 
O 

o 




o 
o 

0) 

&> 

111 
ro 

«3 

(V 



> 
< 




< 

z 
o 
cr 
< 

CO 

< 

UJ 



< 



a. 
uJ 



m 
o 




o 
cc 
< 

X 

CO 

cc 

< 

z 



X 



X 

Z 

< 



UJ 

a. 



CO 

o 



Plan VIII, West wai 




Small -figures 
nearly; enlaced.. 



Jdr5 



fr^^' 



Lists, (of o-ffe 
minute kvieelinff, fi^«- 



■nearly ef-f a cecL ^r^sc«-i\3^l■ons. 
Men of AaLm.vLtjjTpe-'^ ^^ briyvgioi 
vactoo-s ■thk.ogs "Kuirttfover "^ arms , led 
and oiKeirwi'se, Sovrte "holi fvVe "birds 

Men. a;^ sajrae type 



Men oj "snouly " t^pe carryii 



Blank. 



Tomb of Pepi A^ 



Chamber B. 



Proc SocBihl. Arch, J'auv. 1899 



n. verysnciall 
W. 

numbers "benealk. 

s iCdfjc^m^irays, 
I anivnals "bo r ]n.€oL 
vcl; cij^ts oifv. five. 




/3 



e-ffacea 



s s 



effacea 



k 



N 



W 



^hua) near Sharona. 



Jan. io] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



-■ 10 °- 1. ^• 



P! 

^^1^ 

M^^ 



v_y 



f 



m 






V 



rr-O-n 



D n 



JA 



I — I 



4^ 

HI 



M 









l^>"^ 



□ n 



\.^ 



s. s. s. s. 



T. Standing figure of a woman. 

V.V.V. Standing figures, probably the same as T. 



Tomb lying a few feet North of Pepi Ankh's Tomb. 

This tomb belonged to a priest, called Petu Amen, whose name 
is written in a rather unusual way, i.e., a j . It belongs to a late 
period, probably not earlier than the XXVIth dynasty. 

The inscription mentions 11'^, a city on the east bank, not 
precisely fixed. 

It is possible that | — ^ — , may be another form of 

LrLTLTJlJ 

2>l c 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 



10. 
II. 
12. 



DEUX FABLES ASSYRIBNNES. 

Par Alfred Boissier. 

K. 3456. 



Recto 




m>- 



4. n -^T & ^■- il 

"^11 ^ <-,.- .■.>?^t' 4; „:ji 






34 



Jan. io] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

19- 'v^<m^T^ -K (?) MM m-<:^:^^ '^m; m ^w, v 
20. <- ^ju ^- <i- ^iir- -w <^t {?< ^;:i 4= i^m m^ 

»— Y'-YYYY YY >-'-l 

2 1. ^y.^ <y^iHn ^r^ \- ^-yi HI ^^- ^y m Sr/ -nr- ^iti 

22. ^\ ^y<y ^7 ^y ^si >-.:^yy 't" V <- tjy ^yyy -yy<y ^t ^yyr 

23. ^ <y- ^y <^y-- v^ -^yyy ->^y ^y 't^ hi ^- v ;][ ihi ^yyy- j^yyy 

24. ^y<- ^ y? ^y :^ ^y ^t t:^ ^ ^y ?? >^y Vr -^T j^i^ 

V ^tyy --y ^^4- s^y ^^^^ -^yy 

25. tt] j£yyy ^^y ^yy <^yi ^y j^ie >^ ^y ^t E?ry -^^f ^iii^^ y? 

26. ^^ v^y ^yy<y «< >^ .>f .^y < <iiy ^y >-js .>f ^y 

^^y ^yyy ^yy ^i<j <tt ^yy<y ^^y< 

27. ^-yrr -- ^- j^ yi ^^yy? <3<<: v -y< ^^y j::^ ^- 1 

-'8. t^SE ^-^ -rri- :: mi iin ^^yy jt ^.^yy j^j^ >/- 

29. ^^ iin -^l ^^y --I li! ^III- ^A^ --r lin v ^yyyj. yi; ^.t 

30. -.^y ^y Vr t<]B ^1^ --I M m -I<I ]^;? ^ --I Vr ^iB 

31- yj£!iii-^^iir?>-K^^ij:ff:'7^^^^-ii4iiii!^iii^^iii-^iiii 
32. ^ ^yy- ^^i <cc '^yy^ m< j^ -IH v m ^->III lip 

33- ^:^ t^< >^ ^i -iir^ ^^i j£iri t^ <iii ^^n i:; r#!i 

34. ^^ Jw? <ii! lii ^- iiii ^Tf ^r -m- -^i n i? -iiiJ^aiii 

35. <y^iin ^i^ \^ ^^yy ^^y ^^ s^yyi^^ ^yyy<^ -yy<y ^t '^y^i -TI<T 

36. 'T^^^mmmttri^'T^^'^iL^'^mmiM 
37- ^i?-^^^i---^T^in^iiiMiiiia§M^.sii^ 

Grande lacune. 



35 c ? 



Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

Verso. 
Le debut manque. 



4. m t] ^^ -^r H< ^T 5^i<T ^- V igf ^t -H^ 

5. ^r][ -^i ^tVy Vi -r< -^ -^T "^11 y- ^PPi^^ii 

^_^rT -^T 

8. t^r j^rri ^r y? -y? ^^y?^ iiy ^^^ <y^ ^^^^'I'f SB 

10. ^yyi ^y <v >^ ^^yy m -K A-) m^ H#v-pv- 

II. ^^ -^y >i£yy y- ^tv, t^^ -^ ^- ^y ^w^-^^ 

12. t^ ^y - y^^ ^^yr ^^ ^^ ^. ^$t ,^ 

13- ^yyy!.c^yy>^^y??5::t^c^!y^yy^>^yyy{?);, , _:; 

1 4. ^y ->^yy h< y? -yy<y -yy<y -^y v y^iMP- ^ : - 3 ii 



^-A.-^A- 



^ 






15. -^H liiy ^- -II y-- -^id .ly ^y -M: .^a 

16. <ty^ ^y jryy^ -? ^ ^jgj ^y ^^^^y^y^ ^y: 

17- -H^ V, y? ^y -^ -^y -^idf <-y^ii-' ^' " " 

18. <5.y.^ ^yy<y ^jn ly ][?< <^-h ^^y ^ 



19. jr<T^ ^ ^^yy ^ y? ^y J4: ^y -m ^yiy^...-;,,-^aa 







Jan. io] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



26. ^t -^r ^Tir- iin ^--nr ^ r-- #:: : 

28. ^^ ^i y^ ^yr<r ^-H <^y^- ^y ?5 

^9- 4-yy ill! -tu !^^ -y<y ^ ^it 

30. <i gf ^^ iH -yy yy ?^i^ "^" ^ ^yy?..: ^ 

31. ^y<- ^ y? ^r :^ ^y -m ^w ^y ?? 4sy y;;: /,;U 

32. ^ z, ^^ ];?< -yy<y v ^e^ ^- ^yyy-^i!;iSii 
32,- «-y<y-^iiiin5^yyy^^^'7^^->f j^yy---v^-j^: "" 
34. ^yyyy ^y- y -^ a "^ v, -t:^ x ^^:s^; 






m: 






K. 3456. 

Transcription et Traduction. 



la sa a man 



3. i-zi 



4. a-na ma 
vers .... 



5. sarru 
/e roi 



6. su-pi-e . . 
les prieres 

7. is-me-ma 
// entendit 



5. sa am 
qui 



37 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S99. 

9. gub-bu ba nam 

la citerue du fleuve 

10. sa bu-ri? nu-uh-[su] .... 

du piiits t debordemcnt .... 

11. mi-lu HI . OAR sa ilu?* . . . 

la masse des eaiix catastrophe que le dieii ? . . . . 

1 2. ik-lu-su bi-i-su li-pa-na-aq ? 

il rempixJial maiivais ill 

13. su-su la qar-ba-a-tum 

viarecai^e caiiipagiies 

14. ba-ma-a-tum hi-ra ta-me-ra-a-ti 

les coUines environs 

15. hur-ru na-ad-ba-ku li-sat-ba-lum sadu U-a-i 
caverne versant (Jes eanx) entroincrent la nioniagne Uai 

16. a-na ta-me-ra-a-ti id-ni-nu in-gi-ru li-ga-ru 

les eanx recoirorirent les environs ravagerent la canipagne 

1 7. as-rat la me-ris-ti (ana) ? lu-ti it-tur 
les lietix ificultes se transfornierent en ? 

18. i-na ki-si i-si-hu sam-mi 

dans le pousserent les plantes 

19. sa ha-ru-ub-ti irsi-tim ip-pa-tir ki-rib-sa 
de la catastrophe terrestre Jut brise Pintcrieur 

20. mi-rit bu-lim li-sam-mi-hat ap pa-ta u-sa|}-sa-ab 
le pdturage des bestiaiix prospcra la canipagne devint fertile 

21. alpu u sisu i[)-pu-su ru-'u-ii-ta 
le boeuf et le chcval firent faniitie 

22. id-hu-ud kar-as-su-nu sa eli ta-ri-i-ta 

se dilata leur ventre plus encore que celui d'lme fomne 

enceinte 

23. ir-si-ma ul-sa lib-ba-su-nu ip-pu-sa sa-lu-u-ta 
joyeux fut leur coeur il se livra a Pallegresse ? 

* isakk-nn ? 

t litteralcmcnl : il fit prospcrer. 

3S 



Jam. io] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

24. alpu pa-a-su epus-ma i-qab-bi iz-za-kar a-na sisA 
le bceiif oiivrit la houche park et dit an cheval glorieux 

na-'-id qab-li 
ati combat 

25. at-ta-at-t'^-lam-ma dum-mu-qa i-da-tu-ii-a 
je regardais, mes visions etaient favorables 

26. i-na ri-es satti u ki-it satti at-ta-ta-al 

ail coinineticement de Fannee et vers la fin de Pannee je voyais 
ini-ii-ti 
un paturage 

27. ih-tar-bu-ni milu kis-fa-ti it-taq-bu-su* me naq-bi 
la masse des eaicx fait rage, les eaiix de l\xbhne jaillissent 

28. su-su-ii Bi.LU.LU sippati ? il-tak-nu 
roseaux, inarais, plantations 1 I 

29. hur-ru na-ad-ba-ku li-sat-ba-lu sadu U.a.i 
caverne, colline, (les eaux) entralnent, le niont Uai 

30. ba-ma-a-tum ub-ba-lu ir-hu-sa qar-ba-a-tum 

les eminences elles {les eaux) enirainent, elles itwnderent les champs 
cul lives 

31. ana ta-me-ra-a-ti id-ni-nu in-qi-ru li-ga-ru 
elles recouvrirent les environs elles ravagerent la campagne 

32. as-rat la mi-ris-ti ir-ri-sa ra-ah-su 
les lieux incultes Veai^ abonda^ite fertilise 

2,T,. amelu naggaru mu-du-ii it-ta-rak qi-e . . . 

le nagaru intelligent tourne la .... 

34. i-dak-ki ku-bu-ru-ni-ma u-qa-a-a-ii- 

Les arbres idakki gran dissent ils licvent? 

35. ii sisu la-tur li-ga-ri i-tar-ri sa-qar .... 
mais le cheval ne revint pas 'I a la ca/npagne, il s'eloigne ? 



36. nu-uk ki-ir-?-t ra-ma nu-uk i-si-ki ? 
.? ? 1 



37. e-li-ma ina la 



* jaillissent contie lui 

t nu-uk-ki-ir, comment faut-il transcrire ? 

39 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, [1899. 

Verso. 



I. it-ti? 

avec 



2. sim-ti u ? 



? 

3. erft HI . A dan-na ... li ur-du . . 
de cuivre 

4. ki-ma su-ba-ti na-al-bu-Sa-ku i-ik 
C07nme d'un 7'cteinent je suis vein . . . 



5. e-la ia-a-ti tur la si-me ^ 

woi ? 

6. garru sakkanakku e-nu u rubli ul i-ba-'-il pa-da-na 

/e roi le grand vizir ? le seigneur ct le pri7ice ne viennent pas ici 

7. alpu pa-a-su epus-ma iqabbi iz-za-kar a-na sisu na-'-id qab-li 
le bceuf ouvrit la hoitche park et dit an cheval superhe dans le combat 

8. at-ta ma-a e duk-ku tak(q)-di-ra 

toi en effet tn ne 

9. i-na tal}azi-ka mi-i-ni 

datis Ion combat qui 



10. edlu narka-bat ?? mu-ia-ku ??* ti-'-ii-ti 
le grand les chars longnenr? Jiarnais 

11. i-na su-me-ia .su-ub-bu-tu 

dans mes 1 la %'izneur 



12. i-na buane-ia su-ub-bu-tu 
dans mes tendons la viirueur 



13. u-si mu-un-dah-si is-pa-ta . 

il est sorti du gnerrier Ic carquois 



14. iz-zu-ti a-ri-ri na-sa-a-ta . 
les terr idles ariri 1 tu partes 

15. ka-lu-bu bele-ka su-ut 
l^eper07t de tes maitres dans 



voir le conimentaire. 
40 



Jan. io] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

16. ul tam-mar kib-sa ki-ma dun-na .... 
tu tie vois pas la route comme 



17. bal-sa-a-ma i-na-ka ul . . . . 
voiles ? so lit ies ytux 



18. ul tal-lak ur-ha eli ap-pa-ta 

in ne vas pas sur le cheiiiin gui iiiene a la prairie 

19. sisil pa-a-su epus-ma iqabbi 

le cheval oirvrit la houche park et dit .... 

20. i-na sim-me-ia hi-da 

dans mes ... la joie ? 

21. ka-lu-bu li 

Veperon 



22. kaktce 
Ies armes 



23 se li ki-tii 



24. . . an-nu lib-ba-§a la-bi-im-ma 
1 son cceur 



25. i-na e-bir naru su 
an del a du fleuve 



26. i-na li-ru-uh matate i . . . . 
sur la sratide route des contrees 



27. as-da-ta-ma alpu har-ha-ru? 

tu tires penibleinent, bmif, la shadouj 



28. i-na sip-ri-ka ul is-sa 
dans ton labeur 



29. im-ru-ka tah-hu qaq-qa-ri ? 
ta tiourriture le tahliu du sol 

30. ki-i UR . NUN sisu - . . . 
ainst ... du cheval 



31. alpu pa-a-su epus-ma iqabbi iz-za-kar a . . . . 

le bauj ouvrit la bouche park et dit au cheval glorieux 

dans le combat 

41 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF IJIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. [1899. 

32. as-su har-ha-ri sa taq-bu-ii 

au siijet de la shadouf do/it in vie /is de parhr 

^Ty, nis-hu mah-ru-ii i-nu-um an Is-tar sur-bu-tum 
Chapitre premier {dupob/ie) : Lorsque la noble Istar 

34. E . KAL Assur-ban-apla sarru kis^ati sarru . 
Palais d'Assozirbatiapal roi des kissdti roi . . . 



COMMENTAIRE. 

Ce fragment de poeme connu sous le nom de "la fable du cheval 
et du boeuf " pre'sente de grandes difficultes d'interpretation. George 
Smith qui le premier I'a fait connaitre, ne s'etait pas laisse arreter 
par les obstacles qui proviennent en grande partie de la forme 
poetique du texte. Aussi ne pouvait-on esperer de sa traduction 
qu'elle fut fidele ni meme qu'elle rendit le sens approximatif de 
I'original. J'aurais pre fere m'abstenir de traduire ce document si pre- 
cieux, mais c'est un metier par trop ingrat de publier simplement des 
textes sans y ajouter un commentaire ni meme un essai de version, 
quelque imparfait qu'il soit. Je ne sache pas qu'il ait ete fait une 
publication du texte cuneiforme quoique plusieurs assyriologues 
paraissent en avoir fait des copies. C'est dans le but de rappeler 
I'attention des savants sur cet extrait d'une epopee ou Istar semble 
avoir joue peut-etre un role preponderant, que j'ai presente aux 
lecteurs des Proceedings ce petit travail. Je n'ai pas besoin d'ajouter 
que la copie a ete faite avec soin et que la tablette ne renferme que 
peu de passages incertains. De grandes lacunas sont a deplorer. 
L'original en effet comprenait 4 sections sur le recto et 5 sur le 
verso. Pour ce qui est du sens general nous pouvons etablir la 
division suivante : — 

A. Description d'une inondation ; il s'agit probablement d'un 
raz de maree qui avait ravage la contree. Cette premiere 
partie se termine par la rencontre du cheval et du bceuf, 
qui se lient d'amitie. 

B. Le boeuf raconte au cheval son reve et dans son re'cit nous 
retrouvons presque mot pour mot la description du cata- 
clysme d^crit dans A. 

C. Ici deux lacunes ; la fin du discours du boeuf manque ainsi 
que le debut de celui du cheval, 

42 



Jan. io] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

D. Le bceuf reprend et semble s'apitoyer sur le sort de son 
camarade, esclave de rhomme, qui lui laboure les flancs de 
ses eperons. 

E. Le cheval repond avec fierte et fait un tableau pousse au 
noir de I'existence du malheureux bceuf, qui sur le bord 
de la riviere tire peniblement la shadouf. 

Ainsi finit le premier chapitre du poeme. 

George Smith parait avoir eu sous les yeux des fragments d'une 
tablette qui me sont inconnus. J'ignore ce qu'ils sont vdevenus mais 
on peut esperer que des copies du texte original ne tarderont pas a 
revenir au jour, ce qui permettra alors de le comprendre dans son 
entier. Le document qui nous a ete conserve, a ete redige a une 
epoque recente et doit etre une copie faite sur I'ordre d'Assour- 
banapal. La forme poetique est celle de tous les poemes assyro- 
bnbyloniens connus ; la coupe des phrases et le rythme d'apres les 
recherches de Zimmern sont ainsi donnes : Recto 1. 20 et suiv. : — 

§a hariibti || irsitim || ippatir || kiribsa 
infrit biilim || usammiha || appata || lisahsab 

Pour finir j'ajouterai quelques petites observations. 

Recto. 

L. 6. su-pi-e = les prieres. II existe en assyrien un autre mot 
siip-0. ; cf. Harper, A.B.L., Vol. I, p. no, 1. 17, oil nous lisons siru 
supi, c'est-a-dire le revetement du supi ; supi done = partie d'un 
edifice ; voir pour siru que Haupt rend quelque part par cuirasse, 
Del., B. IV., p. 489. 

L. 12. li-pa-na-aq = lipannaq ; si la restitution proposee est 
possible on se rappellera le verbe panaqu (v. Del., H.IK, p. 532, et 
Meissner, Siippleni., s.v.). L'assyrien semble avoir possede deux 
verbes panaqu, I'un commun aux autres langues semitiques avec le 
sens de "rejouir," I'autre signifiant, " garnir, appUquer, border, 
encadrer, incruster " et qu'il faudrait peut-etre mieux lire banaqu. 
L'ideogramme ^fs^ rend les verbes pa?idqu, iiialalu (Briinnow) ; 
malalu = s'amuser, se rejouir, IV R. 30, No. I, 1. 14 : mi-na-a sa la 
ibnu-qu = qui ne s'est pas rejoui, qui ne se serait pas rejoui. Le 
sens de "garnir, appliquer, etc.," ressort necessairement du passage 
invoque par Meissner; 1. 15 : la montagne U-a-i ; je ne sache pas 
qu'on puisse lire autrement ; oil faut-il situer cette montagne ? 

L. 23. saluta ; salutu d'un theme ^"^^ ne parait pas signifier 

43 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILKOLOGY. [1899. 

ici, action de s'etendre, de se coucher, mais plutot avoir un sens 
analogue a ulsa. 

L. 25. de meme que I'auteur de la Geste de Gilgamos, celui de 
I'epopee de la noble Istar donne au cheval Tepithete de na'id qabli. 

L. 26. miritu qui se trouve egalement 1. 20, signifie paturage, 
cf. Meissner, Suppleiiu, p. 87. 

L. 28. Bi . Lu . Lu = pakittu, v. JI.JV., p. 176 et p. 524. Le 
sens m'est inconnu ainsi que celui de si . pa ; pakittu doit avoir una 
signification parallele a susu. Marduk est le seigneur du bi . lu , lu, 
tres frequent dans les textes de Reisner ; quant a sipa le passage 
cite, H.JV., p. 571, ne permet pas de le traduire par sippatu, 
*' plantation de roseaux." Quoiqu'il en soit notre texte nous apprend 
que susu, pakittu, et sipa = sippatu, sont assez rapproches les uns 
des autres au point de vue de I'idee qu'ils expriment. 

L. 31. idninu = prt. de dananu ; ingiru = prt. de nagaru c'est- 
a-dire naqaru ; on salt que le ])asse se conjugue : iqqur mais iqqir 
n'est pas improbable. 

L. 33. Jensen dans sa Kosmologie, p. 394, n'a pas donne de 
preuves suffisantes lorsqu'il rend naggaru par " charpentier." Que 
ce mot ait eu cette signification cela parait assez plausible, mais 
notre texte fait douter de I'exactitude de cette interpretation. 
J'inclinerai a rapprocher naggaru de ikkaru = agriculteur, quand 
meme au point de vue philologique cette explication se heurte a 
quelques obstacles. La glose " en-ga-ar " cependant nous permet 
ce rapprochement qu'elle fortifie. L'ecole de M. Halevy afifirmera 
sans hesiter le semitisme de cette glose. Quant aux partisans de la 
theorie sumerienne ils decomposeront en-ga-ar en en + ga-ar = en 
-f gar = maitre 4- travail aux champs c'est-a-dire agriculteur. II 
ressort de tout cela qu'il pent parfaitement avoir existe en assyrien 
un substantif nangaru = ikkaru et un autre naggaru qui se retrouve 
en syriaque sous la meme forme et avec le sens de " charpentier ; " 
it-ta-rak = IV^ ou Io de taraku, mais que signifie cette fin de la 
ligne T,?,- 

L. 34. Je regarde i laqqi non pas comme appartenant au verba 
daqu, qui signifie 1° elever, dresser, 2° renverser, detruire (voir mes 
documents relatifs aux presages. Fascicule III), mais comme un 
substantif; ne serait-ce pas tout simplement : ildaqcju, H. IV., p. 60, 
sous une forme legerement contractee ? u-cia-a-a-u faut-il lire ainsi ou 
u-qa-a-a li . . . .; le verbe signifie generalement " attendre," voir 
Del., //. IV., p. 582, et Meissner, Supplem., p. 83. 

44 



Jan. io] PROCEEDINGS. [iJ>99. 

L. 35. la-tur = la itur si c'est ainsi qu'il faut lire? itarri me 
parait devoir etre rapproche de itarri de N.E., XI, 1. 155, mais 
quel en est le sens ? celui de " disparaitre " ressort du contexte. 

L. 36. nu-uq est un adverbe tres frequent dans les textes de 
Harper, A.B.L., Vol. I, p. 90, 1. 5, Recto, Vol, II, p. 139, 1. 5, 
Recto, etc., etc. 

Verso. 

L. 6. padana que j'ai traduit adverbialement par " ici " n'est 
autre que le substantif padanu. 

L. 10. Je propose une autre transcription de cette phrase: edlu 
narkabtu sugmuraku ti'iiti ; sug (suk, suq) muraku serait la premiere 
personne du singulier, permansif IIIj d'un verbe gamaru, qamaru, 
kamaru. Le sens de la phrase serait a peu pres celui-ci, si Ton 
considere ce qui suit : moi le boeuf, on utilise ma peau, pour en 
faire les cuirs des harnais et I'attirail du char et en effet il ajoute : 
dans mes ? il y a de la vigueur, dans mes tendons il y a de la 
force, ti-'-ii-ti = harnais ou plutot, " accessoires d'un char;" cf. 
aussi Del., H. IV., p. 697. 

L. 14. nasata = 2^ personne du singulier du permansif de nasfi 
= porter. 

L. 15. kalubu ; je ne connais pas d'autre passage 011 ce mot se 
rencontre. Je le traduis par " eperon " en comparant I'arabe 

c_JjI^, Lane, Did., p. 2627. 

L. 17. balasu (Briinnow, I.C.L., p. 2; Del., H.JV, p. 721). 
L'ideogramme si . suh se decompose en si = amaru + suh = 
naparku, c'est-a-dire voir + cesser ou ne plus voir. Mais I'assyrien 
plus qu'aucune autre langue semitique possede une foule de mots 
ayant deux significations exactement contraires et nous ne nous 
etonnerons pas si Inxldsu correspond ailleurs a ?iikilnn'/, contempler. 
Le contexte dans le cas particulier exige le premier sens, c'est-a-dire 
celui de : aveugler, voiler. Le boeuf dit au coursier : tu aspires en 
vain a brouter librement dans la prairie, mais le jour oli I'homme 
t'enfourcha, tu devins son esclave pour toujours. 

L. 20. simmu, simmeia signifie peut-etre une partie du corps de 
I'animal. 

L. 25. ina ebir nari = au dela du fleuve ; cf. pour cette ex- 
pression, Glaser, M.V.A.G., 1897, III p. 3, et Meissner, Sitpplem., 
p. T03. 

L. 27. asdatama 2^ personne singulier du permansif d'un verbe 

45 



Jan. io] SOCIETY OF lUISLICAL ARCHyliOLOGY. [1S99. 

asadu (^i) qui parait signifier " tirer avec peine, mettre en mouve- 
ment " ; ne pas confondre ce verba avec I'autre asadu d'ou vient 
isdu ; cf. Meissner, Supplein., s.v. 

harharu est comme Ta remarque Meissner la machine qu'em- 
ployaient les Assyriens pour faire monter Teau des rivieres, une 
espece de shadouf. L'arabe .ri- .ri- signifie le " murmure de I'eau ; 
cf. Dozy, SiipJ>kin., p. 360. Sur les modes d'irrigation usites 
aujourd'hui en Babylonie voir : The Babyhfiiaji Expedition of the 
University of Fe7tnsylvania, Series A, Cuneiform texts, ed. by 
Hilprecht, Vol. IX, p. 40. 

81-2-4, 294. 

Ce document a ete decrit ainsi par Bezold dans son Catalogue : 
Fragment d'une legende renfermant une fable dont les principaux 
acteurs sont le chien, le corbeau et le hahhuru. II n'est nullement 
question d'un corbeau (eribu) dans ce texte comme Ton s'en rendra 
aisement compte en le parcourant, de plus I'etat bien defectueux de, 
la tablette ne permet point d'etablir d'une fa(;;on convaincante s'il 
s'agit d'une fable ou non. 

Le fragment de tablette se divise en deux colonnes, dont A seule- 
ment renferme 13 lignes fort mal conservees sur I'une des faces ; 
I'autre face n'a que deux ou trois lignes presque illisibles. Je I'ai 
copie un jour tres sombre et j'ajouterai qu'il serait grandement 
necessaire de controler le texte, que je public ici, non sans in- 
quietude et avec une certaine repugnance, 

COLONNE A. 

^< 4Hir-H iiii >w ^- t^w) -11^] -^u-W) ^H-^(?) 

4. ]]< A-]]] -y<r -TH -K ^^iT j^::! >^ n "^m^c^m 

6. ^ <^^H ^^-< -m -t] ^y tVi< iininpi 
7- <igr Vr Egyy(?) ^^yy ^^< -y< m^ ^h ^y -mmMMtt 
tt] -y< tiyyy y- ^y? -vy <li '^^v,Vy <m 

*<y5^(?) 
46 



Jan. io] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

II. ^ -y< E^yy y? -^y ^y ^y- -^y -^yii 
^2. p^^y(?) ^y- -<isiE?yr(?) n -^i ^y ^i- -^t ^m 
u- MPiiP^ n <a (?) ^i j^ :^ <i- (?) -^THiia 

La fin manque 

Transcription. 

I. kalbu li-pu 

/e chien 



2. ha-ah-hu-ru li-pu ? en-na-ka i-bal 
hahhiiru ? ? 

3. it-ti a-si-ia it-ti e-ri-bi-ia 
a ma sortie a vion entree 

4. ha-ah-hu-ri ti-si te-mu a-sak-kan ? 
hahhuni ? la ?iouvelie je veitx faire 

5. ad-da-ni-ka ha-ah-hur ti . mes 
je te donneral 1 hahhur la vie ?? 

6. ina eh kamunu la te-gir ru . . 

au siijet de la plante kainiiiiH ne ? pas .... 

7. ki a da ? su-ha-li ir-pi-is 

? ? ? 

8. at-ti um-me-e Istar Babili 
toi mcrel Istar de Babylone 

9. ban-ti ka-ak Isiar Babili 
creatrice? Istar de Babylone 

10. at-ti um-me-e zikari 

toi 6 mere ? dii zikaru* 

11. ban-ti da- a-na dannis ba-na 
creatrice ? ? beaucoup 

* male. 

,47 



Jan. io] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



12 dannis 

beaucoup 



13. 



a-as 



da-a-na danniS ba-na 

? beaticojip ? 

gab-bi-§i-na . . 

elles toutes ? ... 



[1899. 



COMMENTAIRE. 

Comme je I'ai dit plus haut, rien ne prouve que nous soyions en 
presence d'une fable ; on ne voit pas bien quel role joue le chien ici, 
si c'est lui qui s'adresse an hahhuru et Ton peut se livrer a des 
suppositions sans fin. A partir de la ligne 8, la forme du texte 
change et cette invocation, cette glorification d'Istar ne laisse pas 
que d'etonner. II est plus prudent de ne pas s'attarder actuelle- 
ment a vouloir determiner la nature du document ; hahhiiru est un 
oiseau de I'espece des corbeaux ; ce mot se retrouve dans un 
texte tres important qui sera public dans le troisieme fascicule de 
mes documents relatifs aux presages ; hahhuru n'a pas d'equivalent 
dans les autres langues semitiques ; voir Meissner, Supplem., p. 37. 




48 



Jan. loj I'ROCEKDINCxS. . [1^1,9. 



Heidfxb?:rg, 30/// N'orember, 1898. 

Dear Mr. Rylands, 

I beg you to insert the following note in the next number of 
the Proceedings. 

In the Catalogue No. 184 of Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 15, Picca- 
dilly, I found (p. 24) the following notice : — 

"The Trustees of the British Museum are about to issue an 
important Egyptian pul)lication. It is a facsimile of the famous 
Rhind mathematical pa])yrus in the British Museum. This docu- 
ment, which deals with the elements of geometry, the theory of 
numbers, fractions, &c., was prepared for publication several years 
ago by the late Dr. Samuel Birch, but for some reason was not 
issued. It has now been revised, and a special introduction to the 
work prepared b)' Dr. Budge. By some jneans Dr. Eisenlohr 
obtained copies of the plates., and issued a hastily-prepared trafisla- 
tion, the nutnerous errors of which render it of little usei'^ 

As this notice contains an accusation against myself, (i) as 
having obtained copies of the plates by some wrong way ; (2) as 
having issued a hastily-prepared translation, the numerous errors of 
which render it of little use. The same day I received the cata- 
logue from Mr. Quaritch, I wrote to him inquiring who v;as 
responsible for the remarks, and refuting the imputation by pointing 
to p. 2, line 7, of my Afatheinatisches Handhuch (Leipzig, Hinrichs, 
1877), where I explained that a copy of the papyrus was given to 
me in the spring of 1872 by Dr. Samuel Birch, the keeper of the 
Egyptian antiquities in the British Museum ; further, that my work 
was not issued before I got the permission of the same Dr. Birch. 
For the attack on my scientific fame, no man can pretend that my 
translation, after five years' hard work, was hastily prepared, and that 
the numerous errors render it of little use. I refer to the judgment of 
Prof. Cantor, Prof. Ebers and others in xhe Allgemeitie Zeiiungdiwd to 
every earnest Egyptologist. That my work on the papyrus was of 
great use can be proved by the articles of Mr. Criftith in the 
Proceedings of Biblical Archceology. As Mr. Quaritch in his answer 

49 IJ 



Jan. 10] SOCIETY OF P.II5LICAL ARCH.KOLOGY. [1899. 

does not name the author of the notice, I here pouit out the facts 
of the case, and I ain compelled to ask who is really responsible 
for these insinuations. I await a clear answer to my question, 
and cannot believe tnat the Trustees of the British Museum would 
allow such remarks to be made about the work of a foreign 
Professor. 

Yours truly, 

Professor Dr. AUGUST EISENLOHR, 

At the University of Heidelberg, 

Honorary Member of Ribl. Arch. Society. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 37, 
Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C., on Tuesday, 7th 
Februar}-, 1899, at 8 p.m., when the following Paper will 
be read : — 

Dr. ("tAster : "The Samaritan Scroll of the Law." 



50 



yV(V. ScY. />//>/. Jrc/i,, Xo::, ll 



TLATE I. 



K. 4541 






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TaHI KT FUOM nil; LlllKAKY OF \|NK\'KI1, NOW IN 
I III-. I'.KIl Isli .M 1 slJM. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Nov., 1858. 

PLATE II. 

^^- 45-1 1- 
OnvERSK. Col. III. 

-im ^T ^ryr^ ^y .;in ^f t^m A^l ^1h 

<^h^ ^t t^ij tt^ <^rrr ^y 
ir <r^r j^H iT'i ^r< ^y 

,^ ^-y ^H-^ ^y yr ^^y ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^.,^ 
-Vy] r«< ^^ y«< <r^ v^-y 

V y«< ^yy ^y « ^^ (?) - -gyy yr 
-m <m i-rry [^y] .yrx^ vyj 

<MHj m i-^m -r -r^x^ hi ^n? 
::;f^1 <-^H ^^i- :r4'r V E^^r - 

V ^rri-^ ^^]^ -r ^cyy <im 

Vy -7 <IBy ^yyr >£yy ^<^..r <r^^ 

<FJII ^^^ --V <lil J^ ill! ^i^ 
j^H— :r<? ^^y ^-ry <r|y 

T^ -n -mi -V <lli V ^y ^yyyy ^y^ Ey 

V ^nr^^ if ,T? -^r <m ^m [--t] <igf 

Vr <)t] mm 

Tablet from the Library of Nineveh, now in 
THE British Museim. 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



In 8 Parts. Price Ss. each. The Fourth Part having been issued, the Price is 
now Raised to £$ ^o"^ the 8 Parts. Parts cannot be sold separately. 

The Egyptian Book of the Dead. 

Cojnplete Translation, Commentary, and Notes. 
By the late SIR P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Knt. {President); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

.^ S^erits of ^Blatcs of tlje Figncttes of tf)c different OTtapters. 

The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 

To be completed in Five Parts. 

Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
€ach part is now raised to J[^\ \os. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) £\ \s. 

Price 7s. 6d. Only a Limited Number of Copies have been Primed. 

THE PALESTINIAN SYRIAC VERSION OF THE HOLY 

SCRIPTURES. 

Four Recently Discovered Portions (together with verses from the 
Psalms and the Gospel of St. Luke), Edited, in Photograpiiic Facsimile, 
from a Unique MS. in the British Museum, with a Transcription, Transla- 
tion, Introduction, Vocabulary, and Notes, by 

REV. G. MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., 

Assistant in the Departtnent of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. in the British 
Museum ; fortnerly Tyrwhitt Hebrew Scholar. 



Subscribers' names to be Addressed to the Secretary. 



Society of Biblical Archeology 



COUNCIL, 1899. 



President. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, LL.D., &c., &c. 

Vice- Presidents . 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Yoric. 

The Most Noble the Marquess ok Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbuky. 

Arthur Gates. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.G.L., M.D., &c. 

Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Cation of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. T. K. Cheyne, D.D. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 

Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., &c. 



Rev. James Marshall, M.A. 
Claude G. Montefiore. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
J. Pollard. 

Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S., 
&c. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 

Honorary Secretary for Foreii^n Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 

Honoraty Librarian — William Simpson, F.R.G.S. 

HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN OKUINAKY TO HF.K MAJESTY, ST. MARTIn's LANE. 



VOL. XXI. 



Part 2. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 



BIBLICAL ARCH^OLOGY< 



VOL. XXL TWENTY-NINTH SESSION. 



Second Meeting, February yth, 1899. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Prof. J. Lieblein. — L'Exode des Hebreux ... ... ... 53-67 

Stanley A. Cook, B.A. — Some recent Palmyrene Inscriptions 

{zplates) 68-78 

Notes — 

Analysis of Egyptian Cosmetic ... ... .. ... ... 79 

The words Adar and Sarin ... ... ... ... ... 79 

Scarab of Hat Shepsut ... ... ... .. .. ... 80 

Portrait Statue of Psammetic-Neith , ... ... ... 80 

The Inscribed Stones from Hamath .. ... 80 

Egyptian Bronze Mummy-Case for a Fish ... 82 



-.^;^- 



PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 
37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1899. 



No. CLIX. 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 

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sale, which may be obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, 
F.S.A., 37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-NINTH SESSION, 1899. 



Second Meeting, ytk February, 1899. 
Rev. JAMES MARSHALL, M.A., 

IN THE CHAIR. 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author : — Prof. G. Maspero. Bibliotheque Egypto- 
logique. Tome septieme. Etudes de Mythologie et d'Archeo- 
logie Egyptiennes. 8vo. Paris. 1898. 

From the Author : — Louisa Macdonald, M.A. Catalogue of the 
Greek and Etruscan Vases, and of the Greek and Roman 
Lamps in the Nicholson Museum, University of Sydney. 8vo. 
Sydney. 1898. 

[No, CLIX.] 51 F, 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

From the Author :— Rev. P. A. C. de Cara, S.J. GH Hethei- 
Pelasgi in ItaHa o gl' ItaH della 'storia. Peucezii-Daunii-Japigi- 
Messapi. Civilt, Catt. Nov., 1898. 

From the Author : — A. Boissier. Note sur un Monument Baby- 
lonien se rapportant a I'extispicine. 8vo. Geneve, 1899. 

From E. Towry Whyte, M.A. Framed copy, in colour, of a 
Wall-painting from Thebes. 



The following Candidates were nominated for election at 
the next Meeting, to be held on the 7th March, 1899 : — 

Lieut.-Colonel Malcolm R. Haig, Rossweide, Davos Platz, 

Switzerland. 
David Basil Hewitt, Oakleigh, North wich, Cheshire. 
Rev. J. P. H. E'sser, Alsdorf, bei Aachen. 



The following Candidate was elected a member, having 
been nominated at the Meeting held on the loth January, 
1899 :— 

John Ward, F.S.A., Lenoxvale, Belfast. 



A Paper was read, by Dr. Caster, entitled, " The Samaritan 
Scroll of the Law," which will be printed in a future Part of 
the Proceedings. 

Remarks were added by Dr. Friedlander, Mr. Joseph 
Offbrd, Mr. Alexander Payne, Dr. Gastcr, and the Chairman. 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 



52 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



L'EXODE DES HEBREUX. 

Par J. LiEBLEiN. 

{Suite.) 

Comme nous avons vu plus haut, tout nous porte a croire que le 
texle Elohistique des livres Mosaiques a regu sa redaction substan- 
tielle dans les temps paisibles du regne de Ramses II, lors des rapports 
intimes entre I'Egypte et les parties limitrophes de la Syrie. 
Cependant, il faut bien remarquer que cette redaction a ete faite 
environ deux cents ans apres le temps de Moise, et c'est une erreur 
grave d'en tirer des conclusions chronologiques pour I'exode et de 
croire qu'il doive etre place a I'epoque, quand le recit que I'lj^lohiste 
en fait fut redige. Mais si le recit biblique ne prouve rien quant 
aux temps de I'oppression et de I'exode des Hebreux, il est ne- 
cessaire de chercher d'autres preuves plus concluantes. 

Pour moi, je I'ai deja dit, I'oppresseur des He'breux etait 
Thotmes III, et I'exode tombait aux dernieres annees d'Amenophis 
III, si, toutefois, il avait lieu environ I'an 1320 a. J.-C. L'immi- 
gration dans le pays de Gosen doit etre placee un peu plus de deux 
cents ans, ou, pour le preciser plus exactement, 215 ans avant, sous 
Apophis, un des derniers rois Hyksos, c'est-a-dire environ I'an 1535 
a. J.-C. Dans la lettre aux Galates, iii, 17, St. Paul compte quatre 
cent trente ans d'Abraham a la Loi. Si nous divisons cette epoque 
en deux moities egales, ainsi que Ton a fait avec quelque probabilite, 
nous aurons 215 ans d'Abraham a Joseph, et 215 ans de I'immigra- 
tion sous Joseph jusqu'a I'exode sous Moise. L'an 1535 a. J.-C, 
comme I'epoque de I'immigration sous un des derniers rois Hyksos, 
s'accorde bien avec ma chronologic egyptienne d'apres laquelle les 
Hyksos furent expulses definitivement a la fin de la XVII® dynastie, 
en l'an 1490. J'ai dit plus haut et deja depuis presque trente ans * 
que le pays de Gosen, situe dans I'Ouady Tumilat, etait canalise, 
cultive et habite aux temps des Hyksos, et peut-etre deja sous la 
XIP dynastie, en supposant que c'etait Amenemha III qui avait 
* Christiania Videnskabsselskabs Forhandlinger pour l'an 1870, p. 365 sq. 

55: E 2 



Keb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, [1899. 

fait les travaux d'irrigations dans le Gosen comme au Fayuni. Et, 
lieureusement, ce qui etait alors seulement une supposition est 
aujourd'hui un fait reel. Les papyrus de Kahun nous en donnent 
la preuve decisive. Nous y lisons : * 

^(1 ^%''^^<c:=>%'^D%^'"oi^: "Le 
J] 1 <::z> -11 I I I -ZI *-*-« ' JR ^^/wA *C«=.— /wwvN 

plus grand des maitres de sa ville ; c'est le bras d'eau qui divise le 
Nil pour sa distribution des eaux." 

Ici il est dit aussi clairement que possible, que le roi Ousortesen 
III s'etait occupe spe'cialement de la canalisation du Nil et de I'irri- 
gation du pays. II est assez probable que I'auteur de cette ode, 
chantee a I'honneur d'Ousortesen III, a pense ici aux travaux de 
canalisation faits non seulement au Fayum, mais aussi dans la vallee 
de Gosen, car presque imm^diatement apres t il chante : 



0- ?5 1^ r^/^^ : "Le plus grand des maitres de sa ville, 
III ■ I -M^ 

c'est le rempart qui mure la contree de Gosen." 

Ici il n'y a aucun doute possible ; le pays de Gosen est expres- 
sement nomme avec son orthographie egyptienne, comme M. Griffith, 
I'editeur et le traducteur de notre papyrus, et M. Maspero j posi- 
tivement I'affirment ; il est muni des fortifications qui en defendent 
I'entree ; il etait done habite et cultive, et par consequent canalise ; 
car sans les eaux du Nil ce pays n'etait ni habitable ni cultivable. 
II y a cependant ici une observation a faire. Dans I'ode du papyrus 
de Kahun c'est le roi Ousortesen III qui est preconise comme le 
canalisateur et le protecteur du pays de Gosen, tandis que j'ai 
suppose que c'etait Amenemha III qui avait droit a cestitres. Mais 
Ousortesen III et Amenemha III ont regne ensemble pendant 33 
ans,§ et comme Ousortesen III etait le plus ag^, et par ses exploits 
belliqueux le plus renomme, il n'y a rien de plus naturel que le poete 
a attribue a Ousortesen aussi ce qu'a fait Amenemha III pendant 
leur coregence. Deja dans mon livre de 1863, Aegyptische Chrono- 
logies j'ai emis I'opinion que pendant cette coregence Ousortesen III 

* T/ie Petrie Papyri. Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Guroh, pi. II, 1. 12. 

t The Petrie Papyri, pi. II, 1. 14- 

X Le Journal des Savants, Avril, 1897. 

§ Lieblein, Recherches sur la chronologic egyptienne, p. 77. 

54 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

dirigeait les affaires militaires et etrangeres, tandis qu'Amenemha 
III avait radministration interieure et surtout s'occupait de la cana- 
lisation du Nil et de I'irrigation du pays.* Au moins il est certain 



que ( ® ^ I Ma-n-re, Marre, Mare,j le nom d'intronisation 

d'Amenemha III, etait le Moeris d'Herodote, le Mares d'Eratosthene, 
et le Marros de Diodore ; car c'est sans doute le meme roi que 
Diodore (i, 61) appelle Marros, mais (i, 51) Moeris. + 

Le chronographe Syncelle dit que les Hebreux sont arrives en 
Egypte I'an XVII d'Apophis. Mais quel Apophis ? Certainement 
un roi Hyksos qui aurait regne environ I'an 1535 a. J.-C, si notre 
supposition est correcte que les Hebreux sejournaient en Egypte 
215 ans, supposition qui se base non seulement sur I'indication de 
St. Paul dans la lettre aux Galates iii, 17, niais aussi sur cette 
circonstance que les genealogies bibliques ne donnent que trois 
generations pour le temps qui separe Joseph et Moise.§ Moise, qui 
represente la quatrieme generation, avait quatre-vingts ans au temps 
de I'exode ; les 135 ans qui restent pour les trois generations, en 
supposant un sejour de 215 ans, ne sont nullement improbables pour 
une serie aussi courte que celle-ci, tandis que les 350 ans qui 
resultent de la supposition d'un sejour de 430 ans passeraient les 
limites de I'ordre general de la nature. II est done probable que 
I'indication de Syncelle est correcte, et que cet Apophis, le pharaon 
de Joseph, etait un roi Hyksos. Mais les monuments nous donnent 
deux ou trois, peut-etre encore d'autres Apophis. Les listes de 
Manethon dans la redaction d'Africain nous font connaitre un 
Apophis comme le dernier roi de la XV® dynastie ; M. Maspero 
I'appelle Apopi P^ II precedait done immediatement la XVII® 
dynastie, car la XVP dynastie n'est qu'une recapitulation sommaire 
du regne des Hyksos ; c'est evident pour tous qui ne s'obstinent pas 
a fermer les yeux a la verity. Mais cet Apophis, Apopi P"", regna 
61 ans, de 1702 a 1641 a. J.-C, selon ma chronologic, de sorte qu'il 
etait plus de cent ans anterieur a I'immigration des Hebreux en 
1535. L' Apophis de Joseph appartenait done a la XVIP dynastie. |1 

* Lieblein, Acgyptische Chronologic, p. lOO sq. 

t Le Page Renouf, An FAenuntary Gramniay of the Ancieyt Egyptian 
language, p. 8. 

X Lieblein, Recherches stir la chronolo^ie egyptienne, p. 82. 

§ Lepsius, Die Chronologie der Aegypter, p. 379. 

I' Voyez I'arrangement chronologique de toute cette partie de I'histoire egyp- 
tienne dans mon livre, Aegyptische Chronologie, pp. 68-76. 

55 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S99. 

Et a la verite les autres Apophis dont nous connaissons I'existence 
appartenaient sans aucun doute a cette dynastic. Les voici : 

Apopi avec le nom de I'intronisation ( Q "^^"^ | p J du papyrus 

mathematique, Apopi II selon M. Maspero. 

Apopi avec le nom de I'intronisation f O "^^"^^ /v^^ j nomme 

sur quelques monuments de Tanis, Apopi III d'apres I'opinion de 
M. Maspero. 

( M ^ D H I "'^P^P^) nomme sur un " doorpost " trouve dans le 

temple de Boubastis.* 

Apopi du papyrus Sallier P''. 

Nous ne savons pas, si tous ces Apophis etaient dil'ferents ou 
non ; il n'y en a que deux qui sent differencies par le nom d'introni- 
sation. M. Maspero croit qu'il y avait trois Apophis; c'est possible, 
quoiqu'il ne soit pas certain. Mais ce qui est bien sur, c'est que 
I'Apophis de Joseph etait un des derniers de ce nom, non seulemenl 
en consequence de la chronologic qu'ici est peremtoire, mais 
aussi parce que la cour du roi Hyksos, ou Joseph fut accueilli, etait 
tout-a-fait egyptienne, ce qui ne pouvait etre le cas qu'aux derniers 
temps des Hyksos, apres qu'ils avaient ete completement egyptia- 
nises. Lepsius pensait precisement, a cause de ce caractere egyptien 
de la cour, que Joseph arrival h. la cour d'un roi indigene de la 
XVIIP dynastic, pas a celle d'un roi Hyksos ; il n'a pas vu que les 
Hyksos, a la fin de leur regne, avaient adopte entierement les moeurs 
et les coutumes egyptiennes. 

S'il est permis de dire quelque chose positive sur cette question, 
je serais tente de croire que le pharaon de Joseph etait cet Apophis 
qui a fait les constructions dont les restes sont trouves par M. Naville 
dans le temple de Boubastis. Au moins il avait le pouvoir royal 
dans Boubastis et dans les environs, le pays de Gosen, car M. Naville 
a certainement raison quand il dit, au sujet de cette derniere epocjue 
de Tempire egyptien des Hyksos : " Bubastis was one of the chief 
residences of the Hyksos kings, who raised there more important 
constructions even than those of Tanis, which was generally con- 
sidered as having been their capital. It is quite possible that Joseph 
resided frequently at Bubastis, which was at the entrance of the 
land of Goschen. Therefore he had his family close by, and he 
could easily communicate with them." 

* Naville, Bubastis (1887-1889), p. 22, pi. XXXV, C. 
56 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

A la verite, le pays de Gosen que le roi Apophis donna a Jacob 
et a sa famille etait situe dans la vallee qui s'etend a Test de 
Boubastis jusqu'aux lacs amers et au lac Timsah ; il n'y a plus aucun 
doute possible apres les fouilles de M. Naville pendant I'hiver de 
1882-1883, par lesquelles il a retrouvela ville de Pithom-Heroopolis, 
malgre les efforts de Lepsius * de prouver le contraire. Aussi les 
savants academiciens de Berlin, Dillmann et Mommsen,t qui pour 
la plupart sont d'accord avec M. Naville, font-ils una objection, im- 
portante selon eux, mais qui se base seulement sur une ponctuation 
fautive de I'endroit d'Herodote II, 158 : 

NeATws J OS- TW Siwpvx^ iTTe-^etprjae 7rpu)T09 rtj e§ 7r]v 'Epv9'pr]v 3^a\aa- 
aav (f>epov<Tij. . . ?iKTai ce airo rov NetXov to vdwp e? aVTijv, (^i/KTai Ce) 
Ka-rvTTepS^e 6\i'<^ov BovjSdaTio? ttoXios' Trapa riarovfiop tijv Apafiii]V 
TToXiv iae-^ei Ce e? -rr^v 'EpvS'piju ^a\aa<Tocv. 

Larcher a traduit cet endroit ainsi : 

" Nekos entreprit le premier de creuser le canal qui conduit a la 
mer Erythree. . . L'eau, dont il est rempli, vient du Nil, et y entre 
un peu au-dessus de Boubastis. Ce canal aboutit a la mer Erythree 
pres de Patunios, ville d' Arable." 

Or, les savants nommes de Berlin ponctuent avant eVe'xet he, mais 
non pas apres Bovlia(nio<s ttoXio?, et ils traduisent par consequent : 
" L'eau. . . y entre un peu au-dessus de Boubastis pr^s de Patumos 
ville d' Arable. Le canal aboutit a la mer Erythree." Mais c'est de 
meconnaitre totalement, et d'une maniere etonnante, le parallelisme 
clair et palpable des membres de la periode. Et d'ailleurs, — c'est 
une observation que je dois a M. Schjott, le professeur de la langue 
grecque de notre universite, — ce serait une addition superflue et 
inutile, et par consequent une faute impardonnable contre le bon sens 
et la belle langue des Grecs de dire : " creuser le canal ^ui conduit a 
la mer Erythree" et immediatement apres d'ajouter : **<r^ canal 
aboutit a la mer Erythree" tandis qu'il est tout-a-fait raisonnable de 
dire : " l'eau vient du Nil et entre dans le canal nn peu au-dessus de 
Boubastis; pres de Patumos ville d' Arable il (le canal) aboutit a la 
mer Erythree." La particule ce dans eVe'xet ce donne la seule raison 
philologique qui puisse motiver la ponctuation fautive ; mais ce ^6 
se laisse comprendre et philologiquement expliquer aussi avec la 
ponctuation correcte; toutefois si Ton prefere de statuer une transpo- 

* Lepsius dans Zeitschrift fiir dgyp. Spracke, &c. , Jahr 1883, pp. 41-53- 
t Sitzungsberichte der Akademit der IVissenschaften zu Berlin, I'annee 1885, 
pp. 891 sqq., et I'annee 1887, p. 363. 

57 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiliOLOGV. [1899. 

Sition OU de ce OU des mots 7rai>a ndrov^oi' rijv 'Apafiuji' ttoKiv. 

D'ailleurs un manuscrit, D de |Ia [Bibliotheque Nationale a Paris, 
porte o»} au lieu de ^e: eVe'xet 0/) «='« tj)i^ E. S. Pour ma part, je crois 
que M. Naville a raison, d'autant'plus que j'ai determine la situation 
exacte de Pithom longtemps avantjses fouilles en 188 2- 1883, Dans 
un memoire, lu le 14 Octobre 1870, dans la Societe de Sciences* k 
Christiania, et public dans les actes'de la societe pour Tan 1870, j'ai 
donnd assez completement mes raisons pour placer la ville de 
Patumos-Pithom-Heroopolis precisement a I'endroit oil M. Naville 
I'a trouvee en 1883. 

Pour resumer, je le r^pete,'Ie pays de Gosen etait situe dans la 
vallee de Tumilat, le long de I'ancien canal de Boubastis a I'ouest 
jusqu'a Pithom a Test, et ce pays fa ete occupe par Jacob et sa 
famille environ 1535 a. J.-C. sous Apophis, un des derniers rois des 
Hyksos, qui encore dominaient dans cette partie de I'Egypte et 
y residaient. 

Avant de quitter la discussion de cette question, je crois utile de 
relever un fait qui semble militer en faveur de I'opinion que Joseph 
est venu a la cour d'un roi Hyksos. Comme je I'ai dit plus haut, le 
nom de Potiphar que portait le haut fonctionnaire, dont Joseph etait 

I'esclave, pourrait tres bien etre identique au nom ^ 1 M^ 

Ft — bar, qui figure h. la tete d'une genealogie dont j'ai donne la 
table dans mon Dictionnaire de 7ioins No. 553. Potibar est visible- 

ment une composition hybride de » > egyptien, probablement 

identique a , et de 1 , nom du dieu semitique Baal, et 

indique d'une maniere curieuse que I'homme qui portait ce nom etait 

un Semite egyptianise. Aussi sa femme (1 1 <rz> I— J Jlj portait- 

elle un nom etranger, peut-etre semitique, du moins n'etait-il pas 
egyptien. Cette couple a done tres bien pu appartenir a la cour des 
Hyksos, et, comme leurs descendants de la sixieme generation, 
vivaient apres que le culte d'Amenophis I et d'Ahmbs nofcrari etait 
institu6, ou, pour preciser approximativement la date, environ 1350 

a. J.-C. sous le rbgne d'Amenophis HI, notre . ^ 1 M^i a 

vecu environ 1550, precisement a la meme ^poque oil le Potiphar 
de Joseph, selon moi, vivait a la cour du roi Apophis. Je ne veux 

pas dire que Potiphar et ^ J M^ nous nomment le meme 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899 

individu. Potiphar etait d'apres la Genese xxxix, i attache a la cour 

Wi etait I |oF| ^^ ^^ '^^^^f 
des scribes (TAjiion ; mais je crois que les deux noms sont identiques, 
at qu'ils remontent au meme temps ; aussi n'est-il pas impossible 
que le titre le chef des scribes d'A?no7i ait ete donne apres coup a 

Mii par ses descendants compl^tement egyptianises, 



J: 



quand ils avaient obtenu cette dignite sous la XVIIP dynastie. 

" Or Joseph mourut, et tous ses freres, et toute cette gene- 
ration-la. 

" Et les enfants d'Israel foisonnerent et multiplierent extraordi- 
nairement, et ils s'accrurent et devinrent tres-puissans, tellement que 
le pays en fut rempli. 

" Depuis il s'eleva un nouveau roi sur I'Egypte, qui n'avait point 
connu Joseph." * 

Le nouveau roi, qui n'avait point connu Joseph, ne pouvait pas 
etre le successeur immediat d'Apophis, le pharaon de Joseph ; car 
le vers 7 indique un assez long intervalle ; mais c'etait la nouvelle 
dynastie indigene, la XVIIP, qui naturellement n'avait aucune con- 
naissance de Joseph. 

Cependant I'oppression des Hebreux ne commenga pas, non plus, 
avec le commencement de la XVIIP dynastie. Selon moi I'avene- 
ment de cette dynastie eut lieu I'an 1490 a. J.-C, quarante-cinq ans 
seulement apres I'immigration des Hebreux, et encore les vingt-cinq 
ans d'Ahmes, le premier roi de la dynastie, ne sont pas comptes, 
probablement parce que I'expulsion des Hyksos et la consolidation 
de la nouvelle dynastie n'avaient pas ete terminees avant, mais 
pendant son regne. Ahmes, le fondateur de la XVIIP dynastie, 
monta done au trone en 15 15 a. J.-C, c'est-a-dire vingt ans apres 
I'arrivee de Jacob et de sa famille au pays de Gosen. Si Ton s'en 
tient au recit biblique, et ne veut pas le rejeter entierement, il faut 
avec necessite reconnaitre qu'un espace de vingt ou quarante-cinq 
ans n'est pas assez long pour motiver la persecution et I'oppression 
des enfants d'Israel, de sorte qu'il n'est point probable qu'Ahmes ou 
ses successeurs imm^diats y aient pense. 

Aussi Ahmes, Amenophis I, Thotmes I, Thotmes II, et la reine 
regnante Makare furent-ils tellement occupes, d'abord par I'expulsion 
des Hyksos et par la guerre faite en Asie a la suite de I'expulsion, et 

* L'Exode, i, 6-8. 
59 



Fee. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S99. 

plus tarcl par les troubles relatifs a la succession royale, qu'ils 
n'avaient pas le loisir necessaire, comme ils n'avaient aucune raison 
urgente pour attaquer les Hebreux, qui vivaient d'une maniere pai- 
sible et loyale dans une vallee eloignee du theatre de la guerre. 
D'ailleurs, les quatre premiers rois de cette dynastie n'ont probable- 
ment exerce que peu d'activite dans le Delta ; car jusqu'ici au moins 
on n'a pas trouve aucun monument de leur regne dans cette partie 
de I'Egypte.* 

Mais enfin Thotmes III monta sur le trone, et tout changea. II 
etait le plus fort et le plus grand conquerant de tous les pharaons ; 
il ecrasa tous ses ennemis, il elargit, autant au nord en Asia qu'au sud 
en Afrique, les frontieres de son pays plus qu'aucun autre roi egyp- 
tien n'avait fait. II regna, d'apres ma chronologie, jusqu'a I'an 1386 ; 
a sa mort les Hebreux avaient done demeure cent quarante-neuf ans 
en Gosen, et pendant son regne les Egyptiens pouvaient par conse- 
quent tres-bien commencer a craindre leur multitude croissante. 
Les Hebreux exiles ont toujours et partout ete des sujets loyaux, et 
ils I'etaient sans doute egalement en Egypte ; cependant ils etaient 
un peuple etranger, et Thotmes III, le puissant pharaon qui avait 
ecrase tant d'ennemis ne pouvait pas sans inquietude et indignation 
voir un peuple etranger au cceur de I'Egypte. Ici nous pouvons 
apprecier la valeur des mots de la Bible 11 M., i, 9-1 1 : 

" Et il (le pharaon) dit a son peuple : Voici, le peuple des 
enfants d'Israel est plus grand et plus puissant que nous. 

*' Venez done : agisscns prudemment avec lui, de peur qu'il ne 
multiplie ; que s'il arrivait quelque guerre, il ne se joigne aussi a nos 
ennemis, qu'il ne combatte contre nous, et qu'il ne se retire de ce 
pays. 

" Ils etablirent done sur le peuple des commissaires d'impots, 
pour I'accabler de charges ; et le peuple batit des villes fortes a, 
Pharaon : savoir, Pithom et Raamses." 

Je crois que Thotmes III fut I'oppresseur des Hebreux. Jel'ai dit 
plus haut en citant Theoi)hilus ad Autolycum III, §20, ou il est dit 
expressement queTethmosis avait persecute les Hebreux, et qu'il leur 
avait fait batir les villes de Pithom, de Ramses et d'Heliopolis. A 
vrai dire, nous ne connaissons aucun monument de ce roi dans le 
Delta ; mais c'est un fait negatif qui ne prouve rien de positif. Pour 
citer un exemple, M. Naville nous apprend, relativement au temple 
de Boubastis, que Ramses II a couvert tout le temple de son nom. 

* Naville, Bubastis (1887- 1889), p, 29. 
60 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

"At first sight," il ajoute, "it looks as if he alone and the Bubastites 
had to be credited with the foundation of the beautiful sanctuary, 
which was the object of the admiration of Herodotus. But it is 
just the reverse ; a careful study of each inscribed stone has revealed 
that all the great architraves which bear his name had been usurped, 
and that nearly everywhere his inscriptions were engraved on 
elder text." * 

II est ainsi possible que les noms de Thotmes III sont couverts 
par ou caches sous les inscriptions de Ramses II ; car M. Naville a 
trouve a Boubastis quelques traces des constructions faites par 
Amenophis II, le successeur immediat de Thotmes III, sans parler 
des autres monuments y decouverts des rois posterieurs de la 
XVIIP dynastie. Mais ce ne sont pas seulement les successeurs 
immediats de Thdtmes III qui ont travaille ici, aussi la reine 
Makare, qui regnait avant lui pendant son enfance se vante-t-elle 
d'avoir exerce son activite dans le Delta. Dans une inscription de 
Stabl Antar, publiee par M. Golenischeff, elle parle ainsi : " Je 
retablissais ce qui etait en ruine et je relevais ce qui etait excellent 
jadis ; car il y avait eu des Aamou au milieu de la Basse-Egypte et 
de Haouar, et des pasteurs de leur nombre avaient detruit les tra- 
vaux (anciens). lis regnaient ignorant le dieu Re."t 

Les Aamou 1 v\ ^§\ )^ 1 et les pasteurs 1 \\ 1 ^ 

V H ^ ' ' ^^^ etaient dans Avaris ^ J ^ , et 

regnaient ignorant le dieu Re I V^ — , 

c'etaient sans doute les Hyksos, et la reine Makare a commence, 
pour la premiere fois apres leur expulsion, de retablir I'ancien ordre 
et I'ancienne religion dans la Basse-Egypte. Quoiqu'il y ait peut- 
etre quelque exageration ici, neanmoins il doit etre permis de croire, 
que la reine Makare a fait des restaurations et des constructions 
dans le Delta pour petites qu'elles fussent, et d'en tirer en outre cette 
autre conclusion : quand Makare, qui avait precede immediatement 
Thotmes III, et qu' Amenophis II, son fils qui le suivait sur le trone, 
ainsi que d'autres successeurs de la XVIII® dynastie, ont pu bdtir 
dans la Basse-Egypte, il n'y a aucun motif pour nier que Thotmes 
III, qui etait le plus puissant de tous, ne I'ait fait egalement. II n'y 
a done absolument rien qui nous porte a douter de la veracite de 

* Naville, Bubastis (1S87-1889), p. 36. 

t Recueil de travaux^ vol. Ill, p. 2 sq. et vol. VI, pi. cqI. 36-38. 

6t 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S99. 

Theophile, quand il dit que Tethmosis (Thotmes III), en persecutant 
les Hebreux, leur avait fait batir Pithom et Ramses. 

Au contraire, il aurait et^ tout-h,-fait incomprehensible, qu'un roi 
qui combattait aussi vaillamment et heureusement pour la gloire et 
la siirete de son pays eut laiss^ un peuple etranger, qui etait une 
menace perpetuelle centre I'Egypte, y demeurer tranquillement, et 
je n'ai jamais pucomprendre comment Brugsch et les autres savants, 
qui croient que les Hebreux sont venus en Egypte sous les Hyksos, 
et qu'ils I'ont quitte sous Mdnephthes, se representent la chose pour 
expliquer la tenue paisible de Thotratjs III a I'egard des Hebreux. 

C'est une opinion accredite, que Ramses II est le seul roi qui ait 
regne assez longtemps pour etre le Pharaon de Moise. M. Ern. de 
Saulcy, qui dans cette circonstance voit une objection contre mon 
systeme, s'exprime ainsi : 

" Or, dans toute la duree du second empire egyptien, il n'y a 
qu'un seul et unique roi qui ait eu un regne assez long pour s'accom- 
moder avec la serie des evenements que nous venons de resumer, et 
ce roi c'est Ramses II qui, au dire de Manethon, a regne 66 ans." * 

Aussi M. Maspero, supposant que Ramses II etait I'oppresseur 
des Hebreux, parle-t-il du vieux roi en ces termes : " le vieux Pharaon 
etait rnort ; Moise se rendit avec son frere Aaron a la cour du 
Pharaon nouveau." t 

Mais c'est certainement une erreur capitale de croire que 
" Ramses II est le seul el unique roi qui ait eu un regne assez 
long " pour s'accommoder avec I'histoire de Moise. Thotmes III 
regna, au moins en partie, pendant 21 ans ensemble avec sa soeur 
Makare, et pendant 53 ans seul, par consequent en tout pendant 74 
ans. Par les annales de Thotmes III nous savons qu'il commen^a 
les campagnes en Asie dans la 22® annee de son regne, c'etait la 
premiere annee qu'il regna seul apres la mort de sa soeur, et c'est de 
cat an qu'Amenemheb compte, quand il donne 53 ans de rbgne a 
Thotmes III dans son inscription qui s'occupe sculement des guerres 

du roi et des annees nombreuses et glorieuses de sa victoire \ 
•^^^ 1 ^ r n • C'est aussi la maniere de voir 



lll6<=:> I I I Ji^/vw^W-^' 
de M. Naville, qui sur cette question est d'une autorite eminente, 

puisqu'il a etudie sp^cialement les monuments du temple de Deir el 

* Em. de Saulcy, Rapport sur une brochttre de M. J. Lieblein, dans les 
Meinoires de PAcadhiiie de Metz Nancy, 1877, p. 31. 

t Maspero, Histoire ancienne de C Orient, T. II, p. 442. 

62 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

Bahari. II s'exprime ainsi : " Mais a I'inverse de nos savants con- 
freres je ne crois pas que Thotmes III compte dans son regne les 
annees oil il a ete associe a sa tante. Les cinquante-trois annees de 
son r^gne partent du moment ou il a ete seul au pouvoir, apres la 
mort de Hatshepsou (Makare) ; et le debut de son regne sur lequel 
nous avons peu de renseignements, a ete consacre a des campagnes 
en Ethiopie, suivant I'usage habituel dans cette dynastie." * 

D'ailleurs les dates chronologiques de la Bible relatives aux 
epoques de la vie de Moi'se ne sont pas donnees d'une maniere 
tellement exacte qu'il soit possible d'en tirer des conclusions certaines 
pour la chronologie eg>'ptienne. 

Nous croyons done que Thotmes III etait le Pharaon sous le- 
quel les Hebreux batirent les villes de Pithom et Raamses. Et a la 
verite c'est precisement du regne de ce roi que date le tableau qui 
nous represente des Semites employes a faire du mortier et des 
briques, et a ma^onner des murs. f 

A vrai dire, il ne s'agit pas des villes de Pithom et de Raamses 
dans ce tableau, dont le sujet, d'apres Tinscription ajoutee, est la 
construction d'un temple dans Thebes. Mais le travail est le meme, 
les esclaves qui travaillent sont des Semites, les gardiens egyptiens 
surveillant les travaux sont les memes ; en un mot, notre tableau est 
une illustration parfaite du recit biblique relatif a la servitude des 
Hebreux en Egypte. II n'y a done rien d'invraisemblable dans ce 
que Th^ophile nous raconte, que Thotmes III fut le Pharaon qui a 
fait batir les deux villes, Pithom et Raamses, par les Hebreux. 

Pour le site de ces villes, celui de Pithom est aujourd'hui bien 
connu. Pithom etait situe dans la partie orientale de I'Ouady Tu- 
milat a I'endroit ou est Tell-el-Maskhouta de nos jours ; nous I'avons 
vu plus haut, et c'est prouve surabondamment par la description 
que la dame Silvia Aquitana nous donne de ces contrees : — 

Pithona etiam civitas, quam asdificaverunt filii Israel, ostensa est nobis in 
ipso itinere : in eo tamen loco ubi iam fines Egypti intravimus, relinquentes terras 
Saracenorum : nam et ipsud nunc Pithona castrum est. Heroum autem civitas, 
quae fuit illo tempore, id est ubi occurrit Joseph patri suo Jacob venienti, sicut 
scriptum est in libro Genesis, nunc est come, sed grandis, quod nos dicimus 
vicus. . . Nam ipse vicus nunc appellatur Hero : quae tamen Hero a terra lesse 
(Gosen) milliario iam sextodecimo est, nam in finibus Egypti est : locus autem 
ipse satis gratus est, nam et pars quaedam fluminis Nili ibi currit.t 

Nous voyons que Pithom et Hero etaient ou la meme ville, ou 

* Naville, La stucession des Thautmes'jT apres mt memoire recent, p. 38. 

t Lepsius, Denkmaler III, 40-41. 

X S. Silvia Peregrinatio ad loca sancta. An>t. 385-388, pp. 38 et 39. 

63 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 

des villes voisines, et qu'elles etaient situees seize milles remains a 
Test de Gosen, sur la frontiere orientale de I'Egypte, vers le territoire 
des Saracens ou des Arabes, et pres des lacs ainers (appeles sinus 
Heroopoliticus par Plinius). 

Quant au site de la ville de Raamses les opinions ont differe. 
Lesseps croyait qu'elle etait situee pr^s de Tell-el-Maskhuta, et pour 
ce motif la station du chemin de fer a cet endroit a ete appelde 
Ramses, comme aussi M. Naville commen^a ses fouilles ici dans 
I'espoir de trouver cette ville, mais, a son grand etonnement, il trouva 
la ville de Pithom au lieu de celle de Raamses. Brugsch etait 
d'opinion que la ville de Raamses biblique etait identique a Tanis ; 
dans son Didiotinaire geographique il essaie longuement de le 
prouver ; mais ce qu'il nous donne n'est pas tant des preuves solides 
que de fortes assertions.* Toute sa theorie sur I'emplacement des 
villes de Pithom et de Raamses et du pays de Gosen, comme sur 
I'exode des Hebreux, tombe devant la simple constatation du site 
veritable de Pithom pres de Tell-el-Maskhuta. Pour moi, en 1877 
deja, dans une petite carte qui accompagnait mon memoire sur 
I'exode des Hebreux, j'ai place la ville de Raamses au milieu de 
rOuady Tumilat, vers Tell-el-Kebir de nos jours. f Et il parait que 
j'y ai tombe juste, guide par le recit de la Bible sur I'exode ; car 
I'ouvrage deja cite de Silvia Aquitana, public dix ans plus tard, place 
la ville de Raamses precisement au meme endroit ou je I'ai placee 
sur ma carte. Nous y lisons que la ville de Raamses etait situee 
quatre milles romains (quatuor milia passuum) a Test de la ville 
d' Arabia. D'aprcs I'opinion de M. Mommsen cette ville, civitas 
Arabia, etait identique avec Thou de I'ltineraire d'Antonin. % Or 
Thou, probablement situe pres d'Abou Souleiman de nos jours, etait, 
selon cet Itineraire,'a 24 milles romains (environ 36 kil.) de Hero, et 
comme la ville de Raamses, d'apres Silvia Aquitana, etait situee 
quatre milles romains (six kil.) a Test de la ville d'Arabia ou de 
Thou, il s'ensuit qu'elle etait a 20 milles romains (30 kil.) de Hero- 
Pithom,j5 et 30 kil., c'est exactement la distance actuelle sur le che- 

* Brugsch, Dictiomiaire gco«rap)iiqne, pp. 415-433. 

t Lieblein, Egypten, dans Ur vdr tids Jorskning 19, p. 57. 

:J: Mommsen dans Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenscha/ten zu 
Berlin, 1887, p. 357 ss. 

§ De Arabia aiitem civitate quattuor milia passus sunt Ramessen. Nos autem, 
ut vcniremus ad mansionem Arabi^e, per media Ramesse transivimus : quae 
Ramessen tivitas nunc campus est, ita ut nee uTiam habitationem habeat, etc. — 
.S'. Silvuc pcregrinatio ad hat sancta, 39. 

64 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

min de fer entre la station Tell-el-Kebir et la gare pres de Tell-el- 
Maskhuta. L'ancienne ville de Raamses dont Silvia Aquitana 
indique le site, c'est-a-dire la ville de Raamses biblique, etait done 
situee pres de Tell-el-Kebir ; il n'y a aucun doute possible, si I'indi- 
cation de Silvia Aquitana est correcte, et si Ton ne prefere pas de 
croire qu'elle s'est trompee, egaree par le desir de retrouver les 
localites bibliques. 

C'etait de cette ville de Raamses, situee au milieu de I'Ouady 
Tuniilat, que les Hebreux commencerent leur exode de I'Egypte. 

De 1^ ils vinrent a Succoth, c'est-a-dire aux environs de Pithom- 
Heroopolis. Et ils partirent de Succoth et camperent a Etham, qui 
est au bout du desert, pres du lac Timsah. Mais ici ils detournerent; 
au lieu de continuer la marche sur le chemin du pays des Philistins 
ils se tournerent au sud et camperent devant Pihakhirot, pres des 
lacs amers (sinus heroopoliticus), qui alors formaient la partie septen- 
trionale de la mer rouge. 

Telle a ete, depuis longtemps, mon opinion sur la route de I'exode 
des Hebreux, et je I'ai emise pour la premiere fois en 1871,* et depuis 
lors je I'ai maintenue t contre la theorie fantastique de Brugsch.J 
Aujourd'hui je suis heureux de me trouver d'accord sur ce point, 
comme sur beaucoup d'autres, avec M. Naville § independamment 
I'un de I'autre. 

Les Hebreux partirent de I'Egypte pendant les dernieres annees 
d'Amenophis HI. Je le repete, puisqu'il y a des faits nouveaux qui 
semblent le prouver d'une maniere directe. Je trouve le premier fait 
dans les lettres de Tell-el-Amarna. Ce sont les lettres d'Abdkhiba 
de Jerusalem au Pharaon, sans doute Amenophis IV, qui ici sont 
concluantes. Nous y lisons : || 

Lettre 179, 1. 17-20: " Je dis au fonctionnaire du roi, Mon- 
seigneur : pourquoi aimez-vous les Khabiri et haissez-vous les 
princes (vassaux) ? " 

Lettre 179, 1. 55 : " Les Khabiru ont pille tous les pays du roi." 

Lettre 180, 1. 29-31 : " Cet acte, c'est un acte de Milkili et un acte 
des fils de Lapaja, qui ont donne le pays du Pharaon aux Khabiri." 

* Le journal : For Lie og Virkeltghed, Taiinee 1S71, p. 85 ss. 

t Volrath Vogt, Det hellige Land, Christiania, 1879, pp. 739 ss. 

X Brugsch, The Exodus, dans Transactions of the second session of the 
iutcrnaf. Congress of Orientalists, pp. 260-2S1. 

§ Naville, The route of the Exodus. 

II Je donne les numeros des lettres d'apres Hugo Winkler, Die Thontafeln von 
Tell-el-Amarna, Berlin, 1896. 

65 



Feb. 7J SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

Lettre 181, 1. 35-40: "Mais les Khabiru prennent aujourd'hui 
les villes du Pharaon ; le roi n'a pas (garde) un seul prince (vassal) ; 
lis sont tous perdus." 

Lettre 183, 1. 11-12 : " Le pays du Pharaon est perdu en faveur 
des Khabiri." 

Lettre 183, 1. 21-22 : "S'il n'y a pas de troupes, le ays du Pha- 
raon sera perdu en faveur des Khabiri." * 

La situation politique en Palestine ressort clairement de ces 
lignes. Le Pharaon Amenophis IV y domine ou directement par 
ses fonctionnaires, gouverneurs, ou indirectement par des princes 
indigenes, vassaux tributaires. Mais un peuple Stranger, les Khabiri, 
dans lesquels il doit etre permis de voir les Hebreux, s'approchent ; 
ils ont pris plusieurs villes, et ils menacent d'en prendre davantage 
et de conquerir tout le pays. Cependant Abdkhiba demande au 
Pharaon des troupes pour dtJfendre le pays contre eux. N'avons- 
nous pas dans ces Khabiri les Hebreux, qui apres avoir quitte 
I'Egypte sous le regne d'Amenophis III, s'avancent jusqu'a Canaan 
sous celui d'Amenophis IV pour prendre possession de la Terre 
Promise ? Je ne crois pas qu'il soit possible de se presenter la chose 
autrement. 

Je viens a I'autre fait. Une inscription triomphale de Meneph- 
thes, decouverte par Petrie en 1896, s'exprime ainsi : "Kheti est en 
paix, Canaan est prisonnier en tout ce qu'il a de niauvais, I'Ascalo- 
nien est emmene, Gezer est entraine en captivite, lanouamim est 
aneanti, Israilou est rase et n^a plus de graine, Kharou est comme une 
veuve de la Terre d'Egypte." t Cette inscription nous apprend que 
Menephthes, pendant ses guerres en Syrie, a battu les Hebreux, appe- 
le's ici Israelites, sur la frontiere occidentale de Palestine. Cette 
victoire aurait ete impossible, si les Hebreux, comme il est generale- 
ment accepte, eussent quitte I'Egypte a la fin du regne de ce Pharaon. 
Tous les essais qu'on a faits pour expliquer historiquement notre 
inscription ont failli totalement, et ont du faillir, puisqu'ils sont bases 
sur une fausse chronologic, tandis que tout devient clair, si Ton sup- 
pose, comme je le fiiis, que I'exode des Hebreux ait eu lieu imme- 
diatement avant I'avenement d'Amenophis IV. 

Avant de terminer j'ajouterai ciuelques mots concernant un ou 
deux faits qui militent en faveur de ma theorie sur I'exode : — 

* H. Winckler, Die Thontafelti von Tell-d-Amarna, p. 303-313. M. Knud- 
tzon, assyriologue norvcgicn, a bien voulu r^-viser la traduction. 

t Traduction de M. Mu^pero dans son Histoire aticienne dc rOrient^ II, 436 
ct 443 sq. 

66 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

1. Josephus, historien juif, dans son recit de cet evenement ca- 
pital de son peuple, appelle le Pharaon de I'exode Amenophis, qui 
ne peut etre qu'Amenophis III, car Josephus donne au roi un mi- 
nistre, nomme Amenophis, fils de Paapis, qui sans aucun doute etait 
identique au grand fonctionnaire Amenophis, fils de Hapou, qui 
jouait un role si eminent sous le regne d'Amenophis III.* Quoique 
le recit de Josephus ne nous donne pas I'histoire pure et complete, 
il y a cependant au fond des realites qu'il ne faut point negliger, 

2. La reforme religieuse d'Amenophis IV n'etait-elle pas en rap- 
port quelconque avec I'exode des H^breux ? Je ne veux pas appro- 
fondir la question ici ; pour le moment je la pose seulement. 

3. Un texte du papyrus Anastasi VI f nous raconte ce qui suit : 
" Nous avons fait le necessaire pour ouvrir aux tribus de Shasou 

d'Aduma le chateau-fort de Menephthes dans le pays de Succoth, 
aux etangs de Pitum du roi Menephthes dans le pays de Succoth, afin 
qu'ils fassent vivre leur betail dans la grande intendance du Pharaon." 
Nous apprenons ici que le Pharaon Menephthes assigna une de- 
meure aux tribus semitiques dans le pays de Succoth, aux alentours 
de la ville de Pithom, c'est-a-dire dans le voisinage immediat du 
pays de Gosen, ou les Hebreux avaient demeure. II eiit dte impos- 
sible a Menephthes de le faire, s'il eut ete le Pharaon de I'exode ; il 
n'aurait pu donner asyle a un peuple semitique dans la meme 
contree ou il aurait persecute un autre peuple semitique, qui selon 
toute probabilite se serait allie aux nouveaux venus. II m'est 
completement incomprehensible, qu'on puisse concilier ces deux 
contradictions. 

* Maspero, Histoire ancienne de P Orient, II, 448. 
t PI. 4, 13 a pi. 5, S- 



Christiania, le 25 Novembre 1898. 



67 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1899. 



SOME RECENT PALMYRENE INSCRIPTIONS. 
By Stanley A. Cook. 

Our stock of Palmyrene inscriptions, to which additions are being 
ahuost yearly made, has received a substantial increase in a number 
of new inscriptions which Prof. D. H. Miiller of Vienna has recently 
published together with notes, facsimiles and glossary in the Denk- 
schriften d. Kaiserl. Akad. d. IVissenschaften, Vienna, 1898, Band 
XLVI. A few of these, which, on account of the difficulties 
they contain, are of more than ordinary interest, are here given. 
Prof. Miiller's transcription has been followed in quoting each in- 
scription, and any new readings which have been proposed are 
relegated to the accompanying notes. 

In an Appendix, Prof. Miiller publishes (for the first time?) three 
inscriptions now in the British Museum. They are to be seen, along 
with other Palmyrene inscriptions, in the room devoted to Semitic 
Antiquities, and are numbered 583, 582 and 590 respectively. 

A. (Br. Mus., No. 583.) 

b^-Tn[ir] 
«n 

" Mokimu son of G . . ya, Ate-*akab ... ." 

The first name, found in both Nabataean and Palmyrene inscrip- 
tions, must, as the frequent Or. /noKet/tov, ^lo/c^iov show, represent a 

form *J^< which, however, does not happen to occur as a proper 

name, t^'^13, if correct, would be a new name, but the point above 
the second letter upon which Miiller bases this reading is scarcely 
the diacritic point which distinguishes "^ from "7. It is too high, and 
is more probably due to accident There is a similar point above the 
upper right-hand extremity of the first y in 1. 3. Reading t^'''7j we 
may compare de Vogii^, La Syrie Centrale, 32, the pronunciation of 

68 














y ^ r^ o ^ 



-Q 



>. 



/ K 



< 

n 






^ 

v' 



5^ -> 



~) •- r) 



< 



.- .-: n n 



#y 









J 



^ 



o a 






PLATE II. Pioc. Soc. Bibl. Airh., Feb., 1899. 

r'-^^>ii\:.b h^m;-' ■^-—— 33^53- 




42. 










yi t^ 



\v 






Y\ 



\ 10^ 







46 

Palmyrene Inscriptions. 
From D. H. Miiller, Palmyrcnische Inschriftcn, Taf. i-iii- 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDIXGS. [i5^99. 

which is ascertained from the Greek -jaciav. In the fourth line the 
initial ^ is perhaps rightly supplied. Though unknown in Palmyrene, 
{•^'l^^ occurs once in a Nabataean inscription from Hegra, and 
once in a Sinaitic inscription. ^T2i^, on the other hand, comes in 
Vogiie, o/>. at, 7, and l^i^ appears for the first time in these new 

inscriptions (No. 36, i^}2pi^ t^'^mi lli? D^!?)- As an alterna- 
ive we could read t^"I3,t (Nab., and Palm.). The fragment which 
appears on the original would suit either. No trace of the initial 
character in the last line survives, we may make our choice from 

^^n^ i^iin, h^no, ^^nir or t^nu?. The first part of npirnv» " Ate 

is a reward" (cp. '2.p^h'2, Vogiie, op. at., 20), is the well-known 
goddess, whose name is also written ^pt^ {e.g., i^rii^"T3)) or TlD^ 
(e.g., nnyilt)- ''Hy is found also as a female name, cp. below, 
p. 70. 

B. (Br. Mus., No. 582.) 

"Alas! Mokimu son of Mokimu." 

For 7D.n see Prof. Wright's remarks in the Transactions ot this 
Society, Vol. VI, Part 2, pp. 439 f. 

C. (Br. Mus., No. 590.) 



" Malekath daughter of Ayda an. Alas !" 



Both names are new. With the former cp. masc. t^37D> 137^, 
ri3^~i?2 (Gr. /laXxo?, iLia\ixo9, /laXefya^o?), and ''^'^^j perhaps also 
the Heb. fem. Tl'Dh^- The latter appears to be an Aphel form 

-Pi OS J 

from J^T (cp. Palm. U?t^"^i^ = ^^1,1), which we find in T'li^il'^ , 
" Bel is noble, or friendly." 

69 F 2 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

The inscriptions contained in the body of Miiller's collection 
were found by Dr. Alois Musil in the spring of 1897 on the road 
from Medaba to Palmyra. Of the forty which he has edited the 
following may be specially noted : — 

5. 

" Marion son of El[ah-b]el Hairan. Alas ! . . . . Haggagu 
his son." 

'jT^'^^ is formed from ]^;Ld " lord " with the addition of Gr. icu, 
cp. the Nab. p^DT'Q (/'"^X"^''') Waddington, 19 10) from 1^7^, and 
«i:,^/fi.i' (Waddington, 2413") from Tri^i^ (Nab., Palm.). The 
restoration of 1. 2 might be supported by 7in7^^ 1!2 \V^72 (see 
Euting, Sitzungsberichte d. Kais. Akad., Berlin, June nth, 1885, 
pp. 669 ff., Palm, inscr.. No, 23), but the final 7 and the conjectured 

n are both doubtful. The fourth line is to be read n7 TlV "^Ti 
" which (Haggagu his son) made for him," cp. Ledrain, Rev. 
d'Assjr., etc., II, 2, p. 68 (1889) : — 

^1 Sin 

rh -rnr 

" Ate daughter of Ate-natan. Alas ! Which Yarhai her brother 
made for her." 

Nos. 6", 6". 

[\'>]''n ""ni^ "II ^rSn in ^n"i^ dSi* 
. 4S0 r\:^ 11^^ n^i^n h^ ■ 

In the absence of fuller details respecting this inscription it stems 

70 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

easiest to reject the conjectural p at the end of 6% and the 
supposed fragment at the beginning of 6^, and read only one name 
T'hiTT- The inscription will then run : "The statue of Yarhai son 
of Malku, son of Yarhai Hi-'el. In the month Adar, year 480 
(March, 169 a.b.)." hi^'^H (cp- Euting, Sinaitische Inschrifte7i, 570), 
as well as the Heb. S'^^X} may represent ':'t<t"'n(i^), or should 
possibly be pronounced S^TI (" El lives"). With 'irT^i , "belonging 
to the moon" (Gr. lapaio'i), we may compare the Heb. ''tl^pU? 
"belonging to the sun," Ezra iv, 8; cp. tZ^^II?^ No. 42, below, 
P- 73- 

10. 

"in ''-f 

ntn^riD 

"Malku son of Yaddai, son of . . . . Alas !" 

For Yaddai (Gr. lahhaios, cp. Vogiie, op. cit., 5, etc.) cp. •«'^i 
Ezra X, 43, k^ri. The name in the third line has not yet been 
satisfactorily explained. 

"in ^^nb^ 

pin m 

^nn 

n:^ 
480 

" Hadlrat Aha son of Bolha son of Bar'an son of Zabd'ate. 
Alas ! In the month Nisan, year 480 (April, 169 a.d.)." 

n"1''*in is already known as a feminine name (Vogiie, op. cit.., 55), 
and unless here for once it is masculine we may possibly treat it as 

71 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1899. 

a noun : — " to the glory of, &c." ^H^^ " brother " is used as a 
proper name, so both t^lb^ "father" and the diminutive ''iin^i 
(" my little brother ") occur in an Aramaic inscription from Egypt 
(C.I.S. ii, 154). \y>1 (cp. ^5i^H in No. 2 of these inscriptions) 
reminds us of the Heb. nV''1!3.> Gen. xlvi, 17. 

T • : 

2^, 27'. 

n3ur 
500 

38 

" The statue of Bat-heli daughter of Zemira. Alas ! Year 538 
(226-227 A.D.)." 

The feminine form i^r\^7!J is used when the statue is that of a 
woman (cp. Vogiie, op. cit., 13, 29). |ASq^. is similarly used in the 
Syr. Apocryphal Acts (ed. Wright), p. 49, 1. 2, and analogous to this 
is the use of the fem. (ZjdAs {e.g. Peshitta i Kings xv, 13), and 
the Phoen. ri772D {^-S-i C.I.S. i, 11). Names compounded with Jil 
are not unknown in Palmyrene, cp. '^H'yrii and 137^111. ^TTF, 
however, is new, but VvH appears in No. 16 of these inscriptions 
as a fem. name, and i^7n is found in Vogiie, op. ciL, 132. For 
i^l^'D^ we should probably read fc«^"iinT ("prudent"). 

29. 

1:3*:'^ in 
pen 513 

This is, perhaps, the most difficult of the inscriptions in the 
present collection. The first name seems to recur in No. 16. It 

72 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

has been identified with Einvx?]^, which is more probably represented 
by the Palm, proper name ^53I^■l^^. An alternative reading is ^^QTli^ 
possibly " Ate is beautiful " (?). The last two words are obscure. 
Prof. Miiller renders " on the return of thy day " and conjectures that 
the statue was set up on the anniversary of the death of t^^^ili^ 
Lidzbarski {Handbuch d. Nordsemitischen Epigi'aphik, p. 500) 
doubtfully reads p2^ (the eighth month Caniin), and finds in the "T 
of *7^V the numeral sign for 20. The fourth sign in line 4 Miiller 
takes to be 3. If a numeral sign at all it is more probably 2,* but 
it is just possible that it represents "i, in which case we might read 
"TT^V 'J13D.'' " may they bewail thy day," 

44. 

"Alas ! Mbkimu son of Tamma the unlucky." 

i^TDn is already known as a feminine name (Euting, Sitz.-Ber., 
Berlin, 22nd April, 1887, 407 ff. Palm, inscr., No. 43). t<i:j nil^"'3. 
finds analogies in the Mishna ; Miiller cites Koheleth Rabba 97"^, 
s.v. rroUr, and 89", s.v. ^^!^inv 

The inscriptions which follow (42, 43, 46) were found at Karyaten, 
the ancient Nezala, on the road from Damascus to Palmyra. 

42. 

400 r\i^ mt^ ni^n i 
urnirrS' ■^nni< 95 2 

n3-[ b^^-TDD« np:L^nir 11 5 
«n^ipn i^no:] lir 7 

* Cp. the Arabic and Syriac f in the table in Euting's Nabatixische Inschriften, 
p. 97, and see the last sign in the Palmyrene inscription from Rome dedicated to 
Aglibol and Malakbel (cp. Zeit. d. Morgenl. Gesell. xviii, 99 f.). 

73 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

Curiously enough, we know of another inscription by the same 
author, dated five years later (188 a.d.), it has already been published 
by Prof. Noldeke in the Zeitschr. f. Assyriologie, ix, 264 ff., but for 
English readers may perhaps be repeated here : 



500 n:i2^ p:3 n^^n i 

-yryp^ in t^:in in 5 
^^i?n1« ^lyj ]qi ^^imt^ 



7 



The owner of the cave (t^r\1J^?2!) is Lismes bar Lismes bar 
Taime. The name (cp. Palm. 'i';2??2lt;'7') means "belonging to Semes," 
and after the Gr. Xiaa^iaov [gen.] should, perhaps, be pronounced 
Lisams. A Phoen. analogy to this form is found in Xeaaraprov [gen.], 
Josephus, c. Ap. i, i8 (122). 

In the former inscription, a portion of the h^ni^D is given to 
i"^D (or ^TD) bar Zabd ate bar 'Ate-'Akab consisting of the e^eSpa 
and the six graves behind it (HirQ) as far as the cupola (or arch) 
opposite. In the latter. Bonne bar Bolha bar Bonne bar Yakrur 
("toad"!) receives of the e^eSpa opposite, eight graves, four on the 
right and four on the left.* In fc^n^:) or ^^72"):^ (in Nab. t^m:i) is 
to be recognized the Ass. kimahhu "grave." t^ilCn C\Lsi2), arched 
niche or cupola is found again in the Palm, inscription from Tayibeh 
{Zett. d. Morgenl. GeselL, xv, 615 f.) t^1i7-|i?1 i^nQD t»}i' Ka^u'ipav . . 

Kal n)v k\Iv)iv, and in Vogiie', op. cif., 70, ^^nQDl ''"I h5'^^7!J "'' «" -^7 
■^aXi'ci ciKovcf. The niche is made for holding the statues of the 
deceased or contains the couch (fc^UMi^) upon which is placed the 
dead body.t 

* nmZinX in 1. 6 is taken by Noldeke to be 1st sing. perf. with suiif. of "13nX 
" to give a share of, to make a companion of." Ilalevy, preferably, treats it as a 
noun with suftix : " his share." It is possibly a slip for ~l2nX (repeated from I. 2) 
n?. A similar mistake was found to recur in No. 5, 1. 4 (nn for iip), see 
above, p. 70. 

t Similarly the ' couch ' or ' sarcophagus ' of Og king of Bashan is designated 
Bny in Deut. iii, 11. 

74 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [i899- 

43. 

i^^D m Snm3 11 ^in2 -Qor nn «^^^ nn i 

"II ""inn '•1 ]^i^ t^i?2^2 i^r^^v ■'i '•m^n "ip^^i 3 

"in «:in "in ^2nr2 "in b^^jr^^n "in ^nSn "in ^n"nD 4 

''IT imn« 'rn"n: "^1*1 ""^nn n"ipn?2 n "^:n^ 5 

• 405 r\:x:^ n^i n"i''n n?:^t^ •'n: 6 

" This ' everlasting home ' was made by Mattenai son of Nurbel, 
son of Malku (2) son of Taimsa for Nurbel his father, and for N , . . 
his mother, in honour of them (3) and in honour of his sons for 
ever. These are the statues of etc. . . Mattenai who is called 
Mehwe (?), and of Nurbel his father, and of (6) N . . . his mother. 
In the month Ab, year 405 (April 94 a.d.)." 

The frequently occurring i»^?2T'i^ Hn is well known from the 
Old Testament (Eccles. xii, 5), and Phoen. (C.I.S. i, 124), etc. 
The meaning of b>5!^^n (also in Vogiie, op. «/., 33'') is not certain. 
Prof. Miiller suggests ^^^JO + ^Tl- On the analogy of IQirr^in 
(Gr. eatjiioa/iiecos; Vogue, oJ>. cit., 1 24; cp. , perhaps, the Sabaean 

"ItDi^T'b^), and 11^1^'^n {if^--, 6, 33^')) ^^'^ should probably interpret 
"servant of ^5!^" a deity whose name we find again in h^^^il^^^ 
(if correct, ib., 51), "handmaid of Sa," and in a slightly different 
form in '\'TV1V i^b., 117). The identification with t^^ir in t^U^H^i^' 
i^1I?"lT2b^' i^U^ni^ (and Heb. t^tTim?) is open to question. For 
"'n: (1- 2) the reading 1D2 seems preferable, D has precisely the 
same form as in I'^D (No. 42 above), and we then have a name 
which is to be connected, no doubt, with the masc. t^D^i* and ^^11^2 
(Vogiie, 51, 61). "|ni)T is written defectively, 1. 2, cp. prT^^n 
(VogiJe, 34^), and 'jPT'^n {i^^--, 67")- The occurrence of n"lpn?2 ^"I 
(cp. ib., 34, but i^*^pn?2 *'f ib., 17^) shows that in the case of 
compound names the second appears to be a kind of surname 
or nickname, as was pointed out long ago by Prof. Wright in this 

* Euting, Sitz.-ber., Berlin, April 22nd, 1887, pp. 407 ff. [Palm, inscr. No. 
42). Cp. also in the Mishna, Dalman, Grainm. d. Jiid.-paldst. Aram., p. 143, 
n. 6 ; and vtfra, viar], Waddington, 2578, 2589. 

75 



I KB. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

Journal (see Tmttsaciions, Vol, VII, I, p, 2, 1880). In the present 
example the second name '^IPTQ is unknown.* 



46. 

yii^ "in ^:ninDv "in h^^no 2 

n:« nn «rD^ hv ^^in p-^n 4 

^^npn t^nin «q S^y 5 

nni^^n^^ii "in ji^o "in t^Tnti 6 

^^72'^ hv hhv n2« •'-rn «^ptt^ 7 

••I b^Snpn nn «-nDnfc«^ s 

"icn ^^nn ^npD n i^n"i:rn 9 

"in ^^Ti "in ]vy^ nnm 10 

m^"i "imnSi nS "i:int^ " 

^:itrr rh n^ni n n^m^n 12 

"in b^:i"nnt:^::r "in ^^u?^ n"in '3 

urr^n nr.!? n« m^n h^'^no h 

T^^TfD (1- 2) recurs in Vogue, op. n't., 99, where, however, 
Mordtmann prefers 7i^^n'>. Lidzbarski {op. cit.) gives both ^t^ipfD 
(p. 502'') and b^^i^Q (p. 479). The first character has almost 
precisely the same form as the in ID!] (43-). and 1-1D (42'). The 
confusion of pf and ^ is particularly easy in the Palmyrene inscrip- 
tions, and those from Karyaten are no exception to the rule, thus 
for yijr (1. 2) an alternative reading is niiT, which Lidzbarski 
accepts, and in 1. 10 for Mailer's rinn the same scholar acutely 
reads rin!i (see below). Our only unambiguous example is i^'^D^^ 
in 43^ and here the form of the ^J is so decisive, and differs so 
markedly from the 2 in «!?^^n (43, H- 2, 4), which in its turn can 

'' Unless perhaps we read nqan (for Ciq^H) in i Chronicles xi, 46. The 
list of David's heroes includes other trans-Iordanic names, cp. v. 46^ 

76" 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

scarcely be distinguished from the PT in H"!"^ ('. 6), that the question 
actually arises whether the familiar ^^^T^"^]! is not to be read i^nQ^il-* 
i<^;i"l'inDi^ (for which ^^JlinU^y, 1- 13) is new. The first part 
is already found in Vogiie, op. cit. 4, etc. (Gr. uaOwpov [gen.]), 
and in the Phoen. "TirWI^i^llV {Academy, Jan. iSth, 1896, p. 59). 
For t<^;i cp. ^^^H/i^^ in the Transactions of this Society for 1880, 
Vol. VII, p. 3, also )ii(h\^ in «:iSt^-rn:^ (Nab.), t^3^«n?2bi 
(Levy, Siegel u. Genimen, p. 51), and Phoen. n^"T^j;. The 
meaning is perhaps " Astor is glorious " (see Euting, Nabatiiische 

Inschrif/en, p. 75). The last word in 1. 2 seems to be 'I'^IJ^, cp. 
Nab. t^~!*'11^, C.I.S. ii, 190, and Syr. (r>C^ (Cureton, Spicelegiuin, 
I, 8). The conjectural n (in illi^) seems improbable when com- 
pared with the form that letter bears elsewhere in this inscription. 
For b^nplir and pp^ " sycomore trees" (Miiller) t^pplIT, 

pplZ? are now read,! and explained after ]oo* < jli: to refer to 
a " passage " or " road " (cp. Ass. sukaku). It may be conjectured 
that we should read b^p^tl? from the Ass. simaku " sanctuary " (see 
Delitzsch, Ass. Handworterbuch), a kind of aedicula. The reading 
is not difficult, since ^ and p can scarcely be distinguished 
from one another (cp. 7np^, 1- 9), and the interchange of "C? (tT) 
and D is not rare in Palmyrene (cp. ^^"'^tL'', 1- 7; with t^7?2Dj 
p. 74, 1. 12 above, and ^^inriU^V) ^5H")iriDy in this inscription). 
The more correct form would be t^i^D)+ which is actually found 
in the Nabataean inscription from Petra in the difficult T\1T\ ^^^-3 
^^D^Dj where 'J may perhaps be explained from the Syr. |Ajl1,i (^•^•, 

Is. i, 29, Pesh.) " temples." Sanctuaries in connection with tombs 
are not unknown in the East. 

In 1. 5 we have to read i^r\"ini^D "and the other (sanctuary)," 
the use of Q in Palmyrene (found in Nab., and the Zenjirli 
inscriptions) is noteworthy. L. 6 is syntactically difficult, i^l'^^TT 
is either the continuation of ;2?^';l?~' • • • Tt^^PlD (H- 2, 3), or we 

* On the analogy of xriDTOK (Mordtmann, Nette Beitnige z. Kunde Palmyra! s. 
No. 3), perhaps " servant of Ha (?)." 

+ See Clermont- Ganneau, Comptes Rendiis, Acad, d'lnscr. et Belles-Letfres, 
July — August, 1898, pp. 558 ff. 

X For the interchange of 3 and p cp. ''^*"13, C.I.S. ii, 141, and t»"ip in 
Dan. iii, 8 ; XV3 in the Zenjirli inscription of Bar-Rekub and Bibl. Aram. ]2\P_ , 
I^ulO ; and possibly N"IDD (Nab.) from X"l2p- 

77 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S99. 

must read i^T^^tS (or 'ol). \^}2, which occurs here for the 
first time, may be compared with the Pahii. names "l^^^Q, "^2i^?2- 
nnyi"i:b'a perhaps stands for TinV^ "n^Sll- for ':i (" Bol is a 

light"), cp. 7:H"1^ in No. 43, and for nili^l see Clermont-Ganneau, 
Reciieil d" Archcol. Orient., p. 120, no. 2. 

The reading Jlin, in 1. 10 seems to admit of no explanation. 
Lidzbarski's TS^l "to adorn," is supported by r\"^n!jn in Vogiie, 
op. cit., II, 14, etc. I venture to read V^H (^^lill) *^fr**) "to 
hew, excavate," as being more suitable after the preceding "^0)1 "to 
dig." The anomalous form ^HI^n-lT'l should probably be cor- 
rected to '^n')22"'23,7l J the form which occurs in Vogiie, il>., 31, etc. 
{but "^ni-li^I^, il^--, 21, etc.). One has only to note the form of the 
first 1 in i<5^'i^'^ (1, 4) to realize the slight nature of the correction. 
The meaning of 1. 12 is obscure. For ^"TH * Clermont-Ganneau 
suggests "i^n ; Lidzbarski conjectures ^T^, and explains JIT^HI 
as a denominative '"to bear." He points out that jnpm also, 
which is a possible alternative reading, has the same meaning in 
Arabic (j::?-j). 

The inscription may therefore be translated as follows : — 

(i) " This cave of the everlasting home was made by (2) Sehi-el, 
son of ' Astor-ga' (-ge?), son of 'Awaida (Or. aoi;[e]iaos), (3) son of 
Lisines, son of Lismes. To him are the two sanctuaries (?), 4) one 
upon the right as thou (5) enterest, and the other opposite. (6) To 
Zebeida, son of Ma'an, son of Bol-nur Ra'eta (belongs) (7) the 
sanctuary (?) as thou enterest upon the left. 

(8) This t^t'c/jo, opposite the (9) cave that is before the gate, was 
dug (10) and hewn out by Sauan son of Taima, son of (i r) Abgar 
for himself, and for his sons, and for his sons' (12) sons [which?] 
S-g-1 (13) daughter of Lismes, son of 'Astor-ga,' son of (14) Sehi-cl 
[bore to him?]. In the month Adar, year five (15) hundred and 
four (March, 193 a.d.). 

* The final H must, it would appear, belong to H . It need hardly be 
mentioned that no marks of word-division are employed in this inscription. 



44^ 



78 



Fek. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899, 



NOTES. 

Mr. Nash requests me to publish the following note, and at the 
same time to express his thanks to Mr. Walker. — W. H. R. 

The Edwards' Library, 
University College, W.C., 
December ?>t/i, 1898. 
Dear Sir, 

As Professor Petrie is in Egypt, and will therefore not see 
the last number of the Proceedings in time to reply to a remark 
made by Mr. Walter Nash in his paper, I hope you will allow me a 
small space in which to reply. 

Mr. Nash states that he is unable to find an analysis given by 
Dr. Petrie of fatty matter contained in a jar found amongst " New 
Race " remains. It occurs in " Naqada and Ballas," page 39, and is 
as follows : — 

Per Cent. 

Water, volatile at 212° F 0*43 

Mineral matter left on ignition, consisting princi- 
pally of carbonate and phosphate of lime ... i*o8 

Dark resinous matter, insoluble in light naphtha ; 
bulk of it soluble in alcohol, the solution 
neutralising alkalies ... ... ... ... 9"6o 

Fatty matter (by difference) ... ... ... ... 88*89 

Very truly yours 

I. HERBERT WALKER. 



Adar has been repeatedly asserted to be unknown as a divine 
name. Names like f][ ^>^ fr yr^ |y «^ f!^ ^yy^, yr „^ n^ ^, 
It "^^ ^Hr- Iy ^>^ »flr >^, yr k>.^ ^>^ yj yr, which may be 
read Adar-ai, Adar-gabri, Adar-hamu, Adar-ili, Adar-kamu, Adar-ilai, 
at least shake one's faith in this assertion. 

Sartii* in Assyrian contracts means 'a fine imposed as penalty 

* Cf. the Talmudic lyC' — mensura, 'aestimatio, taxatio, pielium rei aesti- 
niatum vel transactum. The sartennu was the judge who imposed the sarh<. 

79 



Fee. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

for wrong done ' ; what wc mean by ' damages ' ; ' what was paid to 
recoup an injured person for his injury '; 'compensation '; ' estimated 
value of a loss.' So the phrase sibtii bennii atia me umc sartu ana 
kal saiiati means ' the profit and service of a hundred days shall 
be the composition for every year ' ; i.e., a slave, in place of full 
service, shall compound for the year's work by one hundred days' 
service. 

C. H. W. J. 




Scarabs of Aahmes, wife of Thothmes I and mother 
of Hat Shepsut, are rarely met with. Professor Petrie 
{Hist, of Egypt, Vol. II) refers to two known examples 
only, one in the Louvre Museum, and one in the 
British Museum. It may therefore be as well to 
record the existence of a third, which belongs to my 
friend, Mr. C. F, Cole. It is made of green glazed 

steatite. The annexed photograph of the inscription on the base 

of the scarab is one half larger than the original. 

WALTER L. NASH. 



I am indebted to Mr. Offord for the loan of the photograph of 
the very fine portrait statue, now preserved in the Gizeh Museum, 
from which the annexed plate has been taken. The original is 
smaller than life size. — -W. H. R. 



I publish the following letter from Dr. Hayes Ward with 
pleasure, and can only regret that the article he refers to is so little 
known, though I am pleased to find that we are in general agree- 
ment about the value of the Hamath stones. If he would be kind 
enough to place a copy of his article in the Library of the Society, 
it would be read by myself and others with pleasure. — W. H. R. 

W. H. RvLANDS, Esq. Jati. 7, 1899. 

De.-vr Sir, 

I notice in the November number of the Proceedings of the 
Society of Biblical Archreology an article by yourself on " Hittite 
Inscriptions," with a plate. I am sure that it has quite escaped 

80 



Proc. Soc. Bibi. Arch., Feb., 1899, 




Portrait Statue of Psammetic-Neith. 
XXVIth Dynasty. From Memphis. 



Feb. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

your memory that your arrangement of the parallel Hamath texts is 
precisely the same as was published by me many years ago. In the 
second "Statement of the American Palestine Exploration Society," 
published in 1873, I gave, in a series of five elaborate plates, the 
first critical copies given to the world of the four Hamath inscrip- 
tions. Nothing had ever before been published except copies of 
ink impressions of the stones taken in the rudest manner by natives. 
One plate was given to each of the four stones, while a fifth put the 
inscriptions in parallel lines, disturbing the boustrophedoii arrange- 
ment, so as to show the parallelism of the inscriptions, the divisions 
of words, apparently, and the duplicated portions in the longest of 
the inscriptions. I also gave a list of the characters. In the 
accompanying article I was the first to prove the bonstrophedon 
manner of writing, and made such suggestions as might be expected 
in an essay which first introduced these inscriptions to the learned 
world, with accurate copies made from admirable squeezes and casts 
obtained by Prof. John A. Paine. They had been to some extent 
published, from imperfect copies, by Mr. Heath and others. 

Three years later, in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology for 1876, Professor Sayce, in the article which first 
introduced these inscriptions to the English and European world, 
published my list of characters, giving my article full credit, 
compared them more fully than I had done with the newly 
discovered Cypriote syllabary, and connected Hamath with Hittite 
history. I think Professor Sayce is the only Hittite scholar that 
has ever seen my article, as I do not remember to have seen any 
other credit given to my pioneer work in any treatise by English or 
Continental students. I therefore am not surprised that you were 
unaware that a plate like yours was published by me twenty-five 
years ago, with a view to bringing out precisely the same points. 

Yours very truly, 

WILLIAM HAYES WARD. 

[It appears to me that it is only right that the above statement 
should appear in your Proceedings?^ 



Feb. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.LOLOGY. [1S99. 

31, Lansdowne Road, 

Clapham Road, S.W., 

Feb. 16, 1899. 

Dear Mr. Rylands, 

The accompanying sketch is of an Egyptian bronze mummy 
case for a fish, which I think is somewhat unusuaL The fish was 
inside, but before this fact was ascertained it had unfortunately been 
begun to be cleaned, so that only a few of the bones and pieces of 
the mummy cloth were preserved. These bones I submitted to 
Mr. George A. Boulenger, F.R.S., of the Natural History Museum, 
who very kindly took a considerable amount of trouble about them, 
carefully sorting all bones from the mummy cloth and copper oxides, 
with the result that he found quite enough to identify the fish as a 
very small specimen of the Latus Niloticus, a kind of perch which 
frequently grows to a very large size (as much as six feet long I 
believe). The model is a very fairly accurate copy of the fish ; the 
only thing that is much exaggerated is the size of the scales, but that 
we may put down to artist licence. Bronze models of fish are not 
common, and I think as a rule are oJily models, and not mummy 
cases as this one is ; therefore I thought that this might be of suffi- 
cient interest to make a note of. Sir G. Wilkinson says that Latus 
was the sacred fish of Latopolis (Esneh), on the authority of Strabo, 
but doubts if it was the Latus as now known. He suggests it was 
the " Raad," or electric fish of the Nile ; but as Latus Niloticus have 
been found mummified, and no specimen, as far as I know, of the 
Electric fish, I think his suggestion is probably wrong. 

Believe me, 

Yours very truly, 

E. TOWRY WHYTE. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 37, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C., on Tuesday, 7th March, 
1899, at 8 p.m., when the following Paper will be read : — 

Rev. C. J. Ball, M.A. : "Babylonian Analogies for the Egyptian 
Alphabet." 

82 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Feb. 




NOTICE. 

The Index to Proceedings, Volumes XI to 
XX, is now ready, price 5s. 



lOCIETY OF BIBUCAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



8 Parts. Price Ss. each. The Fourth Part having been issued, the Price is 
now Raised to £s for the 8 Parts. Parts cannot be sold separately. 

The Egyptian Book of the Dead. 

Complete Translation, Cotnmentary, and Notes. 
By the late SIR P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Knt. {President); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

a ^zxin of ^9lat£S of \\^i Figitcttes of t]^c different artaptcrs. 



he Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 

To be completed in Five Parts. 

Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
;h part is now raised to jQ\ \os. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
ce) £x \s. 



Price 7s. 6d. Only a Limited Number of Copies have been Printed. 

BE PALESTINIAN SYRIAC VERSION OF THE HOLY 
SCRIPTURES. 

Four Recently Discovered Portions (together with verses from the 
salms and the Gospel of St. Luke). Edited, in Photographic Facsimile, 
Dm a Unique MS. in the British Museum, with a Transcription, Transla- 
)n, Introduction, Vocabulary, and Notes, by 

REV. G. MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., 

A ssistant in the Department of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. in the British 
Museum ; formerly Tyrwhitt Hebrew Scholar. 

Subscribers' names to be Addressed to the Secretary 



Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1899. 



President. 
Prok. a. H. Sayce, LL.D., &c., &c. 

Vice-Presidents, 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon.. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Hai.siuiry. 

Arthur Gates. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrisov, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart,, D.G.L., M.D., &c. 

Alexander ■Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Rev. ()P;orge Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. T. K. Cheyne, D.D. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 

Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

Gray Hill. 

Rev. Alhkki Luwv, LL.D., &c. 



Rev. James Marshall, M.A. 
Claude G. Montefioke. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
J. Pollard, 

Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S. 
&c. 



Honorary Treasurer — Bernard T. Bosanquet. 

Secretary — W, Harry Rylands, F,S.A. 

Horcrary Secretary for Poreiffn Correspondence — Rev. R. Gvvynne, B.A. 

lIcnvKiry Lihrariinr — WiLLIAM SiMPSON, F.R.G.S. 



HARRISON AMD -SONS, PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTV, ST, MARTIN'S LANE. 



VOL. XXI. DOUBLE PART. Parts 3 & 4- 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XXI. TV^ENTY-NINTH SESSION. 

Third Meeting, March 7th, 1899. 
APRIL. NO MEETING. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
The Consecration of a Church, Altar and Tank, according to the 

Ritual of the Coptic-Jacobite Church, with Note by the Bishop 

OF Salisbury 86-107 

Prof. A. H. Swck [President). — A New Egyptian King; the 

predecessor of Kheops (//«/£) ... ... ... ... ... 108-110 

Prof. A. H. Sayce (President). — Some Old Empire Inscriptions 

from El-Kab (//rt/^) ... 111-114 

Prof. Dr. Hommel. — Assyriological Notes ((■o«//«//a//o;/) ... 115-139 



Notes — 

Assyriological 
Discoveries at Karnak. 
Yanoem of the Menepthah Stele 
The Tomb of Pepi-ankh xhua ... 
Egyptian Musical Instrument (plate) 



140 
141 
142 
H3 
M3 



^-^ 

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THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

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sale, which may be obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, 
F.S.A., 37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-NINTH SESSION, 1899. 



Third Meeting, yth March, 1 899. 
F. D. MOCATTA, Esq., F.S.A., etc., Vice-President, 



IN THE CHAIR. 



-^^- 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From Robert Bagster, Esq. : — Records of the Past. Volumes I 
to VI. Second Series. With Illustrations. 8vo. London. 
18S8-1892. 

From the Author : — Prof. Raoul Laforgue. Un Portrait de 
Jesus. Retrouve a Montauban. 8vo. Montauban. i8g8. 
Bulletin Arch, de Tarn-et-Garonne. 

[No. CLX.] 83 G 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S99. 

From the Author :— Rev. P. A. C. de Cara, S.J. Gh Hethei- 
Pelasgi in Itaha o gl' Itali della storia. Ilh'rii-Veneti-Coni. 
Civ. CattoHca. 8vo. Feb., 1899. 

From the Author : — Dr. Ismar J. Peritz, Woman in the Ancient 
Hebrew Cult. 
Journ. of Biblical Literature. Part II. Svo. 1898. 

From the Author :— Prof. C. P. Tiele. Elements of the Science 
of Religion. Vol.11. Ontological, Svo. Edinburgh. 1899. 

From the Author :— Prof W. Hayes Ward. Notes on Oriental 
Antiquities. I. The Horse in Ancient Babylonia. II. Nehush- 
tan. III. A Hittite Cylinder Seal. 

Arch. Institute of America. Vol.11. 1S98. 

From Ch. Clermont-Ganneau : — Recueil d'Archeologie Orientale. 
Tome III. 8vo. Paris. 1899. 



The following Candidates were nominated for election at 
the next Meeting, to be held on the 2nd May, 1899 : — 

Miss J. Bertha Porter, 16, Russell Square, W.C. 
Henry R. Hovvat, 99, Milbrae Road, Langside. 



The following Candidates were elected Members of the 
Society, having been nominated at the Meeting held on 
the 7th Feb., 1899: — 

Rev. J. P. H. E'sser, Alsdorf, bei Aachen. 

Lieut.-Colonel Malcolm R. Haig, Rossweide, Davos Platz, 

Switzerland. 
David Basil Hewitt, Oakleigh, Northwich, Cheshire. 



84 



Mar. 7] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



A Paper was read by the Rev. C. J. Ball, entitled "The 
Babylonian Analogies for the Egyptian Alphabet." 

Remarks were added by Rev. Dr. Lowy, Mr. Jos. Offord, 
Mr. F. W. Read, Mr. E. J. Pilcher, the Rev. C. J. Ball, and 
the Chairman. 



According to Rule XXXIX, no Meeting can be held on 
the first Tuesday in April (being in Easter Week). 



It having been represented to the Council that it would 
be to the convenience of many of the Members if the 
Monthly Meetings were held at an earlier hour, the Council 
have unanimously decided to make the experiment. 

The remaining Meetings during the present year, i.e., on 
May 2nd, June 6th, November 7th, and December 5th, will 
therefore be held at half-past four in the afternoon in the 
Rooms of the Society as before. 




G 2 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGY. 1899. 



NOTE BY THE BISHOP OF SALISBURY. 

On Wednesday, i2lh October, 1898, the Bishop of SaHsbury, 
accompanied by a number of Enghsh clergy, called by appoint- 
ment upon the Coptic Patriarch Kyrillos at Cairo, and had a very 
courteous and honourable reception. The Bishop presented a copy 
of the English service which was to be used in the following week 
at the consecration of St. George's Church at Jerusalem, and asked 
the Patriarch whether it would be possible to procure a copy of 
the service in use in Egypt. The Patriarch promised to look into 
his library and to try and find a copy. The MS. here described 
was given by him next day to the charge Mr. A. C. Headlam, 
Secretary of the Eastern Church Association, for the use of the 
Bishop, on the understanding that, if it were possible, he would 
print it in England, and allow a certain number of copies to be 
given in return to the Coptic Church. 

The Bishop is very grateful to the Editor of the Coptic Version 
of the New Testa /iient {Four Gospels, Oxford, 1898) for his careful 
description of the manuscript and summary of its contents. It has 
been found that very similar forms of consecration were printed by 
Raphael Tuki in the first and second volumes of his Coptic Pontifical, 
published at Rome in 1761-2. There are certain variations, how- 
ever ; and, of course, the Roman interpolations in Tuki's copy are 
not found in the MS. The two sources will in other respects 
sui)plement one another, if an edition can be produced, as is to be 
desired. The Bishop trusts that friends of the Coptic Church, and 
others interested in Liturgical studies, will aid him in this effort to 
bring into notice a rite which has much to commend it, from its 
simplicity and its very scriptural character. Far the largest part of 
it consists of Psalms and Lessons from Scripture. The rite has 
indeed a number of wearisome repetitions, which might perhaps be 
reduced in length in any form published for modern usage, es- 

86 



Mar. 7] - PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

pecially as there is some evidence that it consists of two separate 
and alternative services accumulated. It differs both from the old 
local Roman and the existing Greek rite* in having no ceremonies 
connected with the burial of relics. In its use of water and oint- 
ment as the principal symbolic elements of the rite, it agrees with 
the Western non-Roman or late Roman forms. On the other hand, 
the prayers and lections of all four types (early Roman, Western, 
Greek and Coptic) are apparently almost, if not quite, independent, 
generally uniting only in such points as are inevitable from the 
similarity of the fundamental ideas. There appears to be little 
doubt that the Coptic rite is the earliest that has come down to 
us, but that it is later than the fourth century, since there seems no 
reference to the case of transformation of heathen temples into 
churches, as at Medinet Habou in Thebes ; on the contrary, the 
prayers and rubrics several times imply that the church to be con- 
secrated is new and has been built for Christian worship. There is 
in one place a prayer that martyrs may be buried in it ; but this 
seems hardly to be a reference to fear of imminent persecution. It 
must therefore be dated in a quiet period. It may perhaps be 
permissible to suggest the reign of the Emperor Anastarius, a.d. 
491-518, as a likely one. 

It may be mentioned that in the recently edited prayer-book 
ascribed to Sarapion, Bishop of Thenonis, the contemporary of 
the great Athanasius, there is no form for consecration of 
churches,! nor is there any in the Apostolic Constitutions or the 
' Canons of Hippolytus,' both of which had large influence in 
Egypt. 

* The seventh Canon of the Second Council of Nicola orders all churches to 
be consecrated with relics. The existing Greek services must be later than this 
date. 

t Texte und Untersiichuugen, Neit Folge, II 3 ^, 1899. 



87 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 



THE CONSECRATION OF A CHURCH, ALTAR AND 

TANK ACCORDING TO THE RITUAL OF THE 

COPTIC-JACOBITE CHURCH. 

(Described from a Manuscript of the Fourteenth Century, 
presented to the bishop of salisbury by the patriarch 
OF Alexandria.) 

The manuscript, bound in native leather, is entitled in Arabic, 
' The consecration of the new church and the altar, Coptic and 
Arabic together.' 

The measurement of the page is 237 cm. x 16-5 cm., and of 
both columns of the text, not including capitals, i8"4cm. x ri'Scm. 
Twenty lines in the page. The arrangement of quires is by quinions, 
and they are signed with KG, OOC, TC, OC, If, yZ'*, niKA,. 
Large capitals are either black-reddened, or yellow, white, black 
and red, or yellow alone, with occasionally a bird for capital A. 
Small capitals, black-reddened. A cross is drawn on the sixth page ; a 
geometrical ornament occurs before the altar service, which has an 
arched headpiece. The common arabesque ornament, with flowers 
and head of a bird and trailing stem, is frequent, the usual colour 
being yellow, and the style of drawing similar to the art of Brit. 
Mus. Or., 1 00 1. There are 259 leaves. 

The original foliation in uncials appears on the verso page, the 
first of which extant is numbered r. Fol. 4, not numbered, has 
been restored, and is of the same paper as the four leaves at the 
beginning and end, marked with crown, star and crescents^ and the 
name Gervino. Besides these restored leaves, it should be noticed 
that the book has been cut and patched when it was re-bound. 

The consecration of the church occupies 201 leaves. Foil. 
Cb'' cr* contain respectively the English and Arabic form of pre- 
sentation of the Book by the Patriarch Cyril to the Bishop of Salis- 
bury. The altar service extends over thirty-five leaves. 

88 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

It remains to notice the long colophon with which the manuscript 
concludes. After the usual invocation of God in three Persons, the 
name of John, 80th Patriarch of Alexandria, is given, with many 
epithets of praise, as the patron of the book. Prayer for him is 
followed by a request for the remembrance of the copyist, a monk 
of the m.onastery of Pitetroas. The statement further sets forth that 
the book was finished in the said monastery on the 5th of Athor in 
1024 of the martyrs (a.d. 1307), after the churches had been shut 
seven years and the Christians had had to wear blue turbans, and 
ends with prayer for mercy and re-opening of the churches and an 
ascription of glory. 

The monastery here mentioned, and in the Arabic called Trua, 
is probably the building recorded by Abu Salih, and known as the 
Monastery of the Potter, and dedicated to St. Theodore in the 
district of Tura.* This place is famous for nummulitic limestone 
quarries, named by the ancient Egyptians Royu or T-royu, which 
the Greeks corrupted into Troja. According to Strabo, the name 
was derived from a settlement of Trojans who followed Menelaus 
to Egypt.! The closing of churches and disgrace of blue turbans are 
related by Makrizi, who however calls the monastery of Tura the 
monastery of Abu Jurj, which Abu Salih speaks of as being in the 
district of Tura, together with another monastery, Shahran, unidenti- 
fied at the present day. 

After the first prayer in the manuscript and before the Psalms 
is an Arabic note recording the sale of the book by Yuhanna,J son 
of Abu'Imenna, brother of the Patriarch Yunas. The buyer is not 
mentioned, but a subsequent gift or legacy is also stated. Then at 
the end of the column, before the Coptic colophon, is another Arabic 
note, which speaks of the finishing of the book, and its being in the 
possession of Faraj Allah, a minister of the church of Muallakah in 
Misr or old Cairo, who sold it to the above-mentioned Yuhanna. 

The MS., though retaining the original third folio on which is 
preserved the large ornamented cross as frontispiece, showing that 
the text began upon the fourth, has lost this fourth leaf; and a 
restorer of the seventeenth century supplied, on Italian paper, with 
the familiar three-crescent watermark, the missing two pages. 

* Anecdota Oxou., Semitic Series, VII, fol. 47b. 
t Biideker's Guide Book, pp. 146-7. 
X Writer of Brit. Mus. MS. Orient. 425. 
89 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. [1899. 

After giving the title as ' The Consecration of the New Church,' 
a rubric directs the bishop, clergy and people to assemble early in 
the morning within the church, Avhere the bishop takes his seat upon 
a throne placed for the occasion, presumably in the nave* outside the 
haikal or sanctuary. Seven large vessels are to be filled with water 
into which are put fragrant herbs. Seven lam.ps on seven stands, and 
beside them a few candles, complete the preparations. 

The bishop then, wearing his vestments, comes forward and 
offers incense with the usual prayer of thanksgiving. He returns to 
his seat, and the clergy t begin reading the lections, after the bishop 
has pronounced the prayer of 'a new foundation.' This prayer is 
addressed to God as the Creator of the world and the inspircr of 
natural wisdom, and in particular the art of building places for 
protection against weather, then mentioning ' Berseleel ' as maker 
of the tabernacle, prays for the strengthening and purification of the 
present church to holy uses, for the averting of the envy, temptation 
and power of Satan and other enemies, for acceptance of the builders' 
work, blessing upon them and through them on others, for worthiness 
to perform the worship which the self-sufficing Deity yet requires, 
alluding further to blessing in general, ends with the usual doxology. 

Whether the Psalms which next occur in the manuscript are 
included in the lections or form an introduction to them cannot be 
determined. In the very similar rite published by Tuki in 1761, 
Ps. li follows the prayer, and after the psalm comes a simple direction 
' then they say,' referring to the same series of psalms, viz. cxxii-cl. 
which are written in our book, including the last additional psalm 
found in the Septuagint version. 

Upon the 44th original folio the full lections begin, having an 
ornamental heading and title, but without any special direction as to 
the reader or manner of reading except in one case mentioned below. 

Genesis i-ii : 3. 

,, xxviii : 10-22. 
Exodus XXV : 1-40. 

,, XXX : 17 — xxxi : 11. 
„ xxxix : 43— xl : 33. 
xl : 33-38. 
Numbers iv : i- 16. 
iv : 17-32. 

• In the midst, Tuki. t The ancient writing begins at this point. 

90 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [iSoQ- 

Joshua iii : 7 — iv : 9. 

2 Samuel vi : 1-20. 

I Chronicles xv : 2 — xvi : 7. 

1 Chronicles xxviii : 2 — xxix : 22. 

2 Chronicles iii-vi : 11. 

1 Kings viii : 1-2 1.* 

2 Chronicles vi : 12 — vii : 15.! 
I Kings viii : 22 — ix : 3. 
Isaiah lix : 20 — Ix : 21. 
Ezekiel i : 3-20. 

xl : 1-19. 
xlii : 15— xliv: 5. 
Revelations xxi : 1-27. 

A contemporary Arabic rubric orders the people to say Psalm 
cxxii, after which the bishop rises and offers incense, while the 
clergy chant the following antiphons with refrains indicated by the 
word Lexis,! which applies to the antiphon as distinguished from 
the refrain. 

1. Holiness, O Lord, becometh thy house for ever. 

2. Tell it out among the heathen that the Lord is king. 

3. Shine, shine, O Church of God, for thy light hath come, 

and the glory of the Lord hath risen upon thee. This 
is the house which is built upon the heavens. 

4. This is the house which the Holy Spirit built, and may He 

grant victory to our kings and fathers, peaceful govern- 
ment and His mercy. 

5. Holiness, O Lord, becometh thy house for ever. 

Next comes a rubric mentioning the prayer of the Apostle, 
which precedes the lection Hebrews vii : 26— ix : i, but is not given. 
After this lection follows the Catholicon, St. James ii : 14-23, and 
again without any rubric appears the 'Praxis,' Acts vii : 44-55. 

Then a rubric directs to be said the prayer of the Gospel 
which prayer is not written, but first Ps. Ixviii : 26 and then Ixviu : 
II, 12 form two antiphons separated by a 'Lexis,' which implies a 
refrain of Alleluia or the like. 

* A contemporary Arabic rubric directs the bishop to read this lection, 
t A later Arabic rubric says that this lection is to be read by the Patriarch ; 
Tuki, however, says the bishop, and that he is to stand before the altar. 
X Brightman, Liturgies, Vol. I, p. 599. 

91 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.^LOLOGY. [1899. 

Four Gospels are next written without any direction except the 
heading of the evangeUst's name. 

Matt, xvii : 1-5 . . . pleased. 

Mark ix : 2-7 , . . pleased. 

Luke ix : 28-36. 

John x : 22-42. 
In the ordinary course of the Liturgy of St. Mark or St. Cyril, 
the Gospel is followed by the three prayers, and accordingly there is 
a rubric here prescribing the prayers of compassion or consolation, 
of peace, i.e. of the Church, of the Patriarch, of the safety, i.e. of the 
world, of the congregation, and the Faith, implying the recitation of 
the Creed in the usual place. The bishop is further ordered to 
stand and offer incense with the proper prayer, and afterwards he 
says another prayer in which, addressing God, as putting into the 
ministry and searcher of the hearts, he implores forgiveness and 
grace and sufficiency to draw nigh and minister. ' Receive,' he 
says, ' this consecration and complete it with thy grace that we 
may enjoy {a7ro\aveiv) thy heavenly gifts,' and ends with the usual 
doxology. Then follows another prayer which contains no special 
petition, but, after acknowledgment of God in various aspects as 
shepherd, etc., as source of grace, etc., declares that ' we wait for 
thy universal salvation, for Thou art supreme ruler and giver of 
authority to loose and bind, and Thou art the wisdom of thy 
ministers {opyaim) in the Church thy bride,' and ends with 
doxology. 

A rubric next instructs the archdeacon to say a Litany (xirrjai^) 
of seven petitions, to each of which the people respond ' Kyrie 
cleison.' 

1. Invocation of God Almighty of our fathers. 

2. Safety of the world and unity of churches. 

3. Protection of the living and rest to the departed. 

4. Relief from evils spiritual and temporal. 

5. Preservation of the city and other cities and countries of 

the faithful. 

6. Forgiveness, acceptance and mercy in general. 

7. Descent of the Holy Spirit upon this new place. 

Then the people say Kyrie eleison a hundred times, after which 
the bishop prays to God the Father and God the Word, referring to 
the Law and Prophets, Moses and the Tabernacle of the Old Testa- 
ment, St. Peter and the Church of the New Testament, and appealing 

92 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. . [1899. 

to the lover of man and searcher of hearts and sanctifier of places 
and planner of salvation, asks for worthiness to offer spiritual service 
and praise. The doxology as usual. 

Here the archdeacon begins another Litany of four longer peti- 
tions, with Kyrie eleison put after the first three. 

1. Salvation and blessing of people, exaltation of Christendom 

by power of the Cross, blotting out transgression, reception 
of prayer. 

2. Sending of the Holy Spirit to sanctify this place for prayer 

and sacrifice ; general petition for salvation and protection. 

3. For Patriarch,* bishop, clergy and laity assembled. 

4. By intercession of St. Mary, the archangels Michael and 

Gabriel, SS. John, Stephen, Mark and all saints. 

Then the bishop prays to God the Creator, who has filled the 
earth with churches after the pattern of the church of the first-born 
whose names are written in heaven. 

The deacon interposes irpoaev^aaOe and the bishop continues to 
pray for sanctification of the church, enumerating the various pur 
poses and privileges which should belong to it. 

The deacon again interposes his Greek word, and the bishop 
concludes the prayer with more special request for fulfilment of the 
promise of the Holy Spirit. 

The archdeacon says in Greek, ' Let us beseech the Lord.' 

The bishop exclaims ' Peace to all,' also in Greek, and begins a 
prayer which is called ' Despota.' God, who is described among 
other attributes as author of good works, is prayed to accept worship 
and to supply the same spirit as inspired 'Berseliel.' 

The deacon interposes his word, and the bishop ends by asking 
for sanctification of ' the house of prayer and psalmody.' 

The bishop then kneels before the Lord, and the archdeacon 
makes the people kneel with the familiar K\ii>ui.iev ojovv followed by 
avaaTw/uev. They Say many times Kyrie eleison and other prayers 
of their own, and at length the bishop rises and with louder voice 
says, ' The grace of God which heals sickness, supplies deficiency, 
reconciles the separated and provides for all churches, may it choose 
and establish this place for a holy church of God most high, for 
fulfilment of priestly duties and the holy bloodless mystery as 



* Tuki's version of this petition prays for the Pope, and after him for the 
Patriarch, having been published at Rome. 

93 



Mar, 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1S99. 

fragrant incense to the glory and honour of the life-giving Trinity. 
All here assembled join in our jirayer to the Lord God with purity 
and fear and awe, that the grace of the Holy Spirit may descend 
upon us and this place.' 

Then after more repetition of Kyrie eleison, the bishop again cries 
aloud and, without any long address, reiterates the Old Testament 
l)recedents and the practice of the Apostles, and prays more directly 
for the consecrating power of the Holy Spirit. 

The consummation of the ceremony is now imminent and, as in 
the Liturgy of St. James before the Anaphora, the deacon calls out* 

(TTiZ'/iieu ATftXtov, arwjuei' evXa/iw^, aTWfiei' /nera (j)6[iov 6eou Kcil kynaiw^ews-, 

so here the archdeacon exclaims with similar Greek words, adding 

thereto aTwfiev cKJepio^, and ijav^ia 7ravT€9 i^tojueOa eiTrw/neu Trav7e<i 

Kvpie eXerjaov. This form is translated into Coptic as far as possible, 
the poverty of the language requiring still some of the Greek words 
to be retained, and both Greek and Coptic are each translated into 
Arabic, as is usual throughout the book. 

The bishop cries again, * Yea, we beseech thee, Lord God, look 
on us thy unworthy servants. Hear and have mercy on us.' 

The people respond in Greek, ' Have mercy on us, God the 
Father Almighty.' 

Then the bishop pronounces the Epiklesis, ' Lord have mercy 
on us, and let thy compassions prevent and strengthen us speedily. 
Send from thy high and holy place, from thine established dwelling, 
from thine incomprehensible bosom, the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit. 
Who by substance is the strong Life-giver, Who spake in the Law 
and Prophets, Who is in every place and fiUeth every place, working 
by his own authority. The simple in Nature, manifold in operation, 
fount of Divine grace, Who is of one substance with Thee and 
proceedeth from Thee, partaker of the throne of thy glorious 
kingdom with thine only-begotten Son Jesus Christ. Send Him 
down upon us also thy unworthy servants, and upon this place 
which has been built for Thee to the glory and honour of thy holy 
name, that He may sanctify it and consecrate it and transform it to — 
a holy temple. Amen.f 
a pure church 
a house of salvation 

* Brightman, Liturgies, Vol. I, p. 49. 

t The people respond ' Amen ' after each attribute of the church. 

94 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

a house of pardon of sin 
a mercy-seat of the faithful 
an altar of heavenly things 
an assembly of angels 
a harbour of safety 
a holy tabernacle of the saints 
a dwelling of Thy Christ 
a conventicle of Cherubim 
a choir of Seraphim 
a resting-place of martyrs 
a work-room of heavenly grace 
a cleansing-place for sin 
a laver of miquity 
a purifier of stained souls 
a healing-place of knowledge (^/nl-ffts) 
a place of invitation to the adorned bridechamber and the heavenly 
marriage feast. That those who come to Thee may herein be called 
to receive new light by the bath of regeneration ; and those who are 
astray in sin may come here to ask by Thee, our Master, forgiveness 
from those who worship thy name in it. Let it be for the offering 
of the reasonable sacrifice of thy holy mysteries, so that having 
received a portion with thy saints, Thou wilt shelter us (///. them) 
under thy mighty hand and watch over us against all opposing 
powers, in order that in this and everything thy revered and all-holy 
Name may be glorified, blessed and exalted, Father and Son and 
Holy Spirit now and always and unto ages of ages.' 

lire clergy and people respond in Greek 'As was and is.' 
The people say the Lord's Prayer. 
The bishop responds 'Yea, Lord God.' 
The archdeacon says in Greek 'Your heads.' 
The bishop, 'Thou, O Lord, has bowed down.' 
The archdeacon, in Greek, 'Attend with fear of God.' 
The bishop, 'The absolution (of) the Only-begotten.' 
Then the bishop consecrates the water with the Greek words, 
' One Holy Father, one Holy Son, Holy Spirit,' adding in Coptic, 
' Bless God in all his saints.' 

A rubric directs the presbyters to carry the water-vessels in front 
of the bishop, and the remaining clergy bear the cross, candles, 
censers and ornamented Gospel, and the procession moves towards 
the middle eastern niche of the haikal or sanctuary with singing. 

95 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 

The bishop sprinkles this niche and the walls on either side of the 
building, pronouncing the words ' For holy consecration of the 
house of God.' This done, he takes the pot of holy ointment 
{fivpov) and begins by anointing the same middle east niche, making 
a cross with his thumb and saying, ' We consecrate this place for a 
catholic church of the Theotokos Maria, in the name of the Father 
and the Son and the Holy Spirit.' And if it is an oratory he says, 
' We consecrate this place for an oratory of the glorious martyr of 
Christ the holy Apa (Abba) N or M, in the name,' etc. Another 
form is given for a ' righteous man ' or a virgin. 

Then he signs with the ointment on either side and arch of the 
niche, and proceeds along the wall of the church, signing as he goes, 
and the clergy continue their chant. On reaching the western dome 
(aKi]i'i'j), i.e. of the narthex, he turns eastward again and signs every 
column Oil the south side, crossing next to the southern rank, he 
signs going westward the north side of every pillar. Then he passes 
back by the south wall, and eventually enters the sanctuary and goes 
round the walls until he comes to the synthronos,* which probably 
means the throne at the east end of the haikal, but the rubric at 
this point is difficult to understand. At each sign of the cross the 
bishop says in Greek, ' Blessed is the Lord God for ever and ever. 
Amen.' 

Two hymns of different length are written at the end of the 
service, and one or the other is sung during the procession according 
as the chant of the day is Echos Adam or ^^chos Batos. In the 
second hymn one of the eight verses is, ' Murderers shall not rest in 
it but precious relics of victorious martyrs.' This is the only refe- 
rence to relics which can be found in the service ; once before the 
church is said to be a resting-place of martyrs. 

In the foregoing description, no notice has been taken of sundry 
additional directions which have been written by a later hand in the 
margin. These Arabic rubrics often correspond to the rubrics 
printed by Tuki, particularly at the beginning of the service where 
anthems or hymns and prayers are ordered to be used between the 
lections. The anthems or hymns belong to the Theotokia, which 
hymn-book is by no means confined to the praise of the Virgin 
Mother of God, but combines therewith a large proportion of verses 
breathing a spirit of devotion to our T,ord, and setting in true per- 

* Goar, Rituale, p. 261. 
96 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

spective His relation to His blessed Mother. She is praised always 
because of Him. The prayers which occur in these interposed 
devotions have no bearing upon the act of consecration, and Tuki 
prints most of them in the service for the holy ointment, though 
they have no particular reference to that function. 

Before the lection from the Epistle to the Hebrews, the 
Apostle^ one of these rubrics prescribes the saying of the Alleluia 
of Baptism, and further specifies the tune (Ij^ll .t^b) for the reci- 
tation of the lection. Another requires the Trisagios to be said in 
the usual place before the Gospel, and the Patriarch is enjoined to 
read the Eulogia or Blessing before the Gospel. Between the 
Gospel of St. Mark and St. Luke, the cross is to be raised up, and 
after the last Gospel the usual dismissal is to take place. Then at 
the sprinkling of the church, the bishop is reminded to be energetic 
in the work, and to break the vessel at the place where the water of 
it is exhausted. Further on it is said, ' He shall not sign with the 
ointment until after the end of the Liturgy of the altar, when he 
shall sign the slab and altar tablets,' referring to the small flat piece 
of wood which fits into a shallow depression in the top of the altar, 
where the chalice' stands during the service. A contemporary Arabic 
rubric directs the bishop to stay behind at the altar, and wash the 
altar-tablets and the altar, but there is no Coptic injunction of this 
kind. 



THE CONSECRATION OF THE ALTAR. 

The bishop, having consecrated the rest of the building, comes 
to the altar, and stands by it with the clergy around him. The side 
at which he stands is not mentioned, but if he was officiating at the 
altar in the Liturgy he would stand at the west side ; if coming from 
the synthronos, at the east. His first act is to offer incense, with 
the usual prayer ; after which he must say Psalm xxiii, specially 
described as ' by David before he was anointed ' ; then also Psalm 
xxiv. Tuki's rubric orders the people to say Psalms li, xxvii and 
xciii. 

The archdeacon next begins a litany, with two groups of 

97 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGV. [1899. 

petitions of general character, and one group of invocations of 
St. Mary, the two archangels and the saints. Tuki assigns this litany 
to the archiereus after the archdeacon has called to the congregation 
to stand for prayer. 

Incense is again offered by the bishop, who then signs the altar 
without ointment, and the Psalms xxvi, xxvii and xciii are sung with 
refrain. Next comes Tuki's summons of the archdeacon, ' Stand 
well, stand in fear and trembling, with humble demeanour and 
soaring hearts pray God have mercy on us,' and the archdeacon is 
directed to respond Kyrie eleison to another litany presumably 
recited by the bishop : 

1. Christ our God is addressed as Creator and restorer of 

man. 

2. The Incarnate Word of the Father, who saves us by his 

Church. 

3. God, builder of the Church upon the rock, who made it his 

Bride, established heavenly orders in it, transforms earth 
to heaven thereby — We pray Thee, number us with 
the incorporeal spirits, and hear us in thy compassions. 

4. The First Begotten before the Worlds, of the Virgin and 

from the dead, for redemption of his own Church, and 
who raises us with Him to heaven. 

5. Who gave a type of the New Dispensation in the bread 

and cup of Melchizedek. 
Petitions 6-12 continue the reference to Old Testament history, 
mentioning the promise of Isaac, the ladder and pillar of Jacob, 
Moses with the Tabernacle and its various symbolical objects, 
Berzeliel, David and Solomon. 

1 1 and 12 contain prayer for consecration of 'this place.' 

13 relates specially to the Ark, and prays for consecration 

of " this house." 

14 refers to the Church as given to the Apostles, and con- 

cludes thus : By the good pleasure of thy goodness we 
have completed this place for a Church of thy divine 
mysteries, that Thou mightest sanctify it for us and con- 
secrate it. We pray Thee for its sake hear and have 
mercy on us. 
15. Prayer to our Lord Jesus Christ, who sent the Holy 
Spirit proceeding from the Father upon the Apostles, to 
send Him on us and on this place to make it a holy 
98 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Church, place of salvation, place of pardon, conventicle 
of angels, harbour of safet}', holy Tabernacle, mercy-seat, 
place of purification of souls that repent. 
Tuki's print contains the above 15 petitions, but omits the 

remainder, the subsequent prayer, and three petitions of another 

litany. 

16 contains prayer for archbishop and bishop. 

17 for priests, deacons and people. 

18. Invocations of St. Mary, the two archangels and saints. 

The bishop then offers incense a third time, and makes a cross 
on the altar without ointment as before, and prays to the Lord God 
who made holy orders in the catholic Apostolic Church, whose 
altar on high abundantly atones, wlio appointed a tabernacle, and 
after the redeeming work of Christ established a spiritual altar for 
the bloodless sacrifice in the Church. 

Here the deacon interposes ■n-poffcv^aaOc, and the bishop con- 
tinues to pray for the grace of the holy Spirit to be sent on ' this 
table' to make it an altar for the priestly work of the bloodless 
sacrifice; also for purification, healing, and all spiritual blessings 
Doxology. 

The archdeacon again makes his summons 'to stand well and 
pray Lord have mercy,' and a third litany of three petitions 
follows : — 

1. Christ who sitteth on the Cherubim and is glorified by 

the Seraphim. 

2. He who is in the bosom of the Father, and was in the 

Avomb of the Virgin, incarnate, and of whose mother 
Jacob exclaimed: 'This is the house of God, this is the 
gate of heaven.' 

3. Our Lord Jesus Christ, one with the Paraclete and the 

Father, by means of (lit. on account of) the Holy Spirit 

descend upon this altar. All who stand in this holy 

place pray the Lord our God to descend by saying Kyrie 

eleison. 

Here occurs a contemporary Arabic note referring to another 

manuscript which omitted the previous prayer of the archdeacon. 

This would seem to account for the omission in Tuki's print, which 

now proceeds in company with our manuscript, to give a prayer of 

the archdeacon who implores cur Lord Jesus Christ, who sent the 

Paraclete from the Father, to send Him ; and he appeals to the influ- 

99 H 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIHLICAL ARCILEOI.OGV. [1899. 

ence of the Holy Spirit, and the power of the cross : also to the inter- 
cession of St. Mary, the archangels and saints, for the repulsion of 
the devil and heathen enemies. Then follow a Coptic rubric, ' If 
it is an oratory of any one* thou sayest,' and two very short 
prayers: (i) to our Lord, mentioninf,^ the crown of glory, and 
supplicating mercy; and (2) a prayer a^jj^ropriate to the anniversary 
of the dedication. 

After oft-repeated Kyrie eleison, the bishop again prays for 
acceptance of this cry for mercy, and after doxology begins a longer 
supplication, addressing the Lord God of our salvation, records the 
manifold display of love to man, instancing the establishment of 
churches, the archpriestly office as type of angelic ministry, liberation 
from vanity of matter and deceit of demons, entreats for worthiness 
to serve and additional mercy ; then after referring to the work of 
the only-begotten Son in giving Himself a sacrifice for us, rising and 
ascending and sending the Paraclete, the work of the Holy Si)irit 
is described : ' He fulfilled the first-fruits, being eye-witness who 
ministers the word according to the operation of the promise of the 
gifts. He raised up the Church, he established altars. He gave the 
baptism of regeneration, the priesthood, the law, the canon, and a 
perpetual sacrifice.' 

The deacon interposes Trpoffei'^aa-de, and the bishop continues to 
pray for the consecration of this altar by the oil of the grace arid 
mystery of the Holy Spirit, that it may ever give to us the banquet 
of the bloodless victim by means of the mystic anointing, and that 
we may stand at the throne of His kingdom offering the ]irayer for 
ourselves and the people, having tasted in faith and holiness ihe 
Body of the Lord given and the precious Blood shed for us. 

The deacon Trpofrcv^naOe, the bishop continues, and prays for 
sending the grace of the Holy Spirit to complete 'this Liiurgia,' 
and make the table worthy to communicate the mysteries. Then 
comes a series of seven attributes of the altar, with cross at each and 
the people's amen : (i) holy, (2) haven o'i troubled souls, (3) place 
of guidance for thought and deed, (4) refuge from all sin, (5) libera- 
tion of consciences, (6) provision for the good of the city (ht. 
citizens), (7) perfecter of all righteousness. After doxology, 

The deacon interposes too Kvpi'ov rct']Ou<iict>. Then the bishop 
prays to the Lord of nature and benefactor of man, who founded 

* <>^.X^,^H. i.e., ^,L'. 
100 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

churches, placed altars, commanded sacrifices to be offered, and 
again begs for the sending of the Holy Spirit to complete this ' mys- 
tery for the hope of faith, salvation, rest, and forgiveness.' Doxology. 
Then he takes the pot of ointment, and pours on the table three ' 
times in the form of a cross, saying eacli time Allelouia, and also ■ 
makes three crosses with his thumb and ointment, sealing it and 
saying, ' 'We consecrate this altar, which has been placed for the 
name of the Virgin or Saint N or M, by this holy ointment in the 
Name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.' Then he 
anoints the whole table with his hand, saying Allelouia and these 
words (Xfc'ff?) of the Psalms, while the clergy respond after each 
lexis Allelouia. 

Psalm Ixxxiv : i-^ ■ . ■ her young. 

3. Thy altars, 4, 6-8, 10 . . . thousand. 

Psalm xliii : 4 . . . I'eorijn' /not'. 

Psalm xxvi : 6-8. The third time he says in Greek, ' Glory to 
Father, Son and Holy Spirit, both now and ever and to the ages of, 
the ages. Amen.' 

After 'Peace to all,' in Greek, he proceeds to offer thanksgiving 
for the gift to the Apostles and righteous men, which was not taken . 
away but mercifully continued to unworthy sinners, even answer to 
pra}'er. 

The deacon, Trpoffev^arrOe. The bishop once more implores 
for the completion of the consecration, and worthiness to stand at 
the altar to offer the sacrifice, not for condemnation but advance- 
ment of church and people. After the doxology the bishop and 
clergy adore the altar, and the archdeacon cries : ' Pray for this 
house and supply of grace for this altar, that it may be a refuge for 
the penitent, haven of rest, for hearing of ijra)er, salvation for the 
living and rest for the departed, and let us all cry Kyrie eleison.' 

The presbyters and deacons next stand at the altar, bearing the 
holy vessels ; they vest the altar and set up on it the Gospel and 
cross. Meanwhile the clergy chant, and afterwards the bishop again 
gives thanks, the deacon having made his summons, rod kv/u'ov 
c.ei^Oicjiiev. After a few words the deacon again interposes Trpoacv^aadc 
and the bishop continues, ' We pray Thee make this place an abode 
of thy Holy Spirit, and make us live good lives, and abide in the 
company of those who have gone before us.' 

After the Amen the archdeacon cries out in Greek, with Coptic 
translation, 'And for those who had part in preparing for this house, 

loi H 2 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 

and for all who have laboured upon it, earnestly praying that God, 
lover of man, would grant them eternal mansions in His kingdom.' 

The bishop accordingly offers prayer for them ; afterwards the 
Trisagios* is said, and the archdeacon says in Greek, ' Bow down 
your heads in fear of the Lord our God.' Then the bishop says 'a 
prayer of bowing down,' which is a supplication fur acceptance and 
blessing. 

Thet bishop once more offers incense with its prayer, and 
moving round the altar, takes a clapper and strikes three times, 
whereupon the porters begin striking many clappers around outside 
the church. The bishop places the Eucharistic bread and wine on the 
altar, and goes out into the choir to begin the early morning service, 
the Psalm being xxvi : 8, followed by xxvi : 7, though another MS. 
appoints Psalm Ixxxiv : 3 and 4. The Gospel is Luke xix, i-io. 
Next:}; come the three prayers and the absolution; the bishop 
washes his hands, and, with a ])resbyter carrying tlie water and the 
ointment, goes to the Tank (lKoX'tfJULjS_H2ipZ.), and then prays, 
mentioning the appearing of the Incarnate Saviour, deliverance 
from the devil, revelation of the Divinity, guidance to holiness 
which angels desired to see, entrance into the Kingdom by laver of 
regeneration, the baptism, in the Jordan, 'Thou consecratedst the 
waters by going down into them, Thou brakest the heads of the 
dragons ui)on the waters, in order that we might struggle against 
sin, until we receive pardon and washing away of sin.' He con- 
cludes by praying that all who go down into this type of the River 
Jordan may merit pardon, and have their names written in the Book 
of Life. Doxology. 

rhe bishop makes a cross w-ith the ointment, and says, ' We 
consecrate this Tank upon the name of St. John the Baptist, in the 
name,' etc. 

There is here some confusion in the ^IS., because a rubric 
directs Psalm xxvi : S and xxvi • 12 to be used, and mentions again 
the same Gospel as above. Probably the consecration of the Tank 
followed the Morning Service, and finally the liturgy began. The 
MS. ends with the Lections of the Liturgy, which are called 'The 
lections which are read in the Anaphora of the Consecration.' 



* Tiiki omits this. 

t The rubric is abljreviated and confused by Tuki. 
X Omitted by Tuki, who goes on to the Lections of Morning Service. 

102 



Mafv. 7] I'ROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Hebrews ix : 2-10. 
I Peter ii : 1-12. 
Acts ix : 31-42. 
Psalm Ixv : i and 2. 
Matthew xvi : 13-19. 

There are a few later Arabic rubrics to be mentioned. At the 
end of the first rubric, 'Then he says Al shahamdt, Our Father 
which art in heaven, and Psalm 1.' One occurs at the third offering 
of incense, ' Then is said CJUL^.pa30T^" ^.Xh, and the prayer of 
incense which belongs to the Praxis.' The Coptic word ' Blessed ' 
is probably the response* of the Praxis, sung by the choir during 
the prayer of the priest. 

Again at the Alleluia of the anointing, the later Arabic says, ' To 
the tune of (the Alleluia of) the Baptism, and the people respond.' 

Also after the direction to vest the altar, etc. ' Here he signs 
the altar and tablets with the holy ointment, and all the rest of the 
church, while ihe people sing the Song of the Three Children. 

the clergy shall hold bunches of silk (^J^i--*), and sign 

with them before the bishop wherever he signs with the ointment.' 

The two forms of service thus described, though separated by 
vacant pages in the manuscript, appear to belong to one order of 
ceremonial, and they may be regarded as representative of the class 
of dedication which did not require deposition of relics, f No men- 
tion of relics occurs, even when an oratory of a martyr is to be 
hallowed. Yet relics are possessed by every Coptic church at the 
present day, and the altars have a cavity opening eastward v.hich 
suggests that the practice of placing relics therein was formerly 
universal,! though now they are 'enclosed in a sort of bolster 
covered with silk brocade, and kept in a locker beneath the picture 
of the patron saint.' 

Duchesne, in his Origiiies du Ctilte Chretien, remarks upon 
the resemblance between the consecration ceremonies and the bap- 
tismal rite. In the Coptic ceremonial, where washing or sprinkling 
and anointing are the only outward signs, this resemblance is a 
strong feature ; and as regards the altar, a special connection between 
the two ceremonies is formed by the use of the word Alleluia, which 
word is also pronounced in the consecration of the altar according 

* Brightman, p. 154. t Martene, Ecd. Rit., Ed. Nov., 1788, II, p. 242. 

X Butler: Coptic Chtirches, Vol. II, p. 13. 
103 



Mak. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. [1899. 

to the Oreek rite.* One of the later Arabic rubrics in our manuscript 
directs that the Alleluia should be sung to the tune of Baptism. 

In the form of the Coptic service we see to a certain extent the 
structure of the Liturgy, and the abundance of lections from the Old 
Testament may j)oint to an early time when larger portions were 
read at the celebration of the Eucharist. The New Testament 
lections follow the order of the Liturgy, and the Gospels are preceded 
by verses of the Psahiis and Alleluia. With regard to the use of 
four Gospels, it may be noticed that in the Pontifical of Narbonne, 
amongst the various things y^laced inside the altar with the relics is 
mentioned a paper containing the Ten Commandments and the four 
first chapters of the Gospels. t 

There is probably a recitation of the creed, but no kiss of peace 
or sursum corda, yet three series of litanies appear, a prayer perhaps 
corresponding to the prayer of the veil, manifold repetition of Kyrie 
eleison, a solemn kneeling and benediction, and finally an Epiklesis 
so called, followed by the Lord's Prayer. Then the water is conse- 
crated, and the outward signs of sprinkling and anointing with the 
holy oil or ointment take place. 

In this ceremony we hear of no procession to the building, or 
any ceremony at the door, with use of Psalm xxiv. There is no 
trace of writing any letters upon the walls or upon the floor, or of 
walking across the church from corner to corner, or end to end and 
side to side — nothing but a simple rite of visiting the essentially 
important parts of the building, viz., the walls and columns. Tuki 
mentions also the windows, but a Coptic church can scarcely be said 
to possess windows in the western sense of the word, and we have 
taken ' window ' in our MS. to refer to the niche at the east end. 
It is possible that these directions may belong to an earlier form of 
building of the basilican type, wherein windows and pillars played a 
more considerable part. We observe in this connection that nothing 
is said of the invariable side eastern chapels of the present churches, 
or of more than one altar, or of any dedication in the name of an 
archangel, and this may be another mark of antiquity. 

Neither in the case of the church or altar are exorcisms used : 
we hear nothing of wine, or salt, or ashes. Fragrant herbs are men- 
tioned in the restored folio, but no reference is made to them again. 

* l-Ktytti TJ/ TpairtZ^y, \f-)OjxfVQV tov ' kWr{Kov"ta, wj tTri ror iSoTTiir^arcy. 
Goar, Kit. Grccc, p. 659. t Marlcne, p. 267. 

104 



Mar 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

A later rubric mentions ' silk,' said by Mr. Butler to be white beet, 
as an instrument of aspersion. Seven, and not twelve, lamps are 
prescribed, symbolising the seven spirits before the throne rather 
than the gates of the new Jerusalem. The use of other unnumbered 
lights and incense calls for no remark, the former being required by 
the nocturnal* beginning of the service, and the latter serving as an 
ordinary accessory of worship. Enough to say that in the consecra- 
tion of the church incense is thrice offered, and for the altar four 
times. 

It should be noticed that the altar is not washed, but only signed 
with the cross, first with the thumb alone and afterwards with the 
holy ointment. Jacob's pillar is alluded to, but not specially at the 
solemn anointing, when antiphons from the P.-^alms are sung. In 
the case both of church and altar, the congregation confirms the 
action of the leader of the service. Patriarch or bishop, by repetition 
of Amen after each epithet, conforming to the ritual of the liturgy 
when the so-called words of Institution are pronounced. This prac- 
tice is not found in any other consecration service, except in the 
previously mentioned Pontifical! of Narbonne, in which there are 
two separate priEfationes^ each preceded by sursiini corda, the first 
having nineteen and the second eleven Aniens. Two other prayers 
of the same rite are similarly interspersed with seven and four respec- 
tively. 

As for the language of the prayers, much wearisome repetition 
occurs, and many of the petitions in the consecration of the altar 
speak of hallowing ' this place,' as if the whole church was implied. 
There is therefore some reason for supposing that this service was 
originally a form which included both consecrations. No lections 
are found in it, but there are Psalms and three litanies, a prayer of the 
character of an Eucharistic Anaphora, followed by a shorter prayer, 
not called Epiklesis, but imploring solemnly the descent of the Holy 
Spirit, immediately before the anointing of the altar; then later on is 
a prayer for those who laboured in building the church, followed by 
the Trisagios and the prayer of inclination and blessing. On the 
other hand, it may be argued that as there is no Anaphora-like 
prayer in the service for the church, the consecration of the altar, 
being an essential element of the whole service, supplies that 
required prayer. 

* Tuki says the -night of Sunday, 
t Martene, p. 263, seqq. 

105 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.IiOLOGY. [1899. 

There seem to be eiglit complete prayers in each of the services, 
not inckiding the prehminary prayer and consecration of the Epi- 
phany tank, which is performed during tl>e morning service after the 
consecration of the altar. The shortest summary of the subjects of 
these prayers is as follows : — 

Church. 

1. Pardon, sufificiency and acceptance. 

2. Attributes of God without any defined petition. 

3. God's work in the history of the Old and New Testament, 

with petition for worthiness. 

4. Purposes of the church and promise of the Holy Spirit. 

5. Acceptance and supply of Holy Spirit. 

6. Appeal for grace to make the building a church. 

7. Reiteration of history and prayer for Holy Spirit. 

8. Epiklesis. 

Altar. 

1. Historical, prayer for Holy Spirit, purposes of altar. 

2. Mercy. 

3. ' Anaphora,' with seven signings. 

4. Prayer for Holy Spirit. 

5. Thanksgiving {tvyajnaiui)^ and for completion of conse- 

cration. 

6. Thanksgiving {cv-^cipiaTut), and for abiding of the Holy 

Spirit. 

7. For the workmen and other helpers. 

8. Acceptance and final blessing. 

The following table gives the sequence of the ceremonial in the 
two services : — 

Coiisecratioti of Church. 



Incense. 








The Gospels. 


Prayer 5. 


Prelimina 


ry 


pray 


er. 


Litany. 


Kneeling and Kyries. 


Psalms. 








Incense. 


Prayer 6. 


Lections. 








Prayer i. 


Kyries. 


Psalm. 








Prayer 2. 
106 


Prayer 7. 



Mar. 7] 


PROCEEDINGS. 


[iS 


Incense. 


Litany. 


Summons in Greek. 


The Apostle. 


loo Kyries. 


Epiklesis. 


The Catholic. 


Prayer 3. 


Aspersion. 


The Praxis. 


Litany. 


Anointing. 


Psalm and Alleluia. 


Prayer 4. 





Incense. 

Psalms. 

Litany, short. 

Incense and signature. 

Psalms. 

Litany, long. 

Incense and signature. 

Prayer i. 

Litany, short. 

Kyries. 



Consecration of Altar. 

Prayer 2. 
Prayer 3. 
Prayer 4. 
Anointing. 
Prayer 5. 
Adoration. 
Vesting, etc. 
Prayer 6. 
Summons in Greek. 
Prayer 7. 



to Morn in a; 



Trisagios. 
Prayer 8. 
Incense. 
Summons 

service. 
Morning service and 

consecration of tank. 
Liturgy. 




107 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OK BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOCV. [1899. 



A XEW EGYPTIAN KING; THE PREDECESSOR OV 

KHEOPS. 

^ By a. H. Sayce. 

The ruins of El-Kab in Upper Egypt lie at the end of an ancient 
road which led across the desert from the Red Sea to the Nile. 
Its eastern extremity is called in the hieroglyphics Tep-Nekheb, and is 
included in the geographical lists among the cities and countries of 
"the South." The great wall of crude brick which still surrounds 
the remains of El-Kab is one of the most interesting monuments of 
ancient Egypt. Nearly three miles inland from El-Kab is the 
mouth of a wadi, or rather the pass between two low hills, where 
the old road first came in sight of the Nile, and which was called by 
the Egyptians Ro-Anti, "the entrance to the mountains." A great 
isolated rock rises up in the middle of it, which was j^artially 
quarried in the age of the Old Empire, and is still covered with 
inscriptions of the time of the Vlth dynasty. A little further to the 
south-east is a low cliff, which is even more thickly covered with 
graffiti^ some of them being probably as old as the epoch of the Ilird 
dynasty. Immediately beyond the grnffiti once stood a temple, 
apparently of wood, which must have been swept away by a sudden 
flood together with the projecting cliff of marl on which it stood, 
leaving behind it only its inscribed libation-tables and dishes of 
stone, which were discovered three years ago. At the same time 
that these were found, what we may call the wine-cellar of the temple 
was also excavated in the still uninjured part of the cliff. Here 
nearly two hundred earthenware jars of the Old Empire type were 
disinterred which had been hidden in underground recesses, and 
their necks closed with clay stoppers. A few earthenware dishes, 
also of the Old Empire type, were found along with them. For 
many centuries the spot remained deserted and without a temple, 
and no more inscriptions were engraved on the rocks. Then 
Amenophis III of the XVIIIth dynasty built a new temple on the 
cliff above the site of the old one. The new temple, which, as its 

108 



Mak. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

founder is careful to point out, wjs "constructed of stone," still 
stands, and a little to the east of it was a small obelisk of limestone, 
which may have been the original one mentioned in the graffiti oi 
the Old Empire* Eight years ago, M. Grebaut, who was then 
the Director of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities, unfor- 
tunately determined to transport it to the Giza Museum, and on its 
way to Cairo it was lost in the Nile. 

A mile to the south of Ro-Anti is a break in the line of cliffs, 
which recede eastward in the form of an amphitheatre, from which a 
path leads northward till it joins the old road to the Red Sea a little 
to the east of Ro-Anti. On the southern side of this amphitheatre 
and on a low isolated cliff Mr. F. W. Green, when making a survey 
map of the country for Mr. Somers Clarke, in 1895, discovered some 
graffiti, which when visited the following year by Mr. Somers Clarke, 
Mr. Qiiibell and myself turned out to be of unusual interest. I have 
since paid two visits to them and taken rubbings of the cartouches 
found in them, squeezes being impossible owmg to the slight depth 
to which the lines of the characters are cut. 

The graffiti are engraved in a sheltered part of the cliff, near the 
eastern extremity of it, and almost at its summit. An apse-like 
recess has been cut in the rock, large enough to contain a seated 
man and to the right of it are two holes, one above the other, in 
which the ends of beams of wood once rested. The beams must 
have supported a small structure of wood, and the place seems to 
have been a sort of sentinel's box. The view from it is extensive ; 
it looks towards the north, and comujands the entrance to the Red 
Sea road. 

^\\& graffiti 2s^ as follows. On the left is a boat of primitive 
pattern with a hawk above the prow, two oars at the stern, and a 
mast, while an oblong (or rectangular) cartouche takes the place of a 
deck cabin. x\bove the cartouche is a nub on which ^tand two hawks, 
one with the crown of Lower and the other of Upper Egypt. The 

cartouche contains the hitherto unknown name -<2>- , Sh-a-ar-r-u, 

\ 

Sharu. To the right of this, and immediately above the recess, are 

* Thus in one of them reference is made to " ihe divine prophet of Nekheb 
of the white obelisk." 

109 



Mar. 7] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1S99. 

two more oblong cartouches, with nub and the hawks above them. 

These cartouches contain the name of ^ Khufu or Cheops. 

Finally, to the right comes another boat, this time without a hawk, 
but with three ropes attached to the mast. 

The position occupied by the name of Sharu shows that he 
preceded Khufu. The boat which carries his cartouche seems to be 
funerary ; it would appear, therefore, that he was already dead at the 
time the drawings were made, while Khufu, whose cartouches stand 
alone, Avas still alive. We may conclude accordingly that Sharu 
was the immediate predecessor of Khufu. 

Now according to Manetho, as quoted by Africanus, Soris was 
the immediate predecessor of Suphis or Khufu, and the founder of 
the IVth dynasty. No trace of his name, however, has been 
hitherto found on the monuments, and his very existence has been 
called in question. But the graffiti near El-Kab now prove that 
Manetho was right. 

Thai Sharu was as much a king of all Egypt as his successor 
Khufu is shown by the two Horus-hawks of Upper and Lower Egypt 
above his name. It is possible, nevertheless, that the two kings 
reigned for a time together, as we know to have been the custom in 
the age of the Xllth dynasty. In this way we could explain the 
discrepant statements of Manetho and the Turin Papyrus in regard 
to the length of reign assigned to Khufu ; while the Turin Papyrus 
(if the reading is correct) makes it only 23 years, Manetho extends 
it to 63 years.* The 63 years would be justified by the size of the 
great pyramid of Giza, if the theory of Lepsius and Borchardt is 
accepted, which makes the size of a pyramid depend on the length 
of a king's reign. 

In the accompanying plate the cartouches of Sharu and Khufu 
arc facsimiled from rubbings ; the boats are eye-copies. 

* In the list of Eratosthenes the reign of Saophis or Khufu is staled to have 
been 29 years. 



PLATE I 



Prxxi SocBiil. Arch. March 78i 






Cartouches of Sharu and Khufu 






-LU^ 



Old Empire Inscriptions from El-kab 
(From Drawings by Prof. Sayce) 



Mar. 7] TROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



SOME OLD EMPIRE INSCRIPTIONS FROM EL-KAB. 
By Prof. A. H. Sayce. 

In the accompanying plate I have given a few of the Old Empire 
graffiti near El-Kab to which I have alluded in my paper on the 
name of Sharu. I have copied, I believe, every one of these 
graffiti^ of which there are about two hundred ; most of them are 
to be found on the southern and south-eastern faces of the great 
isolated rock at the entrance to the valley of Ro-Anti, and on a 
portion of the low cliff beyond. They were all made to face the 
Old Empire temple, of which the temple of Amenophis III was the 
later successor, and those on the cliff stop abruptly at what was 
once its western enceinte. Dr. Ludwig Stern published a few of 
them in the ZcitscJirifi fiir iiegyptische Sprachc, May and June, 1875, 
and Mr. Eraser has published 14 (or 15) others in the Proceedings 
of this Society, June, 1S93. 

Two of those published by Mr. Eraser I have given over again 
(Nos. 16, 10) on account of their exceptional interest. No. 16 is in 
the middle of a fallen block of stone which is covered with inscrip- 
tions of the Vlth dynasty, or at all events with inscriptions in which 
the names of Teta-ankh and Pepi-ankh occur. The Pharaoh 
" Dudiimes, Son of the Sun " must consequently have been a near 
contemporary of the earlier kings of the Vlth dynasty. His name 
has also been found at Gebelen with the second cartouche Dad- 
nefer-Ra, and as he did not belong to the Vlth dynasty, he must 
have been one of the kings of the Vllth. This raises the 
question whether a good many of the graffiti at El-Kab are not of 
the same date. The royal names Teta, Pepi, or Ra-meri, found in 
them form part of the names of private individuals, and since we 
find exactly similar names, Pepi-seneb, Nebi, and Shema, among the 
Pharaohs of the Vllth and Vlllth dynasties given in the list of 
Pharaohs at Abydos, it is possible that the El Kab inscriptions come 
down to the same period. 

Ill 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.^EOLOGY. [1S99. 

The inscription copied by Mr. Fraser to the right of the name 
of Diuhuiies, but enclosed witliin the same tablet, is of later date. 
It is incised, instead of being in relief like the name of the king, 
and has been cut over a portion of the tablet from which the 
second line of the inscription has been removed. It reads : " The 
amanuensis, Kha-m-Uas." To the right of the tablet of Dudumes 
is another tablet of apparently the same date, if we may judge from 
the form of the characters which are in relief. 

No. 10 is on a broken block of sandstone lying on the ground. The 
right hand portion of the cartouche has been destroyed, and how 
the name ought to be read it is difficult to say ; but the rest of the 
graffito is cleat : " The scribe, the divine pro[ihet of the king . . , 
Seneb." 

• The other inscriptions which I have selected from my collection 
have, each of them, some interest of their own. The first two 
(Nos. I and 2) are engraved on a slab of stone at the south-eastern 
corner of the great rock, where they would have immediately faced 
the old temple. The first line of the first text reads : suteii tep s-hez 
fieter-hon A-b-a si suteii tep s-hez ■iietcr-hfln B-kh-n-a z-d-f iw-k iieier- 
hoti hir seshta n hat . . . "The royal superintendent, the instructor 
of the divine prophets, Aba, the son of the royal superintendent, 
the instructor of the divine prophets, Bakhna : he says, I am the 
divine prophet of the mysteries of the temple." In the third line 
comes a mention of "this temple of the corner of the mountain," 
and in the last line we have " in this temple in this mountain at 
the corner." The first graffito published by Mr. Fraser, which is 
engraved on the cliff", bt^gins with the words : " written in the 
mountain of the temple of (Kha-kha?) the 2nd year, the 5th day of 
the third month of Pert." Here the name of the temple, according 
to Mr. Fraser's copy,* is written as it is in my Nos. 3 and 4. 

No. 2 is a record of " Mema, the son of the royal superintendent, 
the instructor of the divine prophets, Hor-hotep," " his son who 
loves him" being the ''vassal ' (aniakhi) Bakhna, "his son " being 
the " royal superintendent, the overseer of the harem, Beti." In 
the 8th line a reference is made to " the goddess Nekheb of this 
town of Nekheb " or El-Kab. 

Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6 are incised on the south-western face of the great 
rock, and underneath the last are drawings of a fish, a sail, and a 
boat. 

* My coj)y, I ought to add, lias hir-r-t, " upper." 
I 12 



Mar. 7] PROCEEHINGS. [iScg. 

In Nos. 7, 8, and 9. which are all on rocks fallen from the cliff, 
No. 8 being in relief, reference is made to " the white obelisk." They 
severally read : "The overseer of the divine prophets of Nekhe!' of 
the white obelisk " ; " The divine firophet, Kamena, of the white 
obelisk, the divine prophet an-khet-fek " ; " The overseer, dn-k/wt, 
the divine prophet of the white obelisk . . . ." A tomb discovered 
in i8g6 at El-Kab by Mr Quibell, which contained objects inscribed 
with the name of Snefru of the Ilird dynasty, belonged to a 
Kamena, but he may not have been the same as the Kamena of the 
graffito. Among the names found in the graffiti is that of Antef, 
but as his inscriptions exactly resemble those of the Vlth dynasty, 
in the midst of which they are found, he cannot have lived under 
the Xlih dynasty, when the name first became that of a Pharaoh. 

No. II seems to read, "the divine prophet of the town of 
Nekheb, Ati-apes," though the bird may be intended for ba. 

Nos. 12, 13, 14 and 15 are on the same boulder as the cartouche 
of Dudumes, and are all in relief. The lines on the two reeds (a) 
in No. 15 (that of Apa and his son Sauk) are still marked by red 
paint. 

In Nos. 17 and 18 we come to a different locality. These two 
inscriptions are engraved on some fallen boulders which lie between 
the Speos-temple of Ptolemy Physkon and the great isolated rock, 
and are on the north side of the valley. No. 17, that of Ankh-neb-f, 
which belongs to the age of the Old Empire, has been cut over 
some pre-historic drawings, which have been hammered out of the 
rock by means of a sharp stone. The drawings consist of boats, in 
one of which a horned animal is standing up, and a giraffe. It is 
over the figure of the giraffe that the Vlth dyna.%{y graffito has been 
written. No. 18 is of a much later date, probably of the time of the 
XVIIIth or XlXth dynasty, and is interesting from the mention in it 
of " the temple of Akhem at Nekhem." Akhem, the mummified 
Horus-hawk, was the god of Nekhem, the modern Kom el-Ahmar, 
opposite El-Kab, and suggests that a tomb of Horus once existed 
there, like the tomb of Osiris at Abydos. 

The Greek graffito (No. 19) is on a boulder on the west side of 
the entrance to a wadi immediately to the soutli of the Speos-temple. 
The two last names in it are difficult to explain, but "the twin 
Isis," to whom the inscription is addressed, nmst be the "goddess 
Smithis " of a Greek graffito which was cut by a certain Plato on the 
doorway of the Speos-temple. 



Mar. 7] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.EOLOGV. 



[1899. 



Many of the OKI Empire gmffili to which I have been drawing 
attention record the names, not of pilgrims or travellers, but of 
officials attached to the temple of Ro-.-\nti. Among the genealogies 
contained in them are the following : — 

]\Iema, son (?) of Bekhen-Akhem, son of Nefer-semem, son of 

Kamenna. 
Shemu, the scribe of Pepi Ra-mcri, son of Kamenna, son of 

Her-ankh. 
Khnum-ankh, son of Hotep, whose " good name was Pepi- 

ankh." 
Khua, son of Teta-ankh. 
Thesk, son of Sontef, son of Ta-ur-sen. 
Hotep, son of Apa (perhaps the same as Hotep, the father of 

Khnum-ankh). 
Senniis, son of Aku. 
Nefert, son of Her-m-khet. 
Sauka, son of Apa. 




114 



B n 



Proc SocBM.Arch.March 1899. 






A 



«■ 






l&^Lfir:^ 






ia 



UiA, 



/"s^:^ 



if 



15. 













10. 



flpCJTAPXOC 



I^- 



IL-Tir 



IL. 



Old Empire Inscriptions from El-kab 
(From Drawings by Prof. Sayce) 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 



ASSYRIOLOGICAL NOTES. 

{CoJitinuatiofi). 

By Prof. Dr. Hommel. 

§ 38^. To this {ashlaku, rope-maker, hence Arabic silk, pi. aslak, 
thread, rope), may be added (as confirming my translation of 
ashlaku), the Babylonian word as/ilii, "rope," Meissner, Suppl. 
p, 19.* It is clear that ashlaku is only a derivation of this ashlit, 
as nindanahi from 7iinda, sJiandabaku from sha-dub, parakku from 
bara, shatiakku from shana, nmnabaku (written sha-na-ba-ku) from 
7iin-7ia-bi (written sha-?ia-bi), " forty " (semitisized shinipii, from he 
dialectical variant shiti " four," instead of 7iin). 

§ 39. The Lulnbaean king Anu-bam-ni. 

In the so-called "Kuthaean legend of the creation" (comp. 
Father Scheil, "Recueil,"XX : " Notes d'Epigraphie et d'archeologie 
Assyriennes," § XXXV ; Prof. Sayce, P.S.B.A., Vol. XX, p. 187-189; 
Prof. ZiMMERN, "Zeitschr. fiir Assyr.," Vol. XII, p. 317-330), or 
rather an epical poem on the war of a Babylonian kingf against a 
hostile king and his seven sons, this king is called Afi-ba-ni-ni, 
his wife Me-li-li, and his two first sons, Me-7na-an-gab and Me-dii-du. 

Now it is strange that nobody till now has seen the identity of 
this barbarian king, ^;z-/^rt-;?/-;;/ (Zimmern, p. 320, an-ba-ni-ni) with 
the king of the old Babylonian stele of Ser-i-pool or Hazar-geri 
>->-y Nii-ba-ni-ni (or Ami-bani-ni, the god Anu is our begetter) of 
the Lulubaeans. The text of this remarkable monument was pub- 



* Comp. the beginning of §38 in the Proc, Vol. XIX, p. 315 (December, 
1S97). 

t His name is not found in the poem ; Tukulti EN (bel) nishi is to be read 
rather tukiiUi (in my strength) en-ui-shi (I was weakened), as Prof. Zimmern 
has shown. 

"5 I 



Mar 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. [1899. 

lished by Father Scheil, " Recueil," XIV, p. 100-106 ; its beginning 
runs t! us : — 

Obverse. 
•-•^y Nu-ba-7ii-7ii 
sharru da-7ium (written da-luvi) 
sharru Lu-lu-be-{y\)-im {be written i::^ty) 
sa-la-a?n-shii 
5. u sa-lam «->-y Ninni {>^\) 

t-na shd-du-im (comp. otherwise Sa-tu-im and my remarks 

"Anc. Hebr. Trad.," p. 109) 
Ba-ti-ir 
ush-zi-iz ; 
shd sa-al-7tii-in 
TO. aji-ni-ifi (comp. for the ending -m Jensen, Z.A. VIII, 240) 
«* dub-ba-atn 
u-shd-za-ku 

>-«-y Nu-uin (i.e. Nuni = Anum, comp. A^ufi and Anini) 
" >->-y Turn (wife of Anu) 
15. --y ^«-/// (Bel) 

u -^y Ni?i-lil (Beltu) 

•-•^y Itti (Ramman) 

u *">-y >-^y (here = Istar, daughter of Anu and wife of 

Bel-Ramman) 
>->-y En-zu (Sin) 
20. u "-"-y ^y (Samas) 



Reverse. 

10. zi-ra-shu 

11. li-tl-ku-tu, etc., 

i.e. Anu-bani-ni, the mighty king, the king of Lulubi (Assyrian 
Lulumi, in the mountains east of the Tigris), erected his statue nnd 
the statue of Istar in the mountains of Batir ; whosoever these 
s'atues and the stele (tablet, inscription) removes, the gods Anu and 
Tum, Bel and Beltis, Ramman and Istar (otherwise Shala), Sin and 
Samas .... may destroy his seed, ^v. 

The characters of the inscription point to a time earlier than 
Gudea and the kings of Ur (Kalab-Ba'ii, Dun-kinu, etc.), in other 
words, to the period of Sargon and Naram-Sin. 

* With « I transcrii)e always ^y— JEjy (with // v^yyy^^ and with u \). 

116 



I^lAR 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Now, the poetical story of the un-named Babylonian king and 
his victory over the seven sons of Anu-bani-ni, becomes still more 
interesting. Apparently this king was not a ruler of Babylon, but 
of another Babylonian town, perhaps of Kish or Agadi. His gods 
were Istar, Za-mal-mal, Anunitu, Nusku and Sai'ias, and the town, 
where he says to have erected a stele of his victory, is Kutha (resp. 
the temple, E-shit-lam, of the god of Kutha, Nergal) near Kish, the 
seat of Za-mal-mal, whilst Anunit and Samas are the deities of Agadi 
and Sippar. 

§40. The list of Assyrian gods, K. 252 (W.A.I., III, 66), afid 
Ahura-mazda. 

Piteably the end of each of the first six columns and the begin- 
ning of column 7 to 12 is broken off. 

I. (Col. 1,5). [D.P. A-7ium, D.P.] E-a sharru («) 

comp. 4, 22. 
[D.P. Sin, D.P.] Im {^Rammchi), D.P. Samas 

comp 4, 23. 
[D.P. Ish-]tar, D.P. Belit shame 

comp. 4, 29. 
[sha'\ alu Kar-ku- D.P. >f- {-Nitiib) 

comp. 4, 30. 
D.P. She^ru-ia, ilafii rabiiti 

(comp. 4, 31 ; 2, 11). 
10 D.P. Tash-me-ium, D.P. A'usku, D.P. >f {Nifiib) 

comp. 4, 32. 
D.P. Kip-pat \^ { = mdti}) 

comp. 4, 33. 
D.P. Kip-pat V salmu 
D.P. Ku-ta-ta-a-ti, D.P. >-( {Ea) 

comp. 4, 34. 
D.P. Da-gan assur*), D.P. A-gii-u ( = Sin) 

(comp. II, 25). 
15 D.P. Sham-shu, D.P. Salmu 

D.P. Samas (-^y) MU^^ assur, di-kud"^ {■=ddiniUi) 

D.P. E-a, D.P. Zi, D.P. y-Ji:^-^ 

D.P. Di-bar (sic?), D.P. >f (Ninib) assur 

* *~*-^ seems to be a formula piecationis (" all hail " or similarly). 

117 I 2 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGY. [1899L 

assiir D.P. <^ (Nirgal), D.P. -V^T (Tishpak) 
asSur D.P. di-kudp' comp. 1,16. 

D.P. Gi-ga-rak 

.... pa-du, D.P. Ni-mu-du (or Sal-mu J^y ?) 
25 [D.P Sa\lmu, D.P. Sham-shu i^'^^X^ sharrCim) 

. . . DU"', D.P. Sryyy:: su-mu-u (UsumC ?, Sham- 
su-mil ?) 
ashir D.P. J^ MU^^ -7ii (or sal-mu '''-ni ?) 
D.P. Ku-?tu-tish-kat-ru (comp. Delitzsch, H. W.^ 

p. 600, but more probably a foreign name). 
daliii na-kil-tu salmani p' 
30 ahi y^- »— Y^po?"^ iltitii {^&x\vx\)% me-dil-dalCxt-ilani T) 

D.P. Salviu^^ 

'' 7iarani (rivers) p' 

(The rest is broken off.) 
Col. 2, I. shu>ne^^-shu-nu '^w-ar (= tazdkar), i.e., their names 
shalt thou pronounce (or recite) 
comp. 4, II ; 5, 16; 5, 23; 7, 17; 8, 24; II, 24. 



II. (2, 2) D.P. Salmu 

1 i\ Ish-kha-ra (= Istar) 
D.P. Ga-ash-ra-a-mi (the strong one) 
5 D.P. U-tu {= Samas), D.P. En-u-ra (= Bc/u labiru) 
D.P. La-ban {- Sin?), D.P. ^ (TViz^//) 

comp. 7, 2 (Nabu). 
D.P. Gu-ba-ba, D.P. Ab-ku-u-a 

(comp. 9, 17, Gaz-ba-ba). 
D.P. I-shum ??u{-ut-tal-li-ku 

comp. 7, 2 (Pa-bil-sag = I-shum). 
D.P. Afa-lik, D.P. A-nu-ni-tu 
10 D.P. ::yyyjr ::^y -a*), D.P. Isi-ni-tu (the goddess 
of Isin). 
D.P. Ann/)!, i/ani rabnfi comp. i, 5-9. 
D.P. ■^y>- -turn, D.P. ■^y- -7ii-bur {Lim-ni-bur 1 , comp. 

4, 28, La-ni-buf-ii-tii) 
D.P. Na-ru-du, D.P. <][;[ ':i<^- (A'/^-.f//, comp. D.P. 

* Kead t^yyy^ *-py y^ i-e. ^Z/iTW-Za-a and comp. 5, I Sha-iite-Li-a? 

ii8 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

D.P. In-gu-ri-sa comp. 7, 3 Nin-gir-su ! 

15 D.P. E-bi-ikh, D.P. Im (Ramman) 

to 2, 15-22 comp. 7, 4-13 ! 

D.P. Shd-la, D.P. Ta-ra-mu-ti-a 

D.P. Nisaba, D.P. Rammanu-birku 

D.P. Ni-ip-kJm-Salmu (comp. fra2 ?) 

D.P. Gibil-Birku 
20 D.P. Nii-rii-Salmu 

D.P. Nin-gir-su, D.P. Ir-me-shi 

D.P. Khar-me-shi (comp. 7, 13 D.P. Khar-ish). 

zik-kiir-ra-a-ti* 

Hani sha bit D.P. A-num 
25 D.P. Rajfwian sha alu -^yfy >-^yy (Assur) 



III. (2, 26) D.P. ^/>, D.P. Samas sabmi ^-f ^f- 

D.P. Nin-gal, D.P. y^/ (wives of Sin and Samas) 
D.P. Bu-ne-ne, D.P. -£«-// 
D.P. Kit-turn, D.P. f/-;;/« (= Misharu .?) 
30 D.P. Ta-am-ba-ai (comp. tambukku ?) 
//i?«/ i'/^rt! ^z/" ,5'/« Samas 
sha alu ^Iff >-^|y (Assur) 



IV. [D.P.] <V^ (Istar) 
.<4 ■'"'' 



X^ 



(rest broken off.) 
Col. 3, I. (probably beginning of a new paragraph :) 
V. D.P. lb, D.P. Nin-ekalli 

D.P. Nin- « , D.P. Ma-7iu-rabu 

(comp. C:y nia-fiu) 
D.P. Gu-za-lu-ii 
D.P. Ta-tu-ia-a-ti 
5 D.P, Sa-ab- a-la-ti (comp. Sam'al ?) 

D.P. Z^a-/^/-/^ 

* Here begins the recapitulation of the contents of this paragraph : " the 
holy towers (or temples) of the gods of the sanctuary of Anum and Ramman ( = 
Bel) in Assur " ; comp. Tigl. I, 7, 7 iff. 

119 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OK J'.Il'.LICAL ARCH/i;OLOGY. [iSig. 

D.P. Ka- -t;^ 

(comp. D.P. Ka-di of Kish and Dur-ili ?) 
Hani sha bit D.P. lb 
sha alu ^\\\ --ff (Assur) 



VI. 10 D.P. ■( *^\^ /^fl/^/^fl<5<3«/ (Istar of the Stars) 
D.P. Kip-pa-tum comp. i, 11, 12. 

D.P. Mar-in ( = Ramman) 
D.P. Nin-idin (his wife), D.P. Gu-la 
D.P. Pa-bil-sag 
15 D.P. Gu'bar-ra (otherwise D.P. »^!I^ -bar-ra 
D.P. Ki-li-li 
D.P. Sa-hi-ir-tu 

D.P. >-< \^ -pa-li-i (read ^a hutpa-li-i ?) 

coinp. 5, 29. 
D.P. Pa-shi-ir-tu 
20 ilani sha bit D.P. Gu-la 
sha alu ^fyf -^ff (Assur) 



VII. D.P. Mardiik, D.P. 6"^/;/^^ 

D.P. Zar-pa-7ii-ttim 
D.P. Belit-Akkad{-ki) 
25 D.P. A-7ii(-ni-tuin 

D.P. Mu-sib-pad (so to be read for -shi-ud) = Nebo. 
D.P. { Ac- {Kur-nun or Tashiiicin), D.P. Pap-sukal 

(= Nabu) 
D.P. Ki-bi du-un-ki (comp. Mu-sibba-sa =■ Nabu). 
D.P. Sa-a-mu 
30 D.P. Ra-bi-su biti (" the guardian of the house ") 
ildni sha bit D.P. Marduk 

sha alu ^fii --yy 



VIII. D.P. Si- V^ -;^a {Siginna ?) 

D.P. ^a/ (^ sheJu) an-ta (= (?//V/;, above) 
35. D.P. Kal ki-ta {= shaplish, below) 
D.P. AlaratRamnian (daughter of R. ) 

Im (of Ramman) 

(rest broken off, comp. 8, i. 2) 
120 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. .[1899. 

Col. 4, I. alii Umbara (Harran ?) she-lu-ru libnat 
ekalli 11 khi-ih-sJiu comp. 8, 3 

man-za-zu I). P. <y/ p' {Ishtarati) 
D.P. Kal V iim-khu-ru 
5. lish-ffiu-Ji 

lik-ru-bu a-na ali Assur 
lik-rii-bu a-na tnat Assur 
lik-ru-bu a-fia sharri en-tii (or belt-ni) 
ildni sha pu-tu (i.e. the gods named before?) 
10. ina lime {-7ne) she-ir-ti nu-hat-ti (yc\ the days of work and 
rest?) shume-shu-7iu ta-za-kar (comp. 2, i) 



IX. D.P. VII -/;/ (^;7;/) 

D.P. turp'zi (Tammuz) 
D.P. Na-ru-du, D.P. -VI (Istar) 
15. .^y ^ < ^.y >.yyyj.f ^ ^]]y (perhaps \ indica- 
ting a gloss, u Elii = anta ?) 
D.P. 7/-///,* D.P. Samas, D.P. <.Jryy (Nirgal) 
slia alu Kar- D.P. Nirgal 
D.P. La-ab-ra-nu 
ildni sha bit D.P. VII -bi 



X. 20. D.P. Assur, D.P. >--< (Ea or here perhaps Bel) 

assur D.P. /;;/ (Ramman), D.P. Mash-mask (Gemini^ 
D.P. A-num, D.P. £-a (^ comp. i, 5 
D.P. Sin, D.P. 7m (Ramman), D.P. Samas 

comp, I, C 
D.P. -1^ «, D.P. Mash-tab-ba 

comp. 5, II ! 
25. D.P. Gib a, D.P. Nusku 

D.P. >f (Ninib), D.P. Be-ir 

D.P. TUR"zi (Tammuz) 

DP. La-ni-bur-ti-tu (comp. Lifp-ni-bur, 2. 12 ?) 

D.P. Nin-lil, D.P. Belit-shame 

comp. I, vf 

* Comp. the Alarodian god Tchib, Ithib! 
121 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1890^. 

30. sha ahi Kar-ku- D.P. >^ (Ninib) 

D.P. She-ru-ia comp. i, 9 

D.P. Tash-me-tum comp. i, 10 

D.P. Kip-pat ^^ comp. i, 11 

D.P. Ku-ta-ta-ii comp. i, 13 

35. assur D.P. Iin, sha pan Assur du-gul 
assur D.P. I in 
sha ina D.P. <^^ id 
ildniD.V. NAM"' 

ina fimc {-nie) t^^'^l>rM% 

(rest broken off; probably end of the paragraph) 
XI. (Col. 5, i). D.P. Shd-me-la-a (comp. 2, 10?) 

D.P. Ish-me-ka-ra-bu (" he hears the prayer") 
D.P. Njiskii 

D.P. Il-pa-da {Il-khad-da ?) 
5. T).V. Lim-khu-rii-pi-shu-fiu (" they may receive their 

words " ?) 
D.P. Shi-tam-me-ka-ra-hii comp. 5, 2 
shiime D.P. ddinuti (i.e. these are the names of the 

gods of judgment in the temple of Assur) 
sha bit Assur 



XII. D.P. Sainas, D.P. Ai 
10. D.P. Bii-7ie-ne 

D.P. *AX, ^K comp. 4, 24 

D.P. Ak (Naba), D.P. Mash-tab-ba 
D.P. Gibil, D.P. Nusku 
Ki-i LU. siGissi P' (if the Iambs) 

15. ina petit D.P. Santas bal -^^;// (before Samas are 
sacrificed) 
shu7ne-shu-nu tazdkar {-ar) (then their names thou 
mayest pronounce) 



XIII. D.P. Sin, D.P. jVin-ga/ assnr 

D.P. ^^ (Ea?), D.P. TUR^'zi (Tammuz) 
D.P. Mash-tab-ba ci-ru (- sihrn), D.P. J^ (JVabti) 
20. i/dni i^ ^y>- -// 

Ki-i LU. SIGISSI P' "v 

ina pan D.P. Sin bal -;/ Vcomp. 5, 14-16 

shnnie-shunn tazdkar (-ar) ) 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

XIV assur, assiir^ assur D.P. ^^^ (Istar) 
25. assur D.P. >-< (Ea ?), D.P. Sin 

D.P. E-a- « 

D.P. 4- (Ninib), D.P. Ai{?\ D.P. Niti-gal 

D.P. J[^ .<^ t^ (bir)- bi (ideogr. for Shdusligas ?) 

D.P. Hut-ba-li-i {lint written »^) 

comp. 3, 18 
30 D.P. \ (i.e., the same) D.P. Gu-la 

D.P. \ ( „ „ ) D.P. $almu 

D.P. \ ( „ „ ) D.P. Salmu^' (= Salmdnu? 

comp. I, 27, 31 ?) 

D.P. \ (i.e., the same) D.P. Ni-ru 

D.P. Ku-lit-ta-7ia-a-ti (comp. 7, 28 !) 

35. D.P. Il-ta-na-a-ii (comp. 7, 27 Ni-Ni-fufu) 

D.P. iVusku, D.P. //-///;;/ 

D.P. Shi-pa-sa (= shipat + shal\ D.P. Sharru- <^ 

D.P. Ish-la (or Mil-la .?), ilatii rabuti 

D.P. Ku-ii bit-mash-mash 
40 bit-jnash-mash 

(rest broken off) 
6, I. sharru 

D.P. \u-bl, D.P. Na-ru-du 

D.P. Nirgal sha alu Tar-bi-su 

D.P. tyyy2^^3 irsl-tim comp. 6, 25 

5. it-ti-ki (i.e. with thee, O Istar) lim-hic-ru 

it-ti-ku (read it-ti-ki) lis-me-u 

lik-ru-bu ajia alu Ass7ir 

lik-ru-bu ana mat Assur 

lik-ru-bu ana sliarri beli-ni 
1 o. Hani sha alu Ninua 



XV. assur assur assur dp >— < (Ea or rather Bel) 

D.P. >f (Ninib), D.P. ^|j| -ku 
T>.V.Latarak ( ^^^ [^T] ) 
D.P. N7isku 
15 D.P. di-kudp' 

D.P. >~< (Ea), assur D.P. Im 

D.P. Mash-tab-ba 

D.P. \. . . . (comp. 5, 28?) ^, D.P. KU(?) 
D.P. Di(?)P', D.P. Nu{?)-ri-ni{?) 
123 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF lilBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

20. D.P. Gi-si 2%^, D.P. Zi-sur 

24. D.P. E-a- « 

25. D.P. Belit-irsi-tim comp. 6, 4. 

DP. Kii-un, D.P (comp. i, 2-.?) 

D.P. /'//, D.P. Sha-la 

D.P. Sin, D P. Ningal 
D.P. Salinu «, D.P. di (?) 
30. D.P. Belit-shajue 

D.P. TUR-zi (Tammuz) 

D.P. Salmu 

D.P. -Vf (Ishtar) sha <y- -<^t^ (?, = nimril) 

D.P. ur-maghp' (" of the lions ") 

35. D.P. IMP' 

D.P. ALAD {■=shedii), D.P. kal (or lama, ^ lamassu) 
D.P. ^J#i^p 

assur D.P. ^ (Ea or Bel), D.P 

D.P. \n-bi (Sidi), D.P. Na-ru-du 
40. D.P. AK (Nabfi), D.P. Tash-me-tum 
D.P. ii=-\\ (Nergal), D.P. La-az 
D.P. //;, D.P. Nin-lil 
ekallu < D.P. . . . 



D.P. y> 






D.P. Za-mal-mal {=■ Xinib of Kish) 

D.P. >i£IIHip 

Col. 7. (Beginning, several lines, broken off) 

XVI. D.P. AK (Nabu), D.P. Pa-bil-sa^^ {= Ishum) 

7, 2-14 = 2, 13-23 ! 
D.P. AHti-gir-su 

D.P. E-bi-ih, D.P. /w (Ramman) 
5. D.P. Sha-la 

D.P. Ta-ra-inU'ti-a 

D.P. iV/.ffl(^a 

D.P. /;« D.P. Birku (2, 17, D.P. //;/ nim-gir = 

Ramman- Birkii) 
D.P. Ni-ip-hu Salinu 
10. D.P. Gibil-Bir-ku 
D.P. Nu-ru-Salniu 
D.P. Nin-gir-su 

124 



Mak. 7] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1S99. 



D.P. Ir-mish, D.P. Khar-ish 
D.P. zik-ktir-ra-a-ti 
15. ildni ska ku-be-ti (of the stables) 
shur D.P. Gabi? )-ba{?)- --^ 

Gubaba ?) 
shume-sJui-HJi MU-r/^ (= tazakuru) 



(of the bull of 



XVII. assur D.P. <Y7 (Ishtar) 

D.P. Bi-ru-ii-a 



sha Suti 
shd ,, 
(resp. \ , comp. 5, 3 off) 
s/id Siiii 



20. D.P. Ishtar-salnui 

D.P. Ishtar ^13'"'^ { — salmdni) shd 

D.P. Ishtar-ni-rii shd 

D.P. Ishtar-ni-ip-hu shd 

D.P. Ishtar-nimru (leopard) shd 
25. D.P. Ishtar ur-m.\ghp' 

D.P. /^A/ar D.P. Z/-i 

D.P. Ni.Ni-tum (= Jl-tiiin) 

D.P. Ku-lii-tum 

D.P. Ki-bi-dii-iDi-ki 
30. D.P. shi-na ma-ra-ti 

("the two daughters ") 

D.P. ^?/^- Kash-da-ki 

D.P. Pap-sukal 

D.P. Tar-ta-ha-a-nu 

D.P. lb- A-ku 



35. D.P. 5a/w7/ « 

D.P. ^VT (Istar) sha /'/-«a-a.f(-ki) 
//i«/ .y/^c? Bur-uii-da (comp. Dur-Undasi in Elam ?) 
li)ii-h ii-ni lish-ii,e-i( 
lik-ru-bit ana alu Assiir 
40. lik-ru-bu afia mat Assiir 
Col. 8. \lik-rn-hii ana sharri bel'i-ni ; 
ildni sha mat Su-tic 



shd 


>i 


comp. 6, 33 ? 


shd 


>> 


comp. 6, 34 


shd 


)) 




shd 


>> 


comp. 5, 36 


shd 


)) 


comp. 5, 34 


shd 


)> 


comp. 3, 28 


sha 


)> 




sha 


>> 




sha 


)> 




sha 


M 




sha 


>) 


(romp. 6, 2 7f 
Rammdji and 
Sin ?) 


la 


»> 


comp. 6, 29 


is{-k\) 




comp. 6, 30 



(comp. 4, 8 ; 6, 9) 
(comp. 6, 10) 



] 



125 



Mar. 7] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1899. 



XVIII. 



XIX. 



15. 



(several lines wanting) 
D.P. A-7ni7i-na-ki rabuti 
vni-kin ina ma-ha-zi 
KUR {shadeY\ A (;;/^) ^' (comp. 9, 41) alii Unibara 

(comp. 4, i) 
she-hi-ri/, libnat ekalli 
u hi-ip-shu 
bit Ufin-na- ^][]^ (comp. Urifi- {1f\ -ki of the list 

of kings ! !) 
tu {?) -bal-lil man-za-zu 
lim-hu-rii baldta (written ti.la) 
lish-me-ji su-pi-e 

kur-ba a-na alu Assur (be propitious to Assur) 
"V^ (= kurba) a-na mat Assur 
\^ ( = kur-ba) a-7ia sharri beVi-ni ; 
ilihii ska alu Tu-a (comp. mat Itu^a). 



D.P. <^ 

•D.P. Bel-kit-ri-e 

a-sib alu(^) Ga{J)-?ii-fia 

nasir tarbasi 

u ka-ru lim-mi 

sha)7i-sik shal-li77i ?) 

7i7'-rik (written -su) ra-bish. 

Ki-i NU-siGissi P' 

sha pcm 7i-ra-a-ti (the stables) 

epu-shu-7ii (written K\v.-shu-7ii) 

shu77ie-shu-7iu tazakar (ar) 



XX. (25). D.P. Sa/iias ska alu I\ak-zi 

D.P. Gul-iiiis sha alu Assur (comp. 2, 22 ; 7, 13?) 
D.P. Ni7i-Akkad-ld 
sha alu Bit- D.P. nin 

D.P. >-^yf-zi ska alu \ (i.e. Bit ^>^ nin) 
30. D.P. Pap-sukal sha alu 
D.P. Litn-ta-gur sha alu 
D.P. Na-na-a sha alu 
D.P. Mi-du a7/i-7iu ^"W] sha 
D.P. Bi-si-il-lu sha 
126 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

35. D.P. Ka-ni-shur-ra sha "V^ (i.e. Bit >->-y nin) 
D.P. Nin-Akkad-ki sha Bit Il-ti 
D.P. Ku-mar-bi {or -gas) 
sha alu Te-di 

D.P. Na-mash-bi (or -gas) sha alu \^ (i.e. Te-di) 
40. Di-ma-nu-ha (Salmanuha ?) sha alu "\ 
Col. 9. (Beginning broken off) 



XXI. (New Paragraph) 

[ D.P.] Samas 

D.P. A-a-i-tu {Ta^ihi, otherwise only A-a^ i.e. Ai) 

D.P. Nin-ti-la (Belit-balati) 
5. D.P. Ta-hu-ra (comp. 9, 30) 

D.P. It-ta- V' Hani 

D.P. Hal-di-a si-ra (comp. Khaldis of Van) 

D.P. Hal-la-si-a (or Hal-la-dirf) 

D.P. Lul-la-ku 
10. D.P. Nab-ri-is 

D.P. Nirgal sha hii-ub- -J^ {Hubrak ?) 

D.P. "^i^y -ra-gal {Girra-gal) 

D.P. -r-f (Nirgal) A7-'/- V -nu) 

D.P. Na-na-a, D.P. iV/«- ^izfT {Belit-ali) 
15. D.P. Ni7i-E7i-lil-ki {Belit-Nippur) 

D.P. Nin-Ad-ka-at 

D.P. Gaz-ba-ba (or Kum-ba-ba, comp. 2, 7 Gii-ba-ba 
and the Elamitic name Humbaba) 

D.P. Nin-a-zii (consort of Allatu) 

D.P. la-ap-ri-tu (= goddess of Apir in Elam) 
20. D.P. Ib-la-i-tii (= goddess of Ibla in Syria) 

D.P. Ka-al-da-i-tu 

D.P. NiN-zar-be 

D.P. Ka-at-ra-bu-iu 

D.P. As-sa-ra D.P. ma-za-as 

25. D.P. Y/ yy {lg\g\) Hani sha shaine-e 
• D.P. A-nun-na-ki Hani irsi-tim 

Im-uru-lu (=Shutii, Southwind), Im II. (= Northw.), 

Im III., Im IV. 
Hani bcle-karashi ''' (written *-\l^-ki- '^yy>-<^ pi). 

S=T »7^> r)-P- Ma-hu^' 

127 



Mar. 7] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1899. 

30. D.P. Da-Jni-ra-a-te (comp. 9, 5) 

D.P. //// (Ramman) sha (?) f^ (?) ''' (of the waters?) 

D.P. yy niu-dar-ri-e-tu (or imi-ib-ri-e-tu ?) 

sa-fu (or irbit-tu ?) mat Assur altuii sha 

parakkani-sha 
35. /iia-sa-ra-tu-sha 

har-ha-7iu-sha (her ruins) 

ti-la-7iu-sha 

sii-uk-kii (sanctuary) 

ni-me-dii parakki 
40. ku-uiii-])iu a-a-kii (Jaku) sha mat Assur 

shadani {-ni), nak-bi (comp. 8, 3) 

ncirani kib-rat irbit-tim 

Col. 10. (Beginning; .v + 5 hnes, broken off.) 

Im-ud lib-bi 

e-pish za-kut-tii 

nap{ ?)-shi/r pi-ti-iim ( ? ) 
10. ana alu Assur pit-a-a ; 

lime arkuti 

shanati da-ra-a-ti 

kakkii dan-mi 

BAL-rt {paid) ar-ka 
15. shandii GkV,-v>\ rapshdti 

ashariddni, sharrdni 

a-na sharri beli-ni di-na (for idina) ; 

sha an-na-a-ti (scW. kafri, presents, gifts) 

a-na ildni-shu iddinu {-nit) 
20. sa-ka ma-a-da dacalp' {tirappishu'l') 

a-na tab-bii-Ii-shu (to his flock) 

di-na-ni-shu (and to himself) 

lu Ti-LA (balit), /// sha-Iim, 

eli sharrdni mal-kii-u-iam 
25. sharru-tam kish-shu-ta 

epush (KAK-ush), she-bu-ta 

la-bi-ru-ta lil-lik, 

ana mu-din (for the man) ta-nie an-nu-ii (who con- 
jures these gods) 

\^ -/■;;/ (shadim ?) ellu-tu, shainnP^ la-shd'^^ (unceasing 
oils), 

128 



M.R. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1X99. 

30. MUN {tabiti^ frankincense) ^ -ba (gift) ri-ki-ti (of 
fragrant plants) 
ara a-ka-li-shu-nu (for the food of the gods) 
11 ki-ri-rii tabu (and a good lamp or fire ?) 
a-ua mt-ri-shu-nii 
lib-ski, bul-ta {=■ bui/ifa, Imper.) 
35. s/ii ri-a (my flesh), ^/-/«-^a(Imper. of damaku) 
ik-ri-bi (my prayer") ; 
. . . sha ildni {-ni) 
\_a-shi-'\ bu-ut mat Assur 

(Probably end of the paragraph ; the beginning of 
the next column broken off) 

XXII. (Col. 11) 

D.P. \\ [y;? ox-kul'] 
D.P. AK {Nabii) sha ][fl|zy 
D.P. Belit Hani (= line 16) 
D.P. 4- (Ninib), D.P. Na-na-a 
5. D.P. Marduk abbulli D.P. ^\ (Ishtar). 
abbuli D.P. lb 
D. P. Belit Ti-LA (balati) 
D P. Ba-ti 
D.P. Gu-la 
10. D.P. Ku-nz-jii-tu (comp. otherwise D.P. nin- Sl^Jl, 
and Kur-nun ■=■ Tashmetii) 
D.P. TUR- t^yyyy {mar biti, god of the under-world) 
D.P. Za-ri-ku (= -^y <{;^ ^.flpy, Z.A. vii, 275) 
D.P. E-di-ru {E-ti-ru) 
D.P. Ga-me-lu 
15. D.P. ^^ {= belit) Ni-na-a 

D.P. Be-lit Hani {^ line 3) 
D.P. Im (Ramman) sha e-nn-hi 
D.P. Imgur >->-y >-< (Ea or here perhaps Bel) 
D.P. Ni-mid *-^\ >-< (Ea „ ,, ,, 

20. Ilaui sha bit Sag-ilia 
u Bab-Hi (-ki) 
Ina iimi (-me) lu-sigissi ''' 
ina pan D.P. *-\X (Bel) ba'l-u 
shume-shu-nu tazakar 



I 29 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1S99. 

XXIII. 25. D.P. AK {Nabu), D.P. A-gti-7t (Sin) 

D.P. Sir-gal (great serpent), D.P. Na-na-a 
D.P. E-a- «, D.P. ^ (Marduk) 
D.P. Zar-pa-ni-tum 
D.P. Sin, D.P. Nin-gal 
30. D.P. Samas, D.P. Gu-Ia (otherwise D.P. \\ fj ) 
D.P. Shar-i'ir {^ T TT- ) 
D.P. Shar-gaz (^ -^a^) 
D.P. ^-^/-//i 
D.P. Za-me-ni 

35 ;-;/, D.P. Nushi 

Col. 12. (Beginning broken off) 
[^^<^-] /// (-^/) 
D.P. \Samas\ D.P. ^/ 
[D.P.] Crt/, An-shar Di-e-ri {— of Dur-ili) 
D.P. iV/>?a/, D.P. Za-r70 
5. D.P. Za-mal-mal 

D.P. ^/>/, D.P. Di-KUD {Nabii) 

D.P. Nin-ka-rak 

T>.V. Nab-te-sii^) -kii-li 

D.P. iV/^^/Cv^, D.P. -^yyy -::yf 

10. D.P. I-shnm 

iidni {-ni) ska pan D.P. Marduk 



XXIV. Ki-i sharrit lu-sigissi ''' 

Ina pan kakkabani epusu-ni (^ -iis-u-ni) 
ina pan Assur, ina pan D.P. Marduk 
15. ina pan D.P. Mas-mas (= Nirgal, but 'here perhaps 
Nin-ib), ina pan D.P. •(7/ (Istar) 
ina pan D.P. &'//, ifia pan D.P. ^ [N'abu) 
ina pan kakkab ^ •"•-y^ (Kak-BAN, Sirius), ///rt' /Jw 

kakkab ^ETTT^y (near Sagittarius ?) 
ina pan D.P. //// (Ramman) 

[ „ ] D.P. Frt!-;7-/7' (p'^^j or perhaps an imitatioii 
of the West-Semitic Yerakh, " Moon " ?) 
20. [ „ ] D.P. Gula 
[ „ ] D.P. A'ir^a/ 

I T.O 



Mar. 7] TROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

\ina pdiP^ >— (read >">-y?) gam-Ium (comp. W.A.I., 

5, 46, I, line 3) 
[ „ D.P.] TUR ■'^ .z\ 

25 V"^ (Sha-mash) ? or perhaps the rest 

of a verb) 



ila7ii 

^T 

30 MU.KAM 

liT -ba 

34-3S broken off (end) 

Evidently this list had originally twelve paragraphs, § i forming 
a sort of introduction, and § 24 a ritual conclusion. The paragraphs 
2-7 give the names of the gods of the chief temples of the old city 
Assur (§ 2 temple of Anu and Ramman, § 3 of Sin and Samas, § 4 of 
Istar, § 5 of lb, § 6 of Gula, § 7 of Marduk). Then follow in § 8 
different gods, perhaps of Umbara (= Harran ?), whose names are 
to be invoked on certain holy days ; § 9 gives the gods of the temple 
of the " Seven-god " (Nergal or Nusku) ; § 10 is a parallel enumera- 
tion to § I, whilst in § II the divine judges of the temple bit-Assur 
(probably the chief temple of the town Assur) are enumerated. 
Then follow § 12 and 13, Samas and Sin, with an advice to invoke 
their names and the names of their consort gods. With § 14 the 
list leaves Assur and enumerates the other sanctuaries and gods of 
Assyria and the Assyrian empire, beginning with Istar of Nineveh 
and some other gods of this capital. The §§15 and 16 begin with 
a praise to the two principal Babylonian gods, Belu (Marduk) and 
Nabu. Of special interest are the following paragraphs, §§ 17-21, 
because they name the gods of foreign countries, at first of the 
nomadic tribes of the Siiti (§ 17, Istar of Suti, comp. the mention of 
the town Pinas, perhaps = Pilaz, and of Burunda), then the gods of 
the Aramaic tribe of Tua (= Itiia, § 18, comp. the mention of bit 
Uriiiiia-azag, the native place of the second dynasty of Babel, and 
again Umbara, which is held by Mr. Pinches to be Erech), then § 19 
two, probably also foreign gods of cattle, then § 20, Samas of Kakzi, 
and several gods of a town called Bit-Belti. But the most impor- 
tant paragraph is § 21, " the gods of the land of Assur," i.e., of the 

131 K 



Mar 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S99. 

Other parts of the Assyrian dominion ; here we meet a number of 
foreign-sounding names of gods, e.g. Nabris, the Urartian Haldia, 
Tahura and Dahurati, the goddesses of Apir, Ibla and Kalda, and 
last, not least, Assara-Mazas, immediately followed by the seven 
good spirits of heaven (the Igigi), the seven evil spirits of earth 
(the Anunnaki), and the four winds, and the warlike " lords of 
encampment," /"tV karashi). That this god is no other than the 
Iranian Ahit?'a-/nazda (the Indian Varuna or the first of the Asuras), 
the first of the seven good spirits or Amesha-spentas (in India the 
Adityas), will be shown in one of the next paragraphs of these 
Assyriological Notes (see below, § 50). 

The two last paragraphs (excepting the concluding § 24), namely 
§§22 and 23, give the gods of the temple Sagilla in Babel (Babel 
being an Assyrian province since the times of Sennacherib till Assur- 
banipal, to whose library the whole list belonged), and (§ 23) some 
gods like Nabu and others specially attached to Merodach. 

The concluding paragraph (§ 24) shows clearly the astral 
character of a large number of the Assyrian gods; comp. the 
beginning : " if the king offers sacrifices (lambs) before (lit. in the 
front of) the stars, before Assur, Marduk, etc. \scil. he is obliged to 
pronounce their names]. Assur (originally An-sur, then with vowel 
assimilation A?i-sar) meant originally the heavenly hosts, i.e., the stars, 
and the god of these stars, i.e., the Moon (comp. the hymn, W.A.I., 
IV, 9) ; in later times this origin was forgotten, and the sun-disc 
became the holy emblem of the chief god of Assyria. Only one 
thing is strange, and needs further explanation, namel)'', that also 
Im or Ramman is found, besides the planetary deities as Marduk, 
Ninib, Istar, Nabu, Nirgal under these star-gods; but perhaps Im 
is here only an abbreviation of a fuller name, i.e., Im-di/gud-khu, 
the Pegasus of the sky {Im- ^t- -khu of the Gudea inscriptions, 
/j:^ being here only an abbreviation for ^^^V). 

I 41. The true reading of Jj^f , UR-, as the first element of proper 
nafnes. 

In the " Orientalistische Litteraturzeitung," Vol. I, p. 13, in his 
review of Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian tablets, Vol. II (edited 
by Mr, King of the British Museum), Dr. Peiser reads the name 
][]y >-«-y -Ba-u Kalal>-Bau, and gives as proof the following note : — 

"So ist ][]y zu lesen, wie z. B. Seite 12 unterstes Fach der 
ersten Spalte beweist." 

132 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS, [1899. 

But the name, which Dr. Peiser alleges, is to be read ][]Hf ^y^ 
-shar-giib-da, and not, as Dr. Peiser meant, ur-ku (= Kalab) -shar- 
gub-ba. My esteemed friend, i\I. Thureau Dangin, wrote to me 
about this reading a year ago (in a letter, dated Paris, 28th January, 
1S98) as follows :— 

** Le second signe de VK-x-shar-gub-ba est til, en non ku, ainsi 
que le pense M. Peiser. Je crois ailleurs que dans les noms propres 
I'element ^^ pent correspondre a Kalbu {cf. dans les contrats 
Neo-Babyloniens Kalbi-Bau, Kalbi-Marduk, etc., et ' Corp. Inscr. 

Semit.,' I, 71, 07^^ H/^)- H semble bien que dans cet emploi 
Kalbu a le sens de chien : on pouvait aussi bien s'appeler le chien 
que le petit veau {cf. ^|^ -Sin) de telle divinite. Cf. dans una 
lettre au roi d'Assur, aiia knlbi-shu ana iatncbi) ardi-shu, ' a son 
chien, a son serviteur,' et II Rois viii, 373n ^IH^- Quant a 
savoir si 2,73 ' chien ' et 3.73 ' hierodule ' ont meme origine c'est 
une question sur laquelle je n'oserais pas avoir d'opinion. En tout 
cas il parait bien que des I'origine ' hierodule ' ait ete rendu par 
I'ideogramme de chien, ][[*-y. Voici en effet comment je serois 
dispose a comprendre Urnina Decouv., pi. 2 fer, No. 2, Col. Ill, 
cases 3 et suivantes : 40 ur | dam | dinger nina | mas bi-pad : 
"40 hierodules, epoux de la deesse Nina, j'ai choisis." 

Now I am in a position to give a mathematical proof for the 
reading Kalab- for ur (only that the nominative of its status absol. 
is not kalbu " dog," but kalabu " priest," comp. my " Anc. Heb. 
Trad.," p. ii4f.). Dr. Meisner in his valuable Supplement zu den 
Assyrischen Worterbuchern " (Leiden, 1898), gives, s.v. Aviil-Samas 
(ur >->-y -^y), sufficient evidence for the meaning " worm," citing 
the passage W.A.I., II, 49, 63, skumma kakkabu a?ia amel Sajuas 
itur (" wenn ein Stern sich in einen Sonnenmanns-wurm verwandelt"), 
the word before it being ndbi, the words after it sdst, kalmati. On 
the other side Prof. Delitzsch in his " Handworterbuch," s.v. kalbu 
" dog," cites the lexicographical list of names of dogs (and other 
animals), W.A.I. , II, 6, 13-19, where we read : — 

UR-KU = kal-bu 

yy Nwi-7na-ki = ka-lab Elamti, " dog of Elam," etc. 

[IT ^*~'\ ^T] IT (i-S-5 ka-lab) ^*^ Sha-mash 

Since this ][]y >-^y -^y = Ka-lab- D.P. Shamash is exactly of 
the same formation of the well-known proper names beginning with 
UR, the proof for the reading Ka-lab is convincing. 

133 K 2 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL^OLOGY. [1S99. 

Why the Babylonians called a certain kind of worm " priest ot 
Samas " (Sonnen-priester), we do not know (perhaps because it had 
on its back a drawing resembling some ornament of a priest of the 
Sun?), but the fact that they did so is indisputable. 

§ 42. The true reading of *-*^ Nin- VfJ as Nin-ib (comp. above, 
§ 32, Dec, 1897). 

Every Assyriologist knows the role which placed Nin-ib or Nin- 
dar beside Assur in the religion of the Assyrian kings. Since 
" Istar of Nineveh " (as the ideograph of Nineveh ^< jKf -^^ shows) 
was originally the goddess ^>-\ ^<jK! of the Gudea inscriptions, 
or Gida, it is most probable that Nin- J^, the consort of Gula, 
was, beside Istar, the chief god of Nineveh, like Anu and Ramman 
were the two chief gods in the city of Assur. This is proved by the 
statement of the classics that Ninos, the Heros eponymus of Nineveh 
(his child is Ninyas = Ninua, i.e., in the language of genealogy : he 
founded Nineveh) was the " son of Belos " ; for Nin- J^ is too the 
" valiant hero " and the " son " of En-lil or Bel. But if this is so, 
then it is more than probable that Niniia (Ninva, T\')l^'l^ Nineveh) 

is a direct derivation from the name of the god Nin- jyj = Ninos, 
and this again is only possible under the pre-supposition that the 
true pronounciation of this name was (at least in Assyria) not Nin- 
dar, but Nin-ib. The change from Nin-ib to Niniba, Niniva, Ninva 
(Ninua), Nina (Ni-na-a, beside Ni-nu-a), \<V'09 is easy enough. 

§ 43. Meissner, "Supplement," p. 96, gives an Assyrian word 
shanunkatu, " queen," citing " Beitrage zur Assyriologie," III, 260, 
6, and 360 (Istar of Erech has, in an inscription of Esarhaddon, 
the epithet sha-nu-un-ka-at ad-na-a-tt, " the queen of the dwelling 
places "), comp. Pinches, Strong, " Hebraica," VIII, 118 (cited by 
Meissner, B.A., 11\,t,6i), shaniikaiu=sharratu and malkatu (81,4, 
28, 327, duphcate of W.A.I., V, 41, No. i). I see in this word an 
Elamite prototype sanunk, "queen," differentiated from the well- 
known Elamite word siinkik, " king." Comp. for similar differentia- 
tions to form a feminine Sum. abba, " old man " (Mongol., ebii-^\QX\), 
umma, " old woman " (Mongol., etne-ghQn) ; Sum., ?iun, lord, 7ii?i, 
lady. 

§ 44. Peiser in "Orient. T>itt. Zcit.," Vol. I, p. 13, gives as the 
value of the sign Amiaud, Tableau No, 32, added to many proper 

134 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

names of the contract tablets of Telloh -gi (postposition of genitive). 

He seems not to know that this sign — |Ej — is the Neo-Assyrian 

j-^y, and has here'the meaning zkkaru, "peasant." M. Thureau 
Dangin, in the above-mentioned letter (see § 41), writes to me about 
this only possible reading and translation : " Je suis absolument de 

votre avis pour la lecture de —1=1 — I-" 

§ 45. In the contract tablets of the so-called younger kings of 
Ur (Dungi, Bur-Sin, Gimil-Sin, Ini-Sin), we meet sometimes a 
foreign town, read by Scheil and Thureau-Dangin Hu-hu-nu-rii 
(-ki), var. Hic-tih-nu-ri. But Hilprecht gives a more exact reading, 
Hu-hu-tar-ri, Hu-iih-tar-ri ( »v instead of >jA). I think this 
latter the only right one ; the town is in Elam, and in the modern 
Shusier we have the direct descendant of the old Huhtar. 

Another interesting place-name we find in this text {e.g., Arnold, 
"Ancient Babyl. Temple Records," New York, 1896, No. 10, ()b ; 
13, 4^;, 5<^), namely A-dam-dun-ki, in which I see the modern Lavilu7i 
in the marshes of Lower Babylonia. 

§ 46. The Assyrian word kakku, " weapon." 

This word, especially used in Assyrian texts (in connection with 
the god Nin-ib, the lord of Nineveh, § 42), has no Semitic etymology. 
Therefore it will be not accidental that we meet in Armenian and 
Kurdic a word cak (spoken tshak, chak) with the same meaning, 
'• v;eapon ; " for tsha, originally ka, comp. Armenian tshaman, 
KVf^uvov, Hebrew kammon. That the origin of the word kakku is to be 
sought in the mountains of Northern Mesoptamia, is proved by the 
contract-tablet of Hana, published by M. Thureau Dangin, A\here 
we read the proper names Ikhi- ^■^\ ka-ak-ka, " my brother is the 
god Kakka;" comp. I-khi-a-hi = i^^Hi^) and Ka-ki >->-y Da-gan 

("my weapon is Dagan,'*' Dagon being the second god of Khana, 
Samas the first, and I-dur-Me-ir the third. 

§ 47- ^^bjlitl^ = lishumgallu. 

In the great inscription of Teima are named three special gods 
of Teima, D'^HQ (Mahram of the Axumite inscriptions, Bahram = 
Mars of the Arabs, P. de Lagarde, "Mitth." I, 108, "Anm.," 
HoMMEL, "Aufs. u. Abh.," p. 35, note), i^S:i3tI> and t^l^'C^^^- Now 

135 



Mar. 71 SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.-EOLOGY. [1899. 

the second name, t^Vi:]';!^, is not ^:[)^ (ni^ll h^XL^, s/iegai and 
dilbat, names of Istar, Lagarde, " Gesammelte Abhandhungen," 
p. 17), but rather the Babylonian daemon usJmmgallu (comp. as 
analogy simkiirri and sinkurri). For another interesting Babylonian 
word in the Teima inscription, h^niD, "stele," asiimiiu, comp. 
WiNCKLER, " Altoriental. Forschungen," II, p. yCf. 

§48. Azrd^« = spikenard, Hebrew ir\1, vclp^of. 

For the three synonym plant-names /ardu, aranfu, and siipalu, 
see Meissner, " Suppl.," p. 54*). Of this the first is "71^, the 
second the Arabic rand (also Sabaean raiid^ one of the four species 
of perfuming essences, Mordtmann and Muller, " Sabiiische Denk 
maler," p. 82), and the third, though T^2 tlT'lD.'ti^ spica nardi, nardo 
stachys (Arabic sicnbul at-tib), is similar in sound, perhaps better 
(because n^l^U? is Babylonian shubulfu), Syr. ^71750 (comp. also 
the proper name Sapalnlu, semitized from the Alarodian Sapa-bilvi, 
in analogy of a once existing Babylonian word sapluhi by the side of 
snpdlii). The Babylonians borrowed the word lardii^ from an Iranian 
tiard (Neo-Persian lal, P. de Lagarde, "Mitth.," II, 25); the Indians 
have for 7iard the younger word naia (Lagarde) and nala (in naladd). 
So we have originally two chief forms : 

{ii) 7iard : vdi>co^, T^2) Indian 7iata^ nala{da)\ 
(p) lard: Bab. lardu, Neo-Pers. Idl (from lard ; comp. pdlez 
from pardes), 

To ^71T'CD {siipdlu}), "Aristolochia," comp. too Loew, "Aram. 
Pflanzennamen," p. 280, line 7 : synon. of ratid, " laurus," p. 299f) 
— like Babylonian supalu, held by the Babylonians synonymous with 
arantii. 

§ 49. The fourth volume of the " Cuneiform Texts from Baby- 
lonian Tablets " (edited by Mr. Pinches for the British Museum) is 
full of interesting proper-names. Of such of Babylonians I will only 
cite pi. 34^, line 1 7, Sin-na-bi-ish-iii?i, inasmuch by this name is 
proved the reading of the Babylonian Noah, ^y napisfi, as Pir- 
napisti or Samas-napisti (Pir = Samas), " Sun of the Soul " (like 

* Comp. for arantii, Meissner, p. 17: "a white plant (».<•., with white 
flowers?), growing on the banks of rivers " (synom. lardu). Other synonyms are 
^asarratti, luldtu, and anunfltti (Delitzsch, H. \V., p. 135). 

136 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Sin-napisti, " Moon of the Soul "). But still more remarkable are a 
large number of Arabic or West-Semitic names, like pi. 9^, line 18, 
Su-mi(-a-far, Sabaean ) X® V ^ iS ' Sum/m-watar. 

26b^ line 15, Sti-mu-ra-mji, comp. ^?) V^ A, Sumhu-riyam 
350, line 27, Mu-tum-ilu, n^1I>^nn> 'r^tir^n?^ 
\a, line 4, Zi-im-ri-i-id-da ^"l^'^^T^ O H ? )^ H {Q^^'^^'^-y^^^'^) 
la, line 8, Zi-i7n-ri-ha-am-viu , Di?^"^?2T {Dwiri-A)?ifn) 

I a, line 17, Zi-ini-ri-ha-na-ta (priest of Martu), ni5^^1?:2T 

{-Dimri-Anai) 
2, line 21, Ya-as-di-ha-aJ7i-mu (QV^HIi^"^), comp. T. A. Yashdata. 

42a, line X, Gu-um-gu-ni-m, which proves that Gungunum (the 
follower of Ismi-Dagan of Nisin) is only dis- 
similated from Gicmgunnm and this latter from 
Gumgiumim (Arabic Gicvigiini). Bungiaiiim 
seems too a dissimilation of this same Arabic 
name. 

i6fl, line 24, Ya-ab-ni-ig-ilu, comp, Bi?igdtii-shar-ali, "my 
strength (?) is the king of the town " (name of 
a god, comp. TT\phl2^ Melkart). 
On similar names, their formation and etymology, see the third 
chapter of my book, " Ancient Hebrew Tradition." 

§ 50. Ahura-mazda and Variina in Assyrian inscriptions. 

Prof. Oldenberg of Kiel, the celebrated author of the " Life of 
Buddha " and " Religion of the Veda," gave in the latter book and 
in a special article, " Varuna and the Adityas " ("Zeitschr. der 
Deutsch-Morgenl. Gesellsch.," 50, 1S96, p. 43-68), the following 
points as highly probable : — 

a. The Vedic Mitra and Varuna are originally Sun and 
Moon ; with them are closely connected the seven Adityas, 
originally the seven planets (Varuna and Mitra being the first two 
of them). 

b. In the same manner the Avestic Ahura-mazda (the high 
Asura), the first of the seven Amesha-spenta, is originally the moon, 
and the Amesha-spenta (= Aditya) the seven planets. 

c. In the Avesta Ahura and Mithra (originally Moon and Sun) 
form always a pair, like in the Veda, Varuna and Mitra. 

137 



Mar. 7] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1899. 

d. All this depends upon Babylonian influence (comp. too the 
monotheistic and developed character of the Vedic Varuna hymns 
and of the Avesta with such a Babylonian hymn as the hymn to 
Sin, W.A.I. , IV, pi. 9). To this one may still add the striking analogy 
of the seven good and the seven evil spirits of the Avesta (Ahura- 
mazda and the Amesha-spentas, and Angra-mainju and the Daivas) 
with the seven Babylonian Igigi (the good spirits of Heaven), and 
the seven Anunnaki (the bad spirits of Earth), both specially named 
in connection with Sin (or the Moon) in the cited hymn W.A.I., IV, 
\\\. 9, obv. 58 and 60, rev, 30 and 32. 

Now the concluding proof for these ingenious remarks of Prof. 
Oldenberg is the mention oi Assara-viazas ("the great Asura") in 
the Assyrian list of gods, W. A.I., III, pi. 66 (on this discovery of mine, 
see above, § 40, end), named immediately before the seven Igigi. 
The latter circumstance makes it certain that only Ahuramazda can 
be meant by this foreign-sounding god Assara-mazas. 

But I have still another proof for the correctness of Prof. 
Oldenberg's assertions. W.A.I., II, 57, 14^?, the god ^*-\ yj f]^ 
i.e., the Moon*) is called >->-y ^^^^t^ or Ai sha kii-ni-i, i.e., the 
moon god of fostering, cherishing (the young cattle in a hurdle). 
The ideogram J^^ (/•<?•, twice 5:|-^, "ox" in an enclosure, \\j 
means " hurdle, stable," kahu ; in this meaning it had the pronun- 
ciation marun (so Delitzsch, H. W., 578) or barun (Brunnow, 
No. 10242), and barim (Delitzsch, H. W., 219, n. 6), and gairu (the 
latter being perhaps a mistake for T<w^f , which has the value garim). 
So, >->-y y][ y]^ (or the Moon) was called by his name Marun (pro- 
nounced Varun), "the god of the hurdle or cattle," with which 
may be compared W.A.I. , IV, pi. 9, rev. 3 and 4 (hymn to Sin, the 
Moon god) : 

kalu aviat-ka tarbasu u supurii ushamri 

thou, thy word makes fat the stable and the hurdle. 

It is remarkable that the only religious text in which we meet 
with the god »->-y Mariin, is an exorcism of the seven evil spirits, 
namely, W.A.I. , IV (2nd ed.), pi. ib, lines 31 and 32 : 



* That this deity either as masc. (for its masculine ;'t>/t; conij). ''Anc. Heb. 
Trad.," p. ii3f. and " Expository Times," 1898, Vol. X, p. 144), or as lem. 
(then the wife of the Sun-god) is always nothing else but the moon (as also the 
well-known goddess Giila) ; I possess now a whole series of proofs, which I shall 
give in a coming article. 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

(Sumer.) i^]]]] -bi, D.P. Dul-azag-ga, D.P. Mariin ashnati vm- 
an-si-is a-an 

(Semitic) in the house of the god D. and the god M. (variant, 
of their priest or servant M.) they are full {scil. of corn, Sum. 
ashiiaii). 

Dul-azagga is otherwise the Sun-god (comp. Samas, the god of 
the seventh month, dul-azagga), or the god Nabu of Dilmun (island 
of Bahrein), W.A.I., II, 54, 710-, which latter is called also S/m-uI, 
"the fulfiUer" (W.A.I., II, 54, ^c^g) or ^^f ^ -sh 11 -id {making 
ready the sceptre or the style). In W.A.I., III, 69, 63, this name 
D.P. ^ shi'c-ul has the gloss Mi-it-ra,'^' so that we are allowed to 
translate as a variation of Dul-azagga and Marun in the above cited 
line : 

" In the house of Mitra and Alarim they (the seven) are full of 
corn," 
or simply, too : 

" In the house of Sun and Moon they (the seven) are full of 
corn." 

It is clear that these gods Mitra and Marun (Varun) are the 
same as the Vedic Mitra and Varuna. Concerning Assara-mazas 
I should like to remark in closing this paragraph, that we have here 
the same older pronounciation of Eranian words as in the Kassitic 
Surias, "sun" (later Ahura and Hvarya, but comp. Sanskrit Asura 
and suria), which is of the highest importance for the history of the 
Aryan languages. In the same Kassitic period, between 1700 and 
1200, B.C., I suppose, was borrowed by the Assyrians the Iranian 
god Assara-mazas. 

* Jensen, Z.A., II, 195, note 2. For surias, comp. my " Hethiter unJ 
Skythen ; " Prag. 1898, p. 13, No. 9. 



139 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S99. 



ASSYRIOLOGICAL NOTES. 

The variant f/u-KAS-ka-a of the common Hii-bu-i<s-ki-a or 
Hu-ub-tis-ki-a seems to demand the value bus or pus for the 
sign ^ ^ , KAS. This is not given in Briinnow's "Sign List," 
p. 196. It seems to be new. 

In proper names the frequently occurring hi-im is not to be read 
Ti-im as if connected with temu, "order" or "command." As 
variants abundantly show, it is to be read Tab-sar. The saru, 
which occurs here, is not the saru which means " wind," but is 
derived from sarii^ a verb frequently found in the contracts, with 
the sense to "speak," "plead." Hence, for example, .<^ -^^^f K7f^ 
is to be read Tab-SarTstar, and means, " Good is the speech of 
Istar," that is, her intercession with the highest gods is all 
prevailing. 

Some compounds of Adunu or Adonai deserve consideration. 
They seem to me new. Aduna-iz var. Aduna-izi, Adunu-apal-iddin, 
Adunu-saddu, Aduni-turi, Aduniha (= Aduni-iha, "Adonis is 
alive " ?) are all to be found is Assyrian deeds and documents. 

Some compounds of the divine name Sur, which occurs on the 
Aramaic Zen^irli Inscription, line 3, may be of interest. In cunei- 
form script it is written »->f- ^^, Silr. We have Siir-ibni, Stir- 
ma-'a-di, Sur-sum-iddin, as proper names. 

The god Salm, who appears on the Taima inscription, is repre- 
sented in Assyrian contracts by >->^ *^, »^, or »->-y ^-^^ <^ ^^. 
Compounds of this divine name are Salmu-ahe (for the form com- 
pare Bel-ahe), and Salmu-sar-ikbi. The latter is the name of an 
eponym, after b.c. 667. 

The element Gil- in proper names seems to belong to that wide- 
spread pre-Semitic race, who are also pre-Greek, in Asia Minor. In 
Mitanni, from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets, we have Gilia and Gilu- 
hepa. In the Cilician native names we have Gilion, Gillion, Giailis 
(see Sachau, Z.A., VII, p. gSf,). In Assyrian times we have Gilusi, 
in later Babylonian times Gilu. We may compare Kili- and Kali- 

140 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

in the names of Kili-Tesup and Kali-Tesup, kings of Kommagene. 
If this be a fair comparison, we may assume that Gil- in compounds 
requires a divine name after it. When therefore we meet with the 
name KiU-gugu, we may take Gugu or Gog to be a divine name. 
So too Hepa may be a divinity worshipped in Mitanni. The other 
name Tadu-hepa can bring nothing against this. So too Gil-gamis 
may be a witness for a divinity Gamis. If so, possibly Gar-gamis 
may be the same as Kar-Gamis, " the stronghold of Gamis." Has 
Gamis any family relation to Chemosh ? 

A singular name, Uarbis, occurs as that of a witness in Assyrian 
contracts in B.C. 667. The same name was borne by an Assyrian 
viceroy in Egypt. A variant of the name appears to be Ubar-bis, 
indicating that the first element is Uwar. Ubara seems to have had 
the meaning of " servant " or " devotee ; " cf. the name Ubara- 
Tutu, where Tutu is a byename of Marduk. This suggests that 
Bis, or Bis, or Biz was a divinity. Another variant of the name 
gives Uar-meri, suggesting that Meri, or possibly Sipri, was a 
byename of Bis. 

March 6th, 1899. C. H. W. J. 



DISCOVERIES AT KARNAK. 

Luxor, March 15///, 1899. 

M. Legrain, who is repairing the columns of the temple of 
Karnak and strengthening the foundations of the walls, has made 
some discoveries this winter which throw an important light on 
ancient Egyptian history. One monument brought to light by him 
states that Usertesen I of the Xllth dynasty was a descendant of 
Antef-Aa of the Xlth dynasty ; another shows that Hor-em-heb of 
the XVIIIth dynasty was a high official under Tut-ankh-Amen ; 
while certain sculptured blocks of sandstone represent Thothmes III 
conducting the funeral of Hatshepsu, and acting as pilot to her 
funerary boat, and thus dispose of the theory that there was ill- 
feeling between the Pharaoh and the queen who preceded him . 

A. H. SAYCE. 



141 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1S99. 

YANOEM OF THE MENEPTHAH STELE. 

March ^fh, 1899. 
Dear IMr. Rylands, 

As a rule the pages of our F>-oceedings are restricted to 
original articles, but in the case of important papers relating to the 
most interesting matters " of Biblical Archeology," a summary of 
what has appeared in a foreign journal may sometimes be worthy of 
a place. 

This I think the case in regard to an article in the Revue Archco- 
logique* by M. Daressy upon the site of the Yanoem, of the 
Menepthah Stele, which mentions the Israelites. The site was by 
M. Naville assimilated to Jamnia near Ghezer and Askelon, because, 
I believe, Seti I mentions a Yanoem near Tyre, as does Strabo,t a 
Jamnia. 

M. Daressy considers that the name upon the stele cannot fairly 
be made to read Jamnia, but is more correctly Yanoem. He thinks 
the Book of Joshua indicates its place to us in the " Janum " of the 
authorised version of chapter xv, 53. This is placed in a list of 
mountain towns of the tribe of Judah, and connected with Beth- 
tapuah, that is Teffuh, to the west of Hebron, whilst Yanoem itself 
is by the Palestine Exploration Fund map placed at Beni Naim on 
the mountain, east of Hebron. 

To capture this Yanoem the Egyptians must have passed Hebron, 
and it is at the latter place M. Daressy thinks they encountered and 
conquered the Israel of Menepthah's text. He quotes the many 
passages of Genesis relating the residence of Abraham at Hebron, 
and his descendants' sepulchres being at Machpelah ; also the wish 
of Joseph to bury his father in the ancestral tomb, a deed he would 
not have performed had no Israelites remained at Mamre-Hebron to 
guard the graves of their patriarchs. 

It is these Israelites, at Hebron, over whom ivlenepthah triumphs 
in his record of the Syrian war, and not those who, probably subse- 
quent to the events therein recorded, emigrated with Moses and 
Aaron from the Delta. 

Joseph Offord. 

* Revue Archcologique, October, 1S98, page 263. 
t See Proceedings, 1898, page 55. 



142 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Mar. -Apr., \\ 




Bronze Musical Instrument in the Collection 
OF F. G. Hilton Price, Es(j., Dir.S.A. 



Mar. 7] . PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

THE TOMB OF PEPI-ANKH XHUA. 

Strange Hathor, 
El Ayab. 
i6//z March, 1899. 
Dear Mr. Rylands, 

I have just received the January Proceedings, with ]\li5ses 
Broderick and Morton's article on the tomb of Pepi-ankh x^ua 
near Sherona, which agrees closely with copies and plans of the 
tomb which I made in June, 1894 ; but as it is a great waste of time 
recopying, I venture to ask you to make known to the readers of 
the Proceedings, that I have copied in 1893 and 1894 the Speos at 
Babain near Minieh, and every monun-.ent I could find between 
Gebel et Tayr and Beni Hassan, including every tomb at Telmeh, 
where I excavated for the Guizeh Museum, and Kum el Ahmar ; and 
as I was eight months at work, I do not think I have left much, 
at any rate above ground. I had intended to publish the whole, 
and have the plates drawn, but pressure of Government work has 
prevented me up to the present. This notice may, I hope, save 
other students spending time over work which has been already 
recorded. 

Believe me, yours truly, 

J. WILLOUGHBY ERASER. 



EGYPTIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENT. 

31, Lansdowne Road, 

Clapham Road, S.W. 

April wtk, 1899. 
Dear ]\Ir. Rylands, 

The accompanying drawing is one I made of an object in 
Mr. Hilton Price's collection, which he kindly lent me for that 
purpose ; he has also given me permission to send it to you with the 
object of publishing it in the Proceedi?igs if it is thought to be of 
sufficient interest. To me it is most interesting, as showing the 
method of using the small bronze cymbals with a hole in the 
middle, which are fairly common, and are frequently called " model 
cymbals." By some they were supposed to have been strung on a 

143 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

cord with beads between and so rattled together, or to have had a 
leather or string loop and used after the manner of castanets, or 
that they were mounted on tambourines as in the present day, but 
this very perfect specimen at once decides at least one of their 
uses. It is made of bronze, the stra])s being flexible, and the 
cymbals are loosely fixed one on each strap by means of a pin 
with a loop in front ; there are two smaller loops on each strap and 
the ball at the top is pierced. These loops were probably used for 
fixing tassels or some such ornament to further decorate the 
instrument ; as you will see from the drawing, one side is much more 
ornamented than the other, but the cymbals are similar. As regards 
its date, I think it must be late Roman, judging by the little temple 
at the top ; at first I thought it might be Coptic, but cannot see 
what they could have used such a thing for. Mr. Hilton Price has 
another in his collection, but not in such a good condition, it has 
also been broken and mended ; there is a broken one in the 
British Museum. These three are tlie only ones I have heard of, I 
do not think there is one in the Gizeh Museum. I believe I am 
correct in saying that all three were found together ; they are all the 
same pattern and decorated in a similar manner. 

Believe me, 

Yours very truly, 

E. TOWRY WHYTE. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 37, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C., on Tuesday, 2nd May, 
i8y9, at 4.30 p.m., when the following Paper will be read : 

F. Legge, Esq. : " Recent Discoveries at Abydos and Negadah." 



144 



Mar. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Members having duplicate copies, luill confer' a favour by presenting them to the 

Society. 

Alker, E., Die Chronologic tier Bucher der Konige und Paralipomenon im 
Einklang mit der Chronologie der Aegypter, Assyrer, Babylonier und Meder. 

Amelineau, Histoire du Patriarche Copte Isaac. 

Contes de I'Egypte Chretienne. 

La Morale Egyptienne quinze siecles avant notre ere. 

Amiaud, La Legende Syriaque de Saint Alexis, I'homme de Dieu. 

A., AND L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 

et Assyriennes. 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 2 parts. 



Baethgen, Beitrage zur Semitischen Religionsgeshichte. Der Gott Israels und 

die Gotter der Heiden. 
Blass, a. F., Eudoxi ars Astronomica qualis in Charta Aegyptiaca superest. 
BOTTA, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847-1850. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler. Vol. 
I— III (Brugsch). 

Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publics pas 

II. Brugsch et J. Dlimichen. (4 vols., and the text by Dumichen 
of vols. 3 and 4. ) 
BuDlNGER, M., De Colonarium quarundam Phoeniciaruni primordiis cum 

Hebraeorum exodo conjunctis. 
BuRCKHARDT, Eastern Travels. 

Cassel, Paulus, Zophnet Paneach Aegyptische Deutungen. 
Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1873. 
DiJMiCHEN, Historische Inschriften, &c., 1st series, 1867. 

— — • 2nd series, 1S69. 

— Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1SS6. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1862. 2 vols., folio. 



Ebers, G., Papyrus Ebers. 

Erman, Papyrus Westcar. 

Etudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 

Gayet, E. , Steles de la XII dynastie au Musee du Louvre. 

Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele. Eolio, 1S77. 

Vingt-quatre Tablettes Cappadociennes de la Collection de. 

Grant-Bey, Dr., The Ancient Egyptian Religion and the Influence it exerted 

on the Religions that came in contact with it. 
IIaupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze. 
IIommel, Dr., Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. 1892. 



Mar. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1899. 

J/.STROW, M., A Fragment of the Babylonian " Dibbarra " Epic. 

Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier. 

Jeremias, Tyrus bis zur Zeit Nubukaanezar's Geschichtliche Skizze mit beson- 

derer Berucksichtigung der KeiLchriftlichen Quellen. 
Joachim, H., Papyros Ebers, das Alteste Buch uber Heilkunde. 
Johns Hopkins University. Contributions to Assyriology and Comparative 

Semitic Philology. 
Krebs, F., De Chnemothis nomarchi inscriptione Aegyptiaca commentatio. 
Lederer, Die Biblische Zeitrechnung vom Auszuge aus Aeg}'pten bis zum 

Beginne der Babylonische Gefangenschaft mit Beriicksichtigung der Re- 

sultate der Assyriologie und der Aegyptologie. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments Eg}^ptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
LEFfeBURE, Le Mythe Osirien. 2""^ partie. "Osiris." 

Legrain, G., Le Livre des Transformations. Papyrus demotique du Louvre. 
Lehmann, Samassumukin Konig von Babylonien 668 v, Chr. , p. xiv, 173; 

47 plates. 
Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c., iSSo. 
Maruchi, Monumenta Papyracea Aeg}'ptia. 
MiJLLER, D. H., Epigraphische Denkm'aler aus Arabien. 
Noordtzig, Israel's verblijf in Eg}'pte bezien int licht der Egyptische out- 

dekkingen. 
Pognon, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 
Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 
RoBiou, Croyances de I'Egypte a I'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologic des Lagidcs. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

SCHAEFFER, Commentationes de papyro medicinali Lipsiensi. 

ScHOUW, Charta papyracea graece scripta Musei Borgiani Velitris. 

ScHROEDER, Die Phbnizische Sprache. 

Strauss and Torney, Der Alt'ag>'ptische Gotterglaube. 

ViREY, P., Quelques Observations sur I'Episode d'Aristee, a propos d'un 

Monument Egyptien. 
VisSER, I., Hebreeuvvsche Archaeologie. Utrecht, 1S91. 
Walther, J., Les Decouvertes de Ninive et de Babylone au point de vue 

biblique. Lausanne, 1890. 
WiLCKEN, M., Actenstiicke aus der Konigl. Bank zu Theben. 
WiLTZKE, De Biblische Simson der Agyptische Horus-Ra. 
WiNCKLER, Hugo, Der Thontafelfund von El Amarna. Vols. I and II. 

Textbuch-Kcilinschriftliches zum Alten Testament. 

Weissleach, F. H., Die Achaemcnidcn Inschriften Zweiter Art. 

\Vesseley, C, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundcs von El Fajum. 

Zeitsch. der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellsch., Vol. XX to Vol. XXXII, 1866 

to 1S7S. 
ZiMMERN, H., Die Assyriologie als Iliilftwissenschaft liir das Studium des Alten 

Testaments. 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



n 8 Parts. Price 5s, each. The Fourth Part having been issued, the Price is 
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The Egyptian Book of the Dead. 

Complete Translation, Commentary, and Notes. 
By the late SIR P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Knt. {FresiJe?it); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

^ xcrics of ^Slates of x\^i Figncttes of tijc Uiffcvcni OTtaptcrs. 

fhe Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825] 

To be completed in Five Parts. 

Parts I, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

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Price 7s. 6d. Only a Limited Number of Copies have been Printed. 

PHE PALESTINIAN SYRIAC VERSION OF THE HOLY 

SCRIPTURES, 

Four Recently Discovered Portions (together with verses from the 
Psalms and the Gospel of St. Luke). Edited, in Photographic Facsimile, 
rom a Unique MS. in the British Museum, with a Transcription, Transla- 
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REV. G. MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., 

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President, 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, LL.D., &c., &c. 

Vice- Presidents , 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., <S:c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury. 

Arthur Gates. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

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Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

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Council. 



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Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.a. 

Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albkkt Lowy, LL.D., &c. 



Rev. James Marshall, M.A. 
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IIAKPISON ANO SONS, PRtVTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN'S LANE 



VOL. XXI. 



Part 5. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XXL TWENTY-NINTH SESSION. 

Third Meeting, May 2nd, 1899. 



-«ce>- 



CONTENTS. 

G. WiLLOUGHBY Fraser.— Notes on Scarabs (3 //(?/<;,■) 
Theophilus G. Pinxhes.— a New Babylonian King of the 
Period of the First Dynasty of Babylon ; with Incidental 
References to Immerum and Anmanila (//rt/g) 
Theophilus G. Pinches. —Major Mockler- Ferryman's Tablet 

giving the Names of Temple-Overseers (plate) 
Theophilus G. Pinches.— An Interesting Cylinder-Seal 
Notes— 

Cylinder of Pepi 1st 

Palmyrene Inscriptions 

The Official Title lu-su-pa-mes 

Ashteroth-Karnaim 

The Biblical Account of Sennacharib's Murder 

Sketch of an Engraved Shell 

The Land of Cabul 



PAGE 

148-157 



158-163 

164-167 
168, 169 

170 
170 
172 
^H 

174 

175 

177-179 



published AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

18 99. 



No. 



CLXI. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-NINTH SESSION, 1899. 



Fourth Meeting, 2nd May, 1899. 
ARTHUR GATES, Vice-President, 

IN THE CHAIR. 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author : — I Dialetti Italic! e gl'Itali della storia. 

Somniario. 

Civilta Cattolica. April, 1899. 
From the Author : — Rev. P. A. C. de Cara, S.J. Del Lazio e 

dei suoi Popoli primidvi Discorso. Fol. Roma. 1899. 

From the Author :— Major W. H. Turton, R.E. The Truth of 
Christianity. New Edition. 8vo. London. 1897. 

From the Author : — Richard Pietschmann, Theodoras Taben- 
nesiota und die sahidische Uebersetzung des Osterfestbriefs des 
Athanasius vom Jahre 367. 8vo. 1899. 

[No. CLxi.] 145 L 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. [1899. 

From the Royal University of Upsala : — 

Skrifter Utgifna af Kongl. Humanistiska Vetenskaps-Samfundeti 
Upsala. Band V. 8vo. Upsala. 1897, 

Erik Stave. Sjon Gennesaret och dess Niirmaste Omgifningar. 
Stockholm. 1892. 

Erik Stave. Genom Palestina Minnen Fran en Kesa Varen. 1891. 
8vo. Stockholm. 1893. 

Erik Stave. Om Uppkomsten af Gamla Testamentets Kanon. 
8vo. Upsala. 1894. 

Erik Stave. Uber den Einfluss des Parsismus auf das 
Judentum. 8vo. Harlem. 1898. 

K. U. Nylander. Inledning till Psaltaren. 8vo. Upsala. 
1894. 

Simon Abersten. Gittin i den Babyloniska Talmud Perek i. 
8vo. Goteborg, 1S96. 

Mattheus Lundborg. Det S. K. Petrusevangeliet, ett nyfunnet 
Fragment ur en Fornkristlig Apokryf. Text med Ofversiittning 
och Kritisk Undersokning. 8vo. Lund. 1893. 

R. A. Brandel. Om och ur den Arabiske Geografen Tdribi. 
8vo. Upsala. 1894. 

Oskar Clemens Pontus Ahfeldt. Den Jeremianska Profetian om 
Guds Rike. 8vo. Stockholm. 1891. 

K. L. Tallqvist. Die Sprache der Contracte Nabu-NaTds. 8vo. 
Helsingfors. 1890. 

Karl Fries. Weddase Marjam. 8vo. Upsala. 1892. 

Zacharias Schalin. Der Aufenthalt der Israeliten in Agypten. 
8vo. Helsingfors. 1896. 

Karl Loftman. Kritisk Undersdkning af den Masoretiska Texten 
till Profeten Hoseas Bok. 4to. Lindkoping. 1894. 

K. G. Amandus Nordlander. Die Inschrift des Konigs Mesa von 
Moab. 8vo. Leipzig. 1896. 

Samuel Andreas Fries. Den Israeliiiska Kultens Centralisation. 
8vo. Up.sala. 1895. 

146 



Mav 2] PROCEEDINGS. 1899 . 

The following Candidates were elected Members of the 
Society, having been nominated at the Meeting held on the 
/th March, 1899 : — 

Miss Bertha Porter, 16, Russell Square, W.C. 
Henry R. Howat, 99, Milbrae Road, Langside. 



A Paper was read by F. Legge, entitled, " Recent 
Discoveries at Abydos and Nagadeh." It v/ill be printed, 
with illustrations, in the next Part of the Proceedings. 



Remarks were added by Sir H. H. Howorth, Mr. Bos- 
cawen, Rev. Dr. Lowy, Mr. Legge, the Secretaiy, and the 
Chairman. 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 



147 L 2 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 



NOTES ON SCARABS. 
By G. Willoughby Fraser. 

In Volume XIX, p. 292, of the Proceedings, Mr. Griffith gave 
some interesting notes on the scarabs in the collection of Mr. Ward 
of Belfast. At the time when I read them it struck me that it was a 
pity he was unable to give us facsimilies of the scarabs which he 
reads Shesha, for comparison with those of Maa-ab-ra, &c. 

With this view I have made drawings of various examples of 
these and similar names, and have added some notes and facsimiles 
of a certain number of scarabs from ray collection, which, on account 
of the names recorded on them, are worth notice. 

Mr. Griffith appears not to have tried to show evidence in 
support of his reading Shesha, beyond saying that Pepy's name is 

invariably written on the monuments [J[l, whilst the scarabs in 

question are almost as invariably written (J, though, as a 

rule, the § sign has not got the cross strokes on the scarabs. For an 
example, which, however, has the cross strokes, see Plates, No. i. 

It appears to me that it is of considerable importance to settle 
the reading, as several theories have been founded on the reading 
Pepi by Prof Petrie, and adopted from him by his disciples, if I may 
so term them. 

With the object of supporting the new reading I have put 
together the following notes : — 

During the ten years in which I have been collecting scarabs, a 
very large number of the Shesha or Pepi type have passed through 
my hands. As they are, on the whole, common, it is remarkable 
that during this time I do not remember ever seeing one whose 
provenance was said to be Sakharah or thereabouts, whereas many 
have come from Tell el Yahoudieh, from whence, curiously, the 
majority of Khian and like scarabs also appear to come. In my 
own collection I find that the examples of Khian, Yaqebher, and 

148 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

the new king Semken, all of which appear in the Plates, came from 
there. At the same time, they are not limited to Tell el Yahoudieh, 

for I purchased a fine Khian of the [ type from Mahomet 

Mohassib at Luxor. Unfortunately, it was afterwards stolen from 
me, and found its way into the Museum at Guizeh (Plates, No. 10). 
During the same visit I bought a Shesha from a Sabak digger near 
the Ramasseum, and saw a tine Khian scarab with the cartouche of 
User-n-ra in Mr. Murch's collection,which he had obtained in Luxor. 
I enter into these details to show that the scarabs of this period are 
widely distributed, but of the numbers which I have seen, not one 
appears to have come from Sakharah, where Pepi was buried, and 
from whence one would naturally expect them. 

If then we assume, for the sake of argument, that the scarabs 
commonly attributed to Pepy may, as Mr. Griffith has suggested, 
belong to another king, we get the following points which are worth 
notice : 

First, let it be noted that Prof. Petrie has founded his theory of 
the date of the scroll pattern on scarabs on the reading of this 
name as Pepi ; secondly, he has attributed the kings Maa-ab-ra, 
S-kha-n-ra &c., Khian, and Yapeqher to the gap between the Vlth 
and Xlth dynasties, on the evidence of the similarity of the styles of 
their scarabs, dwelling especially on the scroll patterns. If however we 
leave out the so-called Pepi scarabs, and take the scroll on other 
scarabs, it seems clear that up till the time of Unas, one of Pepi's 
])redecessors, the scroll pattern does not appear. The Unas scarabs 
are common, but are, so far as I know, invariably plain, having merely 
the name without ornamentation of any kind. I omit the scarabs of 
Kaka and Dad-ka-ra, of which Prof. Petrie gives examples with scroll 
pattern. I have never considered them as contemporaneous with the 
kings whose names they appear to bear (Petrie, S., pi. II, 40, 48). 
Reaching the Vlth dynasty, the earliest scarabs known seem to be 
those of Pepi Rameri I. These are plain, without ornament or 
scroll. Then we come to the disputed Pepi II, and following them 
we have the scarabs of Ra-en-ka, Maa-ab-ra, Kha-user-ra, which Prof. 
Petrie has assigned to the period between the Vlth and Xlth dynasty, 
mainly, I understand, on the grounds of his identification of the 
uncertain scarabs with the name of Pepi II. These must, therefore, 
be taken to be also uncertain. When we come to the Xlth 
dynasty, the earliest example given is a scarab of Anentuf (Petrie, S., 

149 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGY. [1899. 

pi. V, No. 147), (Plates, No. 5), still of the plain type. Then Mentuhtp 
the same. I pass over the Antef IV scarabs ; they have no scrolls, but 
appear to me of doubtful attribution. 

Reaching the Xllth dynasty, of the examples shown by Prof. Petrie, 
and drawn, as he says, from the principal collections in the world, 
we get some idea of the comparative rarity of the scroll pattern round 
kings' names at any rate, even then, viz. :— 

Amenemhat I, out of 8 examples figured, with scroll pattern, o, 
Usertasen I, out of 32 examples figured, with scroll pattern, 3, 
Amenemhat II, out of 19 examples figured, with scroll pattern, i, 
Usertasen II, out of 10 examples figured, with scroll pattern, 2, 
Usertasen III, out of 24 examples figured, with scroll pattern, i, 
Amenemhat III, out of 16 examples figured, with scroll pattern, o, 
Amenemhat IV, out of 3 examples figured, with scroll pattern, i. 

So that up to the end of the Xllth dynasty scarabs bearmg the 
names of kings in scrolls appear to have been rare j at the same 
time I do not mean to imply that scroll scarabs were not commoji 
during the Xllth dynasty, as large numbers of about that time were 
found at Kahun, but of these the majority were merely patterns and 
had not names inside the scroll, and of the kings' names found few 
were surrounded by scrolls. 

Hence I think it is clear, firstly, that the scroll pattern in any 
form is not earlier than, say, the end of the Xlth dynasty ; secondly, 
that it does not appear round kings' names in the Xlth dynasty, and 
but sparingly in the Xllth. We know from the work at Kahun, 
on a practically undisturbed Xllth dynasty site, that scarabs bearing 
scroll ornamentation were common in the time of the builder of the 
town, Usertasen II, or perhaps we ought to say from his time on, 
but of these the greater number were only patterns, not even 
inscribed with the names of private persons, and as I have tried to 
show, in the case of royal scarabs, comparatively rare. 

So that I should be inclined to suggest that the " rage " for 
scroll ornamentation aro.se in the middle of the Xllth dynasty, and 
continued in greater or less force until the New Empire, scroll ornamen- 
tation being rarely found afterwards. (See Plates, No. 23 showing 
an example of the rare survival with the name of Rameses II.) 

Thus, to sum up, we should get the scroll ornament used first on 
merely plain scarabs, then possibly round private names, and finally 
sparingly round kings' names until the time of the Xlllth dynasty, 
when we get fine examples in Sebekhtp I and Khonsu, wife of 

150 



PLATE I. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., May, 1899. 



EGYPTIAN SCARABS. 




St. br. F. coll. 
Tell el Yahudieh. 






St. wht. F. coll. 
Tell el Yahudieh. 







St. gr. gone wht. St. wht. F. coll. St. wht. F. coll. 

F. coll. Tell el Yahudieh. Tell el ^■ahudieh. 







St. wht. F. coll. St. gr. gone wht. St. gr. F. coll. St. bl. gone wht. 

Tell el Yahudieh. Cuizeh. Tell el Yahudieh. l". coll. 




St. wht. F. coll. 

Kom el Ahmar 

Minia. 





St. wht. 

F. coll. 

Tell el Y, 



16 



St. gr. 
Fraser coll. 



St. gr. 
Fraser coll. 



G. VV. Fraser, del. 



\\. L. N. 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

Sebekhtp V (Petrie, S., pi. X and XII), and from the Xlllth 
dynasty to the New Empire, to which period I should like to 
attribute Shasha, Maa-ab-ra, Khian, &c., appearing round kings' 
name frequently. 

Leaving the scroll, there is another form of ornamentation often 
found, in which the name is written, with or without a cartouche, 
between two vertical lines. 

This " vertical line " form enables us to divide the scarabs with 
which we are dealing into two groups : — 

Group A, in which the names occur both in scroll pattern and 
in vertical line pattern. 

Group B, in which only the vertical lines are used. 

Taking the names in this classification, we find under Group A — 

Shasha, commonly called Pepi, both forms common (Petrie, S., 
pi. Ill, 69-86) and (Plates, Nos. i, 2, 3, 6). 

Mda-ab-ra, not rare in vertical line form, but generally scroll 
(Petrie, S., pi. IV, no, in, 112, &c.) (Plates, Nos. 12, 13, 14). 

Khian, m the form of the name, always vertical type 

I believe, and one example of the cartouche, User-n-ra, arranged 
this way from Mr. Murch's collection (Petrie, Hist, I, p. 1T9). 
(Petrie, S., pi. XXV, 728, 729) and (Plates, Nos. 8, 9, 10). 

Semqen, only known so far by one example in continuous scroll 
pattern (Plates, No. 7). 

Yapeqher, of the few examples known, one, Murch collection, is 
vertical line type ; one in the Louvre is continuous scroll, and the 
example from my collection is vertical line (Petrie, Hist., I, p. 122). 
(Plates, No. 11). 

Uazed, another rare name, of which we have two vertical line 
form and one continuous scroll (Petrie, S., pi. XII, 348, 549, and 
Hist., I, p. 121). 

Group B, in which the names occur only between vertical lines. 

Kha-user-ra, Aa-htp-ra, S-kha-n-ra, Nebi, Aa (Petrie, S., pi. V, 
125-145), (Plates, Nos. 19, 20, 21, 22). 

Here we come to a real difficulty. In Group B only one of the 
names is really important for or against our theory, and that one is 
Nebi. The scarabs bearing this name are very rare. Prof. Petrie 
figures, I believe, the only legible example (Petrie, S., pi. V, 125); 
my example (Plates, No. 18) is blundered, but in his History Prof. 
Petrie has shown that there is reason to suppose that Nebi is the 

151 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/liOLOGV. [1S99. 

same as the king Nefer-ka-ra Nebi, whose name occurs in the 
Abydos list of the kings between the Vlth and Xlth dynasties 
{Fetxie, Hi'sf., I, 10S-113). If then the scarabs bearing this name 
belong to this king, and are contemporaneous, they are so identically 
the style of Group B, that all the names in this group would have to 
be referred to the same period as Nebi, and the Group A in which 
the vertical lines are used alternately, we may say, with the scroll, 
would in all probability have to follow suit. 

Against this I have tried to show previously that the scroll 
pattern does not occur, at any rate, until the end of the Xlth dynasty, 
and that round kings' names it appears but rarely until the XII Ith 
or XlVth dynasties ; hence it would be difficult to attribute the 
names in Group A to a period anterior to the Xlth dynasty. There 
seems to me to be also another point, viz., Nebi's scarabs are very 
rare, and in most of those known the name is blundered. Now it 
seems more probable that blunders would occur in writing a king's 
name some centuries after his death, than if the scarabs were con- 
temporaneous. Finally, if they are not contemporaneous, they offer 
no good proof for dating the other scarabs in Groups A and B, but 
should rather be dated themselves by the majority. With regard to 
the Shasha or Pepi scarabs, if some of them, say the examples 
(Petrie, S., pi. Ill, 84, 85, or Plates, Nos. 2, 6) be compared with my 
examples of Maa-ab-ra (Plates, No. 13) it will be seen that in style 
they are almost identically the same, yet it has never been suggested 
that Maa-ab-ra belongs to the Vlth dynasty, and since it is hardly 
possible to include either this king or the remainder of the Groups A 
and B in the Vlth dynasty, it seems to me more probable that both 
groups belong to the gap between the Xlllth dynasty and the New 
Empire, rather than to that between the Vlth and Xlth dynasties. 
Group B may be perhaps a dynasty or part of one, the kings of 
which belonged to a comparatively short period, which might account 
for the similarity of their scarabs. There are two scarabs of a queen 
whose name may possibly read Shahashuta or 'irshuta. They seem 
to be of this period, and both came from Tell el Yahoudieh curiously 
enough (Petrie, S., pi. IV, 100, and Plates, No. 4). 

As to the vexed question whether Khian belongs to the Hyksos 
period or not, I cannot add to what has been already written on the 
subject, and can only remark that the new name Semqen from 
Tell el Yahoudieh is on a scarab of identically the same type with 
Khian's, and must belong to the same period, whatever that period 

152 



PLATE II. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., J/aj', 1899. 



E(;VPTIAN SCARABS. 



iS 





St. gr. gone wht, 
F.'coll. 





.St. bl. gone wht. 
F. coll. 





24 



St. wht. F. coll. Cowroid. St. gr. F. coll. 

Tell el Vahudich. Soft Schist. Wht. Dashur. 

F. coll. 





St. wht. F. coll. 
Tell Basta. 




28 



St. gr. gone wht. 
F. coll. 




Si 



Schist, yellow. 
V. coll. 



St. wht. 
]•", coll. 



131 




St. gr. F. c( 
Abnub. 





St. bl. 

F. coll. 



3 


+ 




U 


>L 




W^T 


x2>. 







Seal, bronze. 
F. coll. 



C, ir. /-'laser, del. 



W. L. N, 



May 2j rKOCEKDINGS. [1899. 

may be. For the rest, the Khian type of scarabs are not hke those 
which we know of Apepa. I am further inchned to read the whole 
of the scarabs figured (Petrie, S., pi. XXV, 721-725, 737) as Apepa, 
as they do not resemble the very clear examples of Khian-XTser-n-ra 
which I have seen, one of which was in Mr. Murch's excellent 
collection, and my own example (Plates, No. 9), which closely 
resembles his, also example figured (Petrie, Hist., I, 119), from 
the Boulac album. 

My own examples of Apepa (Plates, Nos. 16, 17) are small plain 
scarabs of steatite with the original green glaze showing in the letters. 
One of them is blundered, having a men sign added in the middle. 

The scarab shown beside them (Plates, No. 15) is an unknown 
name, and has a very similar appearance, but I have not ventured 
on a reading for it. 

Following the above, in the Plates, Nos. 19, 20, 21, 22, are 
examjDles of the S-kha-n-ra, Aa-htp-ra type (see also Petrie, S., pi. \ , 
125-145). The last figured in the Plates ; No. 22 is blundered, and it 
is almost impossible to say what it is intended for. 

The remainder of the scarabs shown belong to various periods, 
and are either very rare or unique. 

No. 23 is an example of the rare survival of the scroll pattern 
after the beginning of the New Empire; it bears the name of 
Ramesis II {cf. Petrie, Egyptiaji Decorative Art, p. 23). 

No. 24. S-ment-ab-ra. This is a cowroid, a shape generally 
supposed not to be earlier than the Xllth dynasty. The name is 
unknown, but recalls the name of Amenemhat I, S-htp-ab-ra, and 
both Nos. 79 and 108 in the Turin papyrus are said to begin 
Ra-smen 

No. 25. Fu-ab-ra. This king's tomb was found by de Morgan 
in the enclosure of the southern pyramid of Dashur, next to the 
tomb of the princess Nub-htp-ta-khrudet His name is read in the 
Xlllth dynasty in the Turin papyrus by Prof. Petrie {Hist., I, 206 
and 208). The scarab seems to name two pyramids. Men nefer and 
Men-ankh. There is said to be one other scarab of this king in a 
private collection in France. 

No. 26. Nehesi, the royal son. This is also rare, three or four 
examples only being known (Petrie, S., pi. XII, 339). The scarab 
shown in the plates comes from Tell Bastah. 

Nos. 27 and 28. The hereditary chieftainess, the royal daughter, 
Nefert-anket Ra-n-nub ; in the first example \h& Ra has been omitted, 

153 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

and I am not quite clear about the name. These are the only 
scarabs known to me of this lady, who probably belongs to the 
beginning of the Xllth dynasty, and must have been a great 
personage by her titles. 

N^os. 29 and 30. Dad-nefer-ra, whose personal name we know, 
from a fragment found at (i.belain, to have been Du-dii-mcs 
(Daressy, ^^(T., xiv, 26). In 1893 his name was found at El Kab 
by Prof. Sayce, and later on by myself and Mr. Blackburn 
{P.S.B.A., June, 1893). In mentioning him then I wavered as 
to whether he should be attributed to the Vlth dynasty or to the 
period of the Xlllth and XlVth. Professor Sayce, however, tells 
me that he has re-visited the spot, and has convinced himself that 
the inscription belongs to some time shortly after the Vlth dynasty, 
about the Vllth or Vlllth ; that, further, a portion of the inscription 
has been erased, and the name of the Theban quarter of Kha-m-uas 
added at a later period. Scarabs of this king are not uncommon — 
one in Prof. Petrie's collection, one in the Museum at Guizeh, 
formerly in my collection, and three in my collection at present. 

No. 5. Anentuf. One other example appears to be known in the 
collection of the late Dr. Grant (Petrie, S., pi. V, 147). Its interest 
consists in its being about the earliest scarab of the Xlth dynasty 
known to us, and it should be noticed that both examples are plain, 
without scroll or ornamentation. 

No. 31, The divine wife Ankh-ta. On the back is a sacred 
eye instead of a scarab, very delicately and deeply cut, in order to 
be inlayed with pastes of various colours. Its provenance was 
Abnub opposite Asyut, where the remains of a temple of the Xllth 
dynasty were found, and a cemetery was pillaged by natives some 
years ago. By the title and style this belongs apparently to the 
beginning of the XVIIth dynasty ; the title is the same as that of 
Nefert-ari, wife of Aahmes I. 

No. 32. The hereditary chief, superintendent of horses, the 
royal son Pa-ra-her-ament-uf. This is rather a rough pottery scarab, 
with pale blue glaze. The name recalls the names in the judicial 
papyrus of Rameses III (Lieblein, Na/iies, I, 986), and of the 
princes of this period {Livre des Rois, p. 82, 83). 

No. 33, Uah-ka-ra, Bakenrenf. This is, I believe, a very rare 
scarab, and one of the very few remains which we know of this 
king, the only native ruler of the XXIVth dynasty {cf. Wiedemann, 
Hist., 578, et seq.; Petrie, S,, pi. LVII, 1825). 

154 




St. gr. gone white. 
Fraser coll. 



Pror. Soc. Bibi. Arch., May, 1899. 
36 



EGYPTIAN SCARABS. 




Bl. on white. 
Petrie coll. 









^ 









N;v\\<<^i I n n n n 





Bl. gr. gone yellow. 
Univ. Colleiie coll. 



St. gr. gone wht 
\ raser cull. 



G. IV. FrasLi,dcl. 



W. L. N. 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

iVo. 34. The good god, lord of the two lands, lord of works, the 
deceased, Pa-kha-mer. This is a bronze seal; the name is not 
known, and it is difficult to locate it. It may possibly be one of the 
petty kings of Lower Egypt who opposed Piankhi the Ethiopian. 

No. 39. Amenhtp III. I bought this fine scarab some years 
ago in Cairo. Unfortunately its provenance is unknown. Amenhtp III 
seems to have been the only king who made use of scarabs for 
recording the events of his reign. The so-called historical scarabs 
are all large, and large scarabs seem to have come into fashion 
during his reign, and to have ceased again with his death. Plates, 
Nos. 35' 36, 37 J 38, show the commoner forms of the intermediate 
size. Some of the titles are interesting. To return to the larger 
historical scarabs, only one is figured in the plate, but a few notes 
about them may be interesting. 

The king has come down to us with the reputation of being not 
only a great conqueror and builder, but also a great sportsman, and 
he seems to have thought, not unnaturally, that it was worth record- 
ing his feats in this line, so that we find the commonest of the big 
scarabs is that known as the "lion hunt" (I) which tells how he 
slew 102 lions before he was twenty years old. It is dated in the 
tenth year of his reign, and is followed probably in point of date by 
(II), which is undated, recording his titles and those of his wife Theii, 
giving the names of her father luaa and her mother Thuaa, and 
stating that the boundaries of the kingdom reached Kareii on the 
south and Naharaina on the north. 

The next (III), dated in the tenth year of his reign, maizes 
mention of his marriage with another Syrian lady, Kirgipa, daughter 
of the prince of Naharaina. 

In (IV) dated in the king's eleventh year, we are told of a great 
tank made for his wife Theii, and to these we must now add (V), my 
recent acquisition, which appears to be of an earlier date than any of 
the others, being apparently dated in the second year of his reign, 
and which I have called, from the matter contained in it, " the 
hunting of the wild cattle." 

With regard to the relative rarity of these scarabs — 

(I) Seems to be common ; thirty examples or more are known, 
and I have myself had three besides the one now in my collection. 

(II) Twelve or possibly more are known ; a good specimen in my 
collection. 

(III) Rare ; only two or three known. 

155 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILliOLOGY. [1899. 

(IV) Very rare ; one, or at most two, have appeared. 

(V) Is, up to the present, apparently unique. 

For the general sense of this interesting document I am indebted 
to Mr. Griffith, and must here note that he had only a photograph 
to write from. 

" Year two, under the Majesty of (Neb-ma-ra) (Amenhtp heq uas) 
giving life, and the royal wife Theii living like Ra. 

Marvel done by His Majesty. Came one for to tell His Majesty. 

Behold there are wild cattle upon the desert in the 

territory of the city? of Sheta?; His Majesty voyaged going down 
stream in the royal boat (the) " Kha-m-maat " in the night time; 
took a good route and reached in safety the land of Sheta in the 
morning. His Majesty mounted upon a horse, his whole army 
following him. The captains and the rank and file of the whole 
army in its entirety and the children with them were commanded 
to watch the wild cattle. Behold, His Majesty ordered that they 
should surround these wild cattle in an enclosure with a hedge. 
Ordered His Majesty to count the whole of these cattle, account 
of them 170 cattle, account of what His Majesty took in hunting 
in that day 56 cattle. His Majesty waited four days [to give] spirit (?) 

to his horses. His Majesty went upon a horse these 

cattle His Majesty captured 20 cattle ..... 

[Total] 85 wild cattle " 

The inscription is carefully cut ; the glaze has been green. The 
back of the scarab is very much weathered, and the king's cartouche 
has been cut on both sides of it between the legs of the insect. 
This cutting is larger and rougher, and seems to have been done 
after the back had been injured. 

Of the points of interest in the inscription itself, the first is the 
date, as up to now the earliest mention we have of the great queen 
Theii is in the tenth year of the king's reign, which would be when he 
was about twenty-six years old (Petrie, Hist., II, 179), so that in the 
second year of his reign he would be, it seems, about sixteen years 
old, and was already married. 

The second point of interest is the name of the place where the 
hunting took place. Mr. Griffith reads Sheta \ in one of the two 

IE 



places where it is mentioned it is written 111 it seems. 

I do not think the name has occurred elsewhere ; it is difficult to 
know where it was. We read that the king went down stream, that is 

156 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

to the north, and that the journey took a night, the destination being 
reached in the morning. Where he started from is not mentioned, 
but supposing it was Memphis, a night's journey would bring him 
somewhere in the Wady Tumilat about Tell el Yahoudieh by the 
Nile, and then by canal, or if he followed the main stream of the 
Nile, he would reach say Beni Sulamah in the Wardan district on the 
west bank of the Nile. Both these places may have had marshes 
and wild semi-marsh land near them at this period, where wild 
cattle would be likely to congregate. Except the Fayum, there is no 
place that I can think of in Upper Egypt where one can imagine there 
were ever wild cattle. It does not seem that Amenhtp III was ever 
himself in Syria, so that the district named must be sought for in 
Egypt proper. We learn further the name of another of the king's 
state boats or dahabeahs as we should call them now. In his 
eleventh year, at the ceremony of the opening of the great lake at 
Zaru, he sailed in the " Beauties of Aten." This time we have the 
Kha-m-maat, which may mean the " Glories of truth." 

The method of hunting seems to have been to have an army of 
beaters, the principal personages being on horseback, They rounded 
up the cattle, driving them into an enclosure or kraal where they 
could be secured, very much as cattle are herded on a ranch in our 
days, an operation which is neither so easy or so safe as its sounds. 




157 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 



A NEW BABYLONIAN KING OF THE PERIOD OF THE 
FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON; WITH INCIDEN- 
TAL REFERENCES TO IMMERUM AND ANMANILA. 

By Theophilus G. Pinches. 

The large number of tablets of the time of the first dynasty of 
Babylon has revealed to us many things of which we should other- 
wise have been absolutely ignorant. First and foremost, they let a 
flood of Hght upon the manners and customs, and the private life of 
the people of Babylonia at the period (about 2200 B.C.) to which 
they refer. They show us the mixed nature of the population at the 
time, and testify to the existence of one more language to add to the 
confusion of tongues that prevailed there. They give us many 
historical events in their numerous colophon-dates, and last, but not 
least, they furnish us with the names of kings not given in the 
canons. Incidentally, they yield also valuable information upon 
the names of the people (which are very numerous), and the legal 
forms in use, both in Akkadian and Babylonian. 

A very interesting little text of this period is contained on a small 
tablet belonging to the Rev. J. P. Way, who has very kindly given 
me the permission to publish it. The size of the original is 1^ in. 
high by 1 1- in. wide— that is, about the size of the photograph of 
the reverse accompanying this paper. The tablet is of baked clay, 
and is inscribed with fifteen lines of writing in archaic characters, 
closely resembling in form those of the time of the earlier rulers of 
the first dynasty of Babylon. As is usual in such documents, the 
tops of the characters are in most cases ranged against ruled lines to 
insure necessary neatness, the lines not so provided with a guide 
being the first, the line on the edge, the first, second, and fourth of 
the reverse, and the last line of all. The omission of the guiding 
line in these cases is due to the fact that the line in question was 
near the edge of the tablet, which was naturally considered as a 

i5« 



PLATE I. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., May, 1899. 



Obv, 









Edgk 



REV. ^^^ ^'^ 



T^fe^ 



'5 ^l^ltom^ 



Tablet heloncing to the Rev. J. 1'. Way, M..\. 



May 2] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



sufficient guide, and to the custom that prevailed of leaving out the 
guiding lines when the line of writing began with the word corres- 
ponding with " son of," the ruled guiding line being often used, 
seemingly, to indicate the beginning of a paragraph. 



Transcription. 
As gin ku-babbar. 



masa-bi asa gin asa se-ta 



15 



ki Til-lum 
Ur-ra-ga-se-ur-ra 
du Nu-ur-i-li-su 
su-ba-an-ti 
iti Gu-si-si 
sum-mu-ta 
Igi Ku(?)-za-lum 
du A-hu-wa-qar 
igi Arad-Sin 
du Ma-lik-ba-ni 
igi Su-gu-ya-tu- 
um 
y Mu Ma-na-ma- 
al-te-el sarru 



Translation. 
Six shekel of silver. 
Its interest one shekel and one 

grain 
from Tillie. 
Urra-gase-urra. 
son of Niir-ili-su 
has received. 
(yl?i the) month lyyar. 
it is to be given {back). 
{Done) before Kuzalu, 
son of Ahu-waqar. 
before Arad-Sin, 
son of Malik-ba7ii ; 
before Siiguyatu. 

Year of Manamaltel, the king. 



1. It is noteworthy that the Akk. word for " silver," /C'///;rt^Z'<?;-, 
contains the same element as is found in the word for " gold," gusqi 
or ktiski. Silver is apparently spoken of as the " bright-shining 
(white) metal," gold being the metal of the colour of a (dried) 
reed {gi). 

2. Jlfasa-bi asa gin asa se-ta. A very difficult line. Masa-bi has, 
in W.A.I., V, 40, No. 4, obv., two renderings, the first being sfbat-su, 
" its interest " (1. 48 of the publication). In the second example, 
however, it seems to be translated by the construct case without the 
pronoun {masa-bi masa an-tuga = {sibat) sibti isi), " interest of the 
interest there is," which leads one to ask whether, in the above text, 
we are to understand the word " of" before gin, " shekel," in which 
case the translation would be, " its interest (namely, of) the one 
shekel, (is) one grain," or " at the rate of (one grain)," for such seems 
to be the force of the preposition here. The passage in W.A.I., iv, 
16, 1. 54, however, leads one to translate "its interest (that is, on 

159 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

the whole sum) is i shekel and a grain," literally, " i shekel with 
{to) I grain." 

4. The name Ura-gase-ura is peculiar. Possibly the second 
part, gaSe-ura, is the same or a variant reading of the gaseria of 
W.A.I. , ii, 34, 1. 57, where the word is translated by sirpetum ; 
or ^^\, g<^, may have the force of ki (W.A.I. , ii, 20, 1. 31), in 
which case the name may mean " bright like Ura,"— but all is 
doubtful. 

7. /// Gii-si-si, " month lyyar." The reading of 3« t "J^^ "H! TlT 
for j.« ][ tf-^ "r^y ^ is rather important, as it confirms the reading 
Gudsisa that I have used for the Akkadian form of the name for the 
last ten years or thereabouts. 

8. Sumnnita. Though this can hardly be regarded as an 
unusual word, it is at least an unusual form. Judging from the text 
that has already been quoted, ^^:^\ A^ ^^f is for '^^;^\ >^ t^^T^T' 
sum-inu-tani (for so it ought apparently to be read). The Assyrian 
translation given in the tablet of pattern-phrases is ^ *f-^^ jlj^j 
i-nam-din, '' he will give back." 

10. Ahu-waqar (not Ahu-piam), "the brother who is dear." 
Waqar is from dqdrii, the Heb. "^p"". 

12. The form of the name Malik-bani, "the king has created," 
indicates that in tna/ik, " the king," we are to see the well-known 
west Semitic god Moloch or Milcom. Many of the names in these 
documents are Amorite or Syrian. 

14-15. The name ^f ^^ "Ef S^Hf^f '!i*^y t^U' Ma-na-ma-al- 
te-e/, occupies two lines, in consequence of the difficulty that the 
scribe found in writing the whole in one line without inconveniently 
crowding the characters ; and he has undoubtedly acted wisely in 
thus dividing it, as doubt concerning the reading of the characters 
is thereby practically eliminated. That the whole forms the name 
of the king in question is proved by the fact that the character 
;-^^ , lugal, "king," comes at the end of the second line, and 
closes the inscription. As is well known, it was the custom of the 
Babylonian scribes to indicate the first year of a king by calling it his 
year, as in this case. How it is that there is a wedge on the edge 
of the tablet, before the character, >^, niii, "year," is not clear. 
In all probability it is merely due to a mistake of the scribe, who 
impressed it by oversight. 

With regard to the meaning of the name, that is at present 
exceedingly doubtful. It is noteworthy, however, that very similar 

160 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

names are known from the other texts of the same period. Thus 
the name of the now well-known Babylonian king Sumula-il 
appears in one place as Sumulel (or Sumule-el), and Sumu-ente-al 
(Bu. 91-5-9, 2378, lit), possibly to be read Sumu-ente-el, notwith- 
standing the clear writing of the final character in the original, 
seems to furnish another example. Another interesting name, appa- 
rently of the same class, is Mutumel, which seems to be for ^lutili 
(= Methusael), " Man of god." 

Another question is : Where are we to place this new ruler ? 

One of the kings whose name appears frequently in documents 
of this period is Immerum. As he does not appear in the canon of 
the dynasty of Babylon, there was considerable doubt as to his 
position. Meissner {^Altbabylonisches Frivatrecht, p. 4) places him 
after Zabum, the third king of the dynasty, " da in seiner 
(Immerum's) wie aus seines Vorgiingers Regirung allein semitische 
Unterschriften der Contracte vcrkommen und ihre Schrift merk- 
wiirdig iibereinstimmt, so dass wir wohl annehmen diirfen, dass ein 
und derselbe Schreiber sie geschrieben habe." This, however, turns 
out not to be the case, for the tablet Bu. 91-5-9, 318 {Citneifonn 
Texts, Part IV) names Immerum and Sumula-il together, showing 
that they were either joint rulers, or else that one immediately 
succeeded the other, and that there was doubt in the minds of 
the people of the time as to who was the real ruler of the land. 
Evidently this furnishes a place to insert usurpers, and the style of 
our tablet would favour the supposition that Manamaltel ought to 
be inserted here. AVe must not go too fast in fixing the places of 
these obscure kings, however, for we learn from Bu. 91-5-9, 475 
{CicJieiforni Texts, Part IV) that there was an interregnum after 
Sumu-abum, the first king of the dynasty, died. The colphon-date 
recording this fact reads as follows : — 

Iti ti-ru-um mu i - zi Su- mu-a-bu - am ba-bada 

" Month Tinim, year after Sunm-abum died." 

As Sumu-abum was the first king of the dynasty, there is every 
probability that his successors found some difficulty in establishing 
themselves on the throne, and Manamaltel may have been one of 
those who opposed Sumu-abum's successor. During one of these 
two periods, also, there appears to have been another pretender, 
named >->^ ^y >->f- ^ >^y, An-ma-an-i-la, also written 
^>{- "tf jf^ *-^I) An-ma-ni-la, to whose time three tablets belong, 

161 M 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.'EOLOGY. [1899. 

namely, Bu. 91-5-9, 3S0, 877, and 2378 {Cuneiform Texts, Part 
VIII). 

There is, of course, the possibility that this last-named, Anmanila, 
is the same as the Anman * of the dynasty of Sis-ku or Uru-ku, which 
immediately followed that of Babylon (the dynasty to which Ham- 
murabi belonged), and the question of the true position of these new 
rulers must necessarily remain for some time uncertain, because no 
material exists to give us the means of comparing either the st}le of 
the ^\Titing current at the time of Anman, or the nature of the 
personal names in use. All that can be said is that the writing 
would hardly be likely to change at the beginning of the period of 
the dynasty of Sis-ku to what it had been at the beginning of the 
dynasty of Babylon (that is to say, about 200 or 300 years before), 
and that names ending in -ila are more likely to have occurred at 
the earlier period. Though the later period is not altogether 
excluded, therefore, the balance of probability is in. favour of the 
earlier one, and the same argument may be said to hold good with 
regard to the tablet belonging to the Rev. J. P. \Vay, both in the 
matter of the writing, and the form of the name Manamaltel. 

There is also another argument that may perhaps be quoted in 
favour of the earlier date of Anmanila, and that is, the wording of 
the oath used in one of the documents giving his name. As is well 
known, the most usual form is : 

Nis Samas, Aa, (nis) Marduk u (pulani) 

The spirit of Samas, Aa, {the spirit of) Merodach a?id (so and sol), 

itmH 
they have invoked. 

In one of the tablets giving the name of Anmanila, however, the 
following oath-formula occurs : 

Li-mu-un Samas u Anmanila sa a-na 

The curse of Samas and Anmanila {upon him) who against 

a-wa-ti su i-tu-ru 
this decision contests. 



* II is needful to note that this name may also be read Ilu-ma-ilu and 
Anmanila may be transcribed Ilu-manila. 

t The name of the ruling king comes here. 

162 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. 1899. 

This is a parallel form of oath with that found on a tablet bearing 
the name of Samula-il (Bu. 91-5-9, 863, 11, 22-26) : 

Li-mu-un Samas, Marduk, u Sa-mu-la-il sa 

T/ie curse of Samas, Mardiik, aiid Sainula-il {upon hini) w/io 
(a)-wa-at duppi a-ni-im u-na-ka-ru 
the dtcision of thii tablet changes. 

A similar formula occurs also on the tablet Bu. 91-5-9, 704, 
11.15-17: 

Li-mu-un Samas u Su-ma-il* sa i-ra-ga-mu 

The curse of Samas and Suma-il {upon hint) 7vho brings action. 

Of course there is always the possibility that Anmanila may be 
the name of a god, but it is not by any means probable, as the above 
quotations, in which Samula-il and Suma-il replace Anmanila, show. 
As far as I know, the divine name Anmanila, or rather (as the first 
an would in all probability be the usual divine i)refix) Man-ila, 
occurs nowhere else in Assyro-Babylonian literature. 



* Apparently a misLake for or an abbreviation of the name of the kin' 
Sumula-il (Samula-il). 




16 



May 2] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY 



[1S99. 



MAJOR MOCKLER FERRYMAN'S TABLET GRTNG 
THE NAMES OF TEMPLE-OVERSEERS. 

By Theophilus G. Pinches. 



This tablet is about 3I in high by i| in. wide, and is inscribed 
on the obverse with fifteen, and on the reverse with nine lines of 
archaic-Babylonian writing, the characters being, on the whole, well 
formed and clear. A large piece which has flaked off the reverse has 
more or less damaged the last four lines, but no line of the inscrijition 
seems to be completely lost, judging from the appearance of the edge 
after the last line preserved. 

The following is a transcription and translation of the text : 



Edge E D.P. E-gir-su 
Obv. Ur- D.P. Ba-u dumu 
3 sabra e ni-ku 

E-sabra, e D.P. Gis- 

bar-e 
Ur- D.P. Ba-u dumu e 
6 D.P. Gis-bar-e ni-ku 

E D.P. Nina 
Lu- dingir-ra ni-ku 
9 E D.P. Nin-dar-a 

E D.P. l)umu-zi 

Ur- E-ninnu dumu I)u- 
du ni-ku 
12 ^ D.P. Ga-tumu-duga 

E Nina D.S. 

E ba-bi 
15 E D.P. (ial-alim 



T/ie tejiiple of the god Egirsu. 
Ur-Bau, son of the seer of 

the temple, overseer. 
Temple of the seer, te7nple of 

the god Gis-bar-L 
Ur-Bmi, sofi of the temple 

of the god Gis-har-L\ over- 
seer. 
Temple of Nina. 
Lu-difigira, overseer. 
Temple of the god Xin- 

dar-a, 
Tetnple of Tammuz, 
Ur-E-nin?iu, son of Diidii, 

overseer. 
Temple of Ga-tumu-duga, 
Temple of {the city) AUna, 
Temple of Bain, 
Temple of the god Gal- 

alim, 



164 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Edge E D.P. Innanna,e D.P. Temple of /star, temple of 

Ningulu the god Nin-guiit, 

Rev. Lu D.P. Nin-sali ni-ku Lu-Nin-sah, overseer. 

18 E D.P. Nin-Mar-ki Temple of the god Nhi- 

Mar-ki. 

Ur- D.P. Nin-ne ni-ku Ur-Nin-ne, overseer. 

E D.P. Nin-gis-zi-da Temple of Nin-gis-zida, 

21 E D P. Dun-gi-ra Temple of Du7igi-ra, 

Ur- D.P ni-ku Ur- , overseer. 

E (D.P.) -su Temple of the god . . . -su^ 

24 Ur- D.P ni-ku Ur- overseer. 

To all appearances this tablet gives a list of all the principal 
temples of the city called Girsu at a certain period which can only at 
present be determined roughly, but which is probably indicated with 
sufficient exactness if set down at about the time of Ur-bau or Gudea. 
WHiether the occurrence of the name of Ur-bau twice in the text has 
anything to do with the date or not is uncertain, but it may be sup- 
posed with great probability that the two persons bearing this name, 
who were overseers of the temples referred to in the inscription, were 
named after the ruler in question. 

The god E-Girsu was, as his name implies, the chief divinity of 
the city Girsu, which seems to have lain near, or to have formed a 
part of, the city known as Lagas {Sir-pur-la-ki). As I have elsewhere 
pointed out, the dialectic form of E-Girsu is U-Mersi ; and as the 
text which gives this information does not transpose the syllables, 
giving Mersi and not Simer, the tempting theory that we have in this 
word the original form of the name Sumer or Shinar is rendered still 
more doubtful than it might at first thought be regarded. E-Girsu is 
identified with the well-known god Ninip. Ur-Bau, the name of the 
iiikii or overseer, was a common one at this period. 

Sahra is given as the Akkadian pronunciation of the group 
^ yL-f, pa-al, the Semitic sahru being apparently borrowed from 
the Akkadian form. Nevertheless, it is not at all improbable that 
the Akkadian sahra comes from a Semitic source. 

As determinative prefixes seem to have been but sparingly used 
by the writers of Akkadian, the word nihil, which I have provisionally 
translated " overseer," is unprovided with this indication of its nature. 
The word is referred to by Thureau-Dangin, who translates it " sur- 
veillant-chef" {^Revue d'Assyriologie, 1892-Q6, p. 130), and concerning 

165 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [i^c,g. 

it he remarks, " Una sorte de roulement existait peut-etre entre les 
PA et entre les xi-kou ; il y avait done le pa de I'annee et le 
Ni-KOU de I'annee : leurs noms figuraient au has des listes avec 
celui de Tintendant en chef." From this the status of the /a'Au would 
seem to be simply that of overseer, or steward of the j^roperty of the 
temple or temples to which he was attached. In the case of the 
tablets translated by Thureau-Dangin, the things under the charge of 
this official were asses, oxen, etc. 

As C:y >|- is one of the groups for " fire," and, with the ])refix 
>->f-, stands for the fire-god, it is probable that >->][- iz^ >f- ^J^f 
also stands for this deity, or for one with similar attributes. The 
name apparently means " the fire coming forth," or " he who came 
forth (from) the fire." 

The last character in line seven is apparently ^ j:;< J , written 
rather roughly ; hence my transcription as Nina. It is to all ajipear- 
ance the same character that occurs in line thirteen, where the Baby- 
lonian city Nina is seemingly referred to. 

The god Nin-dar-a (Ne-dar-a and E-dar-a are also jiossible 
readings) is mentioned in W.A.I. I, pi. i, ii, 40-49, with the title of 
LiT-KU LiT-LU-LU-u-A = n''i iitulldti, " shepherd of the herds " 
(Del., H. W., 439 a). It is noteworthy that the name of his temple is 
immediately followed by that of Dumuzi, or Tammuz, that lieavenly 
shepherd who is a type of Abel, killed by his brother winter, and sent 
down to the underworld, whence all the wiles of his s])ouse, the 
goddess Istar, were ineffectual to bring him forth until his time came 
round. 

Have we in Dudu (line 11) an early instance of the occurrence of 
the name so well known to us from the Bible as David ? 

Ga-tumu-duga (the dialectic form of which is >->f- ^j Jityy 
J_>-T| _^, Ma-si-ib-sib) is one of the names of the goddess Bau 
(\V.A.I. II, 59, ii,'27). 

^f I^T ^> E-ba-bi (line 14). It is noteworthy that there is 
no divine ])refix before the second element (Im-bi), and this being the 
case, it is of course exceedingly doubtful whether this is the name of 
a god or not; more probably the absence of the D.P. indicates that 
it is not the name of a god. • It is also to be noted that, wherever the 
word occurs in the texts of this i)eriod, the prefix is wanting. Thus, 
on a tablet of the reign of Ine-Sin, ^j ^| ^ is mentioned along 
with the temple of Ga-tumu-duga (cf. line 12), and the i)refix is like- 
wise non-existent. This is a fact that is worth being taken into 

166 



PLATE II. 



Ptoc. Soc. Bib!. Arcli., May, 1899. 



Edge M ^ ^^ K^T 
6 






'5 te ^^s^ ^^--^ 



Edge ^ ^VT W^ 
Rev 



IS S^ 



«f-^ 



^f^^te t^>^ ^ ^ 



24 



1' 






:''/;r?'OX' 




r^/','''^^? : i >,! 



Tablet krom LagaS (Tel-loh) in the possession of Major 
Mockler-Ferryman. 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

consideration, for the name of the father of Dungi, which has been 
read variously Ur-Bagas and Ur-Babi (= Ur-Ba-vi = Ur-Ba-wi = 
Ur-Bau) will probably need that another interpretation be sought for 
it. In all likelihood fresh material from the East will alone throw 
upon it the needful light. 

>->^ JOL*^ -^H^^' Gal-alim (line 15). In this word the last 
character is apparently the same as the Assyrian ^'^ -t; <T'- , aliin ; 
hence the reading here adopted. Gal-alim must be the same as 
j^jp < ^>T? <!>- , Alim, one of the names of the god Bel. 

Innanna (line 16) is a name of Istar, and gives the old Babylonian 
form of the character written in late Babylonian as *^\i and in 
Assyrian as >-VT- 

According to W.A.I. V, 21, 25 c, the Semitic pronunciation of 
^Jf- ■Ji>^'j§y ^^ (which is probably to be transcribed Nin-ne, '• lord 
of wisdom," in Akkadian) was Almu. 

Besides the interest attached to the personal names and the 
names of the temples, we have the indication that certain of the 
Babylonian temples were associated, and had one overseer of their 
property and revenues in common, and we are enabled by that to 
estimate to a certain extent the importance of each foundation, for 
whereas the temple of E-Girsu, for instance, has an overseer all to 
itself in one case, on the other hand no less than live temples 
(E-Ga-tumu-duga, E-Nina, E-babi, E-Gal-alim, E-Innanna^ and 
E-Nin-gula) have to be content with the services of one man, 
In-Nin-sah, among them. It is to be hoped that he did his work to 
the satisfaction of all his various masters. 

In the first line, I am in doubt as to whether I have drawn the last 
character but one rightly. The correct form is, of course, »-^^. 




167 



^f AV 2] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCIL^LOLOGY. [1S99. 



AX INTERESTING CYLINDER-SEAL. 
By Theophilus CI. Pinches. 

The repetition of the accompanying reproduction of a cylinder-seal 
published in M. de Sarzec's Dccouvertes en Chaldec. pi. 30, 5E, will 
probably not be thought superfluous, as it is of an interest which 
does not appear at first glance. 

As will be seen, it is a kind of hunting-scene. First there is a 
male figure, nude apparently but for a girdle round his waist, 
struggling with a short-horned bull. Rearing behind him, in symme- 
trical attitudes, are two other bulls (the design is completed on the 
left), man-headed, and facing the spectator. Between them is a bird 
with extended wings. The right hand bull in this symmetrical group 
is apparently being attacked (though this is by no means certain, on 
account of the mutilation of the design in this place) by the human 
figure on the left of the inscription. 

The most interesting group in this design, however, is the central 
one, representing a male figure, crowned, and clothed in a tunic, 
contending with a rearing lion, open-mouthed, which faces him. 
The inscription behind reads : — 

D.P. Nin - in. 

Diod. Siculus, apparently quoting Ctesias, gives a description of 
the ancient city of Babylon, and in the course of that account men- 
tions that the walls of both the second and the third enclosures of 
the city were ornamented with various figures, among them being 
Semiramis and Ninus slaying the leopard and the lion (ii, 8). As yet, 
we have not come across an)- representation of Semiramis, but the 
([uestion naturally arises whether we have not here a design repre- 
senting Ninus, for the inscription, in whatever way we read it, 
certainly contains the elements of that name. The only question of 
importance in the reading is whether we are to regard the syllable in 
as a separate one, and read it Ninin, transformed by the Greeks into 

168 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

Ninos by assimilating one of the n's (as in the case of Nadinu, which 
became Nadios, Belibni, which became Belibos, <S:c.) ; or as the 
phonetic complement of the fu'st, in which case the name of the 
deity (for such he apparently is) would be simply Nin, turned by the 
Greeks into Ninos without any other change than the addition of the 
Greek termination. 

Our President, Prof. vSayce, is in favour of the latter view, which 
appears to me also to be the more reasonable. On the other hand, 
if Prof. Hommel be right in identifying the well-known god Ninip 
(of which the above would then be a variant form) with Ninos, then 
the form Ninin would have more probability of being the right one. 
In any case, the original form would seem to be that given by the 
above. 

Even though Ni-in or Nin-in prove to be the name of the owner 
of the cylinder, and not that of the personage close to whom it is 
engraved, there is still every probability that it will throw light on the 
name of Ninos, to which it bears so noteworthy a resemblance. 



[The photograph of this cylinder-seal and the tablet will be 
issued Avith the next Part of the Proceedings. — W. H. R.] 




169 



May 2] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[1899. 



NOTES. 



CYLINDER OP^ PEPI 1st. 



T send 



I. 



a photograph, taken from a plaster cast, of a cyHnder 
■ -^^ .__■ ^ of Pepi 1st, that, thanks to Mr. 

t. Newberry, I obtained in Egypt 

' two years ago. It was found at 

l^^rment. This cyhnder measures 
2^ inches in length and | of an 
inch in diameter. It is made of 
a very hard, blue stone, or perhaps 
of some composition. The in- 
\ scription (commencing with the 

centre column) reads : 

" Meri taui Pepi " 
" Seten per se-ankh ar uzut neb ef " 




I cannot make out the characters on the right. 



WALTER L. NASH. 



PALAIYRENE INSCRIPTIONS. 



Professor Lagrange, editor of the Revue Bibliqiie, has kindly 
communicated a few corrections of some doubtful readings in the 
Palmyrene inscriptions discussed in the Proceedings, Part II, pp. 
6S-78. There is no doubt that he is correct in reading JIIH ^nd 
t<?^*^2 in No. 15, 11. 2, 4 (p. 71), a trace of the T\ is clearly seen 

1 70 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

in the photograi)h which he has courteously enclosed. The proper 
names Jn^"'ir7 ''^iicl i<nt^ will then be feminine, and the explana- 
tion of ]Tn"^"in7 which I suggested, now becomes unnecessary. 
Furthermore, in 27^7, /; (p. 72), "i^n should clearly be t^Sn? ^nd 
the name b^*^'^Qt, for which I proposed i^l'^nfj may possibly be 
read jf^^^^Di, cf. Sin. nn^^ (Eut. 79). I am also informed that 
a few of the inscriptions edited by Professor Miiller {Faliiiyrenische 
Inschriften, 1898), appeared a year previously in the Revue Biblique ; 
I regret that these were overlooked by me. 

A few remarks may be added with reference to the Palm. i^t^> 
^2 3^rid I^Hj to which allusion was made on p. 75. ^*^* is 
found in the Palmyrene names t^lZ^H^i^, fc^1Z7ir2i«5, ^ll)''^'?!^. 
t^U?r\i^» hi1I?^1 and t^1i;'l^'^r» , and on the analogy of the names 
':'nn^«, ^n^^t^Tl. t^^ltrriTr^^n, it was plausible to suppose 
that in some of these names, at all events, i-^'tl? was a deity. But 
J^tl> certainly represents i«5U?t2'lI?' m the name i^127"^^i^ (Gr. 
(il.ipiGa^iaov), and the same abbreviation may perhaps be found in 

t^'C^n^h^, b^1i:'''^i^, and i^U^^iri; so Praetorius, Zeil. d. Morgen- 
la7id. GesclL, xxviii, p. 512. On the other hand, De Vogiie (Z<z 
Syrie Centrale, p. 50) derived ^^lim^t^ from t^U^^TlS't^ , and 
a similar explanation has been applied to fc^1I7?2"1 and b^'CTli^ 
(Ledrain, Didionnaire des Noms Propres Palmyreniens). In favour 
of this is the circumstance that vuacaO^ (Waddington, 2230) 
appears to represent nn3^"fc^\I?2j with the elements transposed. It 
so happens, however, that t^UI^Ili^ admits of two other interpreta- 
tions : (i) Lidzbarski {Hatidb. d. Nordsem. Epig.) conjectures that 
^l^y is an abbreviation of W'TTlI^, which we find in the Palm, 
names ('')"n';i7'^2 llll^'^ni^; and (2), by the side of t>^1I?nj^ we 
have the Sinaitic T;l>ili^, and on the analogy of b^D,73, 13.T'2 5 

t^m:i, ini:i; i<^^:i, iSn:); ^Xiy^p, Itrp, it is not improbable 
that the Aram. ^ has exchanged with the Ar. 1. Similarly one 
is tempted to connect with t^tl^Dl the S. Arab. '\\0'Cr\ (Hommel, 
Sud-Arab. C/irest., p. 131). Finally, in i^t2^"^7i^ also it is probable 
that the "^ is radical, </. Phoen. i117^J^5 1112^7^^ ^^- «^"<'^o'^5 and 
aXaaaOo'i {=^ T\*^y'^^ see Zeit. d. Morgenland. Gese/L, xlii, 474 f). 
The simple form seems to appear in ^_^!>.- (Ibn Dor., 169), and 
Gr. fl\cffo9. The existence of a Palm, deity ^t*^ thus becomes 

highly questionable. 

171 



May 2l SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.F.OLOGV. [1S99. 

The element b^l^ is found in t^L'n^t>5. ^5L*?2\1, and, as it 
would appear, in a slightly different form in l^lHy. Two 
explanations have been suggested. According to one, it is the 
same as the supposed divine name h^";*?, a view that must now be 
considered untenable ; the other treats it as an abbreviation of the 
divine name 1^"^ or ^11^1 , which is probably identical with the 
Ar. god Ruda ; see \V^ellhausen, Reste Arab. Held., 2nd ed., pp. 
58 f. For the view that it recurs in the form ")^n in OS;*^.i, 

etc., see Hoffmann, Zeit. f. Ass., xi, 214. The equation ^52 = ")!^"), 
suggested by Baethgen {Beit. z. semif. Religionsgesch., p. 91) has 
been received with some approval, and is considered possible by — 
to mention only the most recent writers — Lidzbarski {op. cit.), 
Wellhausen {Gdtt. Gel. Anz., 1899, No. Ill, p. 245), and J- 
Mordtmann (Pa/my renisc/ies, 1899, p. 48). Otherwise it is possible 
to follow Hommel (ZeiL d. M.G., liii, 100 f.) and identify ^^ with 
a S. Ar. divine name ^^. The Palm, name "l^JTHi,^ might here 
have proved an important piece of evidence were it not that the 
reading is considered unreliable by Noldeke {Zeit. d. M.G., xli, 713), 
and should have been marked with a query in my Glossary of the 
Arajuaic Inscriptions. It seems impossible, therefore, to arrive at any 
definite conclusion respecting the Palm. ^2 i'l our present state of 
knowledge. We cannot even feel sure that the reading is everywhere 
correct, and the close resemblance which n bears to 2! in the Palm, 
inscriptions makes it not unlikely that the true reading is i^H, a 
divine name which, however, yet needs explanation. This eventuality 
mentioned by me on p. 77 has, I notice, occurred also to 
Mordtmann {op. cit., p. 48, " ^;;> eveniuell sogar t^H"; </• P- 29). 

S. A. COOK. 



THE OFFICIAL TITLE LU-SU-PA-MES. 

The official title, written ideographically lu-su-pa-mes, is clearly 
to be read jnukil apati. The variants, too numerous to specify 
here, abundantly prove this. The functions which this official per- 
forms in Assyrian contracts show clearly that his chief business was 

172 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

with the slaves and domestic servants of the royal household. The 
a/dti must therefore mean "household" or "domestics," niukil 
signifies " one who looks after, attends to." The official in question 
then was a comptroller of the slaves. His duty was to keep the 
staff of slaves up to its full number, and doubtless to organise their 
service. 

A somewhat frequent termination in proper names seems to 
require further elucidation. Among the compounds of Nabia, we 
have Nabu-ti-i ; we also have NabiVti and Nabu-tu. These suggest 
an abstract Nabutu, formed from the idea of Nabu. It would be 
rash however to say Nabutu meant the " status of a prophet : " for 
we have also Ahu-tu, Abu-tu, Asur-ti, Sin-ti, Abi-ti-i, Bel-ti-i, Nergal- 
ti-i, Ninip-ti-i, and Sepa-ti-i. 

April ic,fh, 1S99. C. H. W. J. 



ASHTEROTH-KARNAIM. 



In Xho. Journal of Biblical LHeraiure, 1897, p. 155, Professor 
G. H. Moore has a learned article upon " Ashteroth-Karnaim," 
showing, from the analogy of the newly-discovered votive tablets to 
Baal Karnaim of Carthage published by M. Toutain, that the 
Karnaim of Genesis and I and II Maccabees was almost certainly 
a double-peaked mountain sacred to Ashteroth. 

He further argues that Ashteroth = Venus, not being a lunar 
goddess, would not be termed of herself Karnaim. This however 
I venture to think is not conclusive, for although at Carthage Baal 
Karnaim certainly in the case of M. Toutain's texts meant " Baal 
of the double-peaked mountain," yet we have a representation of 
Baal, as Baal Ammon, v.ith a head ornamented with horns, so that 
certainly after his identification with Ammon, if not before, he was 
Baal Karnaim ; also. Professor Moore agrees with the close 
connection of Ashteroth with Ishtar, and recently Pere Scheil has 
provided us with a cylinder representation of Ishtar as a cow; but 
the chief objection of Professor Moore that a horned goddess could 
only be a lunar one because of "the gibbous moon," is itself 

173 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/i:OLOGV. [1899. 

invalidated by the fact that Venus is also subject to phases and 
becomes crescent shaped. It is therefore just possible that in the 
clear air of Mesopotamia, aided by such instruments as they then 
had, this fact was known to the Chaldeans, and Ashteroth = Venus = 
Karnaim is a reasonable combination after all. The existence of a 
goddess Ashera is now, from the Tel Amarna tablets, proven, and 
must not be confounded with the " Ashera '" emblem. This latter, 
however, was certainly connected with the iconography of the 
Ashteroth cult, and it is therefore interesting to note that upon a 
seal published last year by Dr. Hayes Ward, representing certain 
Hittite symbols and a " Nehushtan," there is also an "Ashera" 
surmounted by a cre.scent. 

JOSEPH OFFORD. 



THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF SENNACHERIB'S 
MURDER. 

In view of the historical difficulties connected with the Biblical 
account of Sennacherib's murder, any light upon the family of that 
monarch must be interesting. From the historical inscrijitions we 
know of Asur-nadin-sum, perhaps his eldest son, made king of 
Babylon, B.C. 699, and carried captive to Elani, about the end of 
B.C. 694. Sennacherib also built a palace for his son Asur-sum-usabsi 
whose name in its ideographic form Asur-MU-Ni-iK. has been thought 
to have been the origin of Adrammelech. As we now know, in 
i!.c. 694, Ardi-Belit was called crown-prince in Nineveh, and this 
name also has been claimed for the original of Adrammelech. Of 
course, Esarhaddon is the most important. His mother's name 
was Naki'a. As Professor Jensen has suggested to me, this may be 
a Hebrew name meaning 'the pure' or 'innocent' one. If the 
lady was a Hebrew this would account for her also bearing as her 
Assyrian name its translation — Zakutu. The regard which the 
Jews always seem to have had for Esarhaddon and his clemency to 
Manasseh may thus receive explanation. A further claim has been 

'74 



AlAV 2j PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

set up by Dr. Winckler that Shareser is really Sar-etir, a prince who 
seems at one time to have been addressed as king, possibly when he 
usurped the throne on the death of Sennacherib. It is not yet 
proved that Sar-etir v/as a son of Sennacherib. We may add one 
more name to the family. In e.c. 688 a certain Sama' appears in 
the Assyrian contracts as inurabanu of the king's son. Sama' also 

appears about the same time as miirahaiiu of Nergal-sum , 

the end of the name being lost. It is difficult to resist the con- 
clusion that Nergal-sum .... was son of Sennacherib. 

In Dr. Moldenke's Cuneiform Texts in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art is published a contract dated at Nippur in the 
accession year of Sin-sum-lisir, king of Assyria. Now in K. 6223 
and K. 6332 (fragments first pubhshed by Dr. Winckler in his 
Altorieiitalisdic Forschungen, No. vii, p. 4 f.), we find Sin-sum-lisir 
named as the rabsak of the king. Dr. Winckler was unaware of the 
name of this king. I have had the good fortune to discover many 
more fragments of the same tablets, by which we learn that Asur- 
etil-ilani was the king. It seems probable, therefore, that just as 
Nabii-aplu-usur, an Assyrian general, set up an independent rule in 
Babylon, so Sin-sum-lisir did in Nippur. These weakenings of the 
Assyrian Empire must have left the door open for the Median 
invasion. It is noteworthy that this claim to be king of Assyria was 
made by Sin-sum-lisir at Nippur. We know that Sin-sar-iskun was 
acknowledged in Erech. Were these both contemporaries with 
Asur-etil-ilani? If so, it is more than probable that civil war 
preceded the foreign invasion which overwhelmed Nineveli. 

April ic)fh, 1899. C. H. W. J. 



SKETCH OF AN ENGRAVED SHELL. 

The annexed copy (nearly full size) of a sketch made by me many 
years ago, from the origmal, then in the collection of the late Mr. 
Walter Myers, F.S.A., represents an engraved shell, pierced with two 
holes, evidently for suspension. Mr. V. LI. Griffith, in his recently 

17^ 



May 2] SOCIETY 0> BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1899- 

l)ublished book on "Hieroglyphics," p. 25, states that " pearl shells 
engraved with the names of the kings are found dating from the 
Xllth dynasty, and were evidently valued." 

W. H. R. 







176 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



THE LAND OF CABUL. 



There is much of historical interest in i Kings ix. 10-28. There 
was so much of the grand monarque in Solomon, and he was so 
closely connected with neighbouring peoples, that a section like this 
claims to be re-examined from time to time. Before we can interpret 
it, we must, of course, criticize the text. Elsewhere (^Jewish Quar- 
terly Review, July) I hope to show that it was not Pharaoh king of 
Egypt for whose daughter Solomon built a house, and who con- 
quered Gezer from the Canaanites to make a present of it to his 
daughter, Solomon's wife, but Pir'u, king of the north Arabian land 
of Musri. Here I must limit myself to attempting an explanation of 
the 'land of Cabul.' When vv. 10-14 (in their original form, on 
which cf. Benzinger) were written, there was a portion of the 
7i~i;jn Y'^i^ containing as many as twenty cities called 713,3 V^^^- 
This ought surely to be mentioned elsewhere, but we only find a 
town called Cabul, in the Asherite territory (Josh, xix, 27). The 
older views on ' the land of Cabul ' are well summed up in 
Gesenius's Thesaurus. The statement of Josephus {Ant. viii, 5. 3) 
that Xo/^aXwr means in Phoenician ovk upeaKov is of course a mere 
inference from the statement in i Kings ix, 12, that the cities which 
Solomon had given Hiram, as a pledge perhaps for the payment of 
his debt, ' were not right in his (Hiram's) eyes.' Gesenius himself 
holds that the true meaning of 7133 is 'boundary' (Gr. o/j(oj/ = 

T'13il)j and that the popular wit interpreted the name as if 713113 ; 

T'13n is an imagined passive participle from bnjl- Not impossibly, 

he thinks, the district referred to received its name from the town 
called Cabul, and Buhl {Geogr., 221) agrees that a connection 
between the name of the town and that of the region is at any 
rate plausible. The objection to this is twofold. 

177 N 



May 2] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

1. It is impossible to get anything witty out of 7^23. Ewald 
and Thenius have, it is true, suggested 713, 'like nought,' but this 

is not very much more satisfactory than Gesenius's view. 

2. The town Cabul, which was in Asher, can hardly have been 

reckoned as belonging to T'^Tlin *OSl or ' the Land of the Circle ' 
(Galilee). A bolder course seems therefore to be necessary. Seeing 
this, Klostermann and Griitz propose to read h^hy for 713.3 , and 
the former thinks that 7^7;! may have been popularly derived from 
77^ ' dung.' There ought to be no theoretic objection to this ; 

;i and 3, 7 and 3, can easily be confounded. But the textual cor- 
ruption supposed is not a very probable one ; the well-known word 
7^/^ would, as Benzinger (in his recent commentary) remarks, 
hardly have been corrupted into the little known name Cabul. 
Nor, I think, is the proposed witticism at all natural ; such a tran- 
sparent name as 7'^7;i did not, in fact, lend itself to witty popular 
etymologies. 

Klostermann's view, however, suggests a theory which seems to 
me much more plausible than his own. The ' land of Cabul ' was 
certainly a well known district. It was in ' the Land of Galilee,' but 
was not coincident with that region. It suggested a popular witticism, 
and the witticism depended on the meaning of a dissyllabic word ; 

it is hopeless to analyze 7133 in the manner of Gesenius and Ewald. 
There seems to be but one possibility. For 7133 read 'J7l3"t 

' Zebulun.' This was probably written '7l3"f- A stroke, denoting 
abbreviation, can easily be shown to have been in very early use. 
When, as often occurred, the stroke of abbreviation became effaced, 
corruption of the text was very likely to arise. A learned scribe, 
remembering Josh, xix, 27, and knowing that there was neither a city 
nor a district called Zebul, emended 713T into 7133- 

And what was the witty etymology devised by the people? 
It was like that which explained the divine name Beel-zebul (from 
Baal-zebul, i.e., 'lord of the heavenly palace,' 1^ Ass. zabala), as 
'lord of dung,' and the royal name 'Izebel (73'P'^^5 Jezebel) as 

'what dung' (2 Kings ix, 37). It is in fact a new derivation of 
the tribal name Zebulun, which was probably invited ])y the mixed 
character of the population of the ' land of Zebulun ' (Isa. ix, i 

178 



May 2] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

[viii, 23]). The true Israelites of Zebulun were not without 
honourable features {cf. Judg. iv, 6, 10; v, 14, 18; vi, 35), but they 
could not perhaps escape good-humoured mockery for living in a 
territory marred by idolatry. In later times t'^^.T was a contemp- 
tuous term applied to idol-worship ; probably the words, ' and 
they were called (see Revised Version, margin) the land of Cabul 
unto this day,' are a post-Exilic i?ise?-tiofi. 

It may be objected that, according to Josh, xix, 10-16, there were 
but twelve cities in Zebulun. But the list of cities, and the calcula- 
tion of the total, comes to us from the post-Exilic priestly writer (P) ; 
we cannot depend on its perfect accuracy. It is likely enough that 
there were twenty cities in the land of Zebulun when the record 
handed down to us in an edited form in 1 Kings ix, 10-14 was 
written. I have assumed that, even if a late insertion, the words at 
the end of ver. 13 (as corrected here), which place the 'twenty cities' 
in the land of Zebulun, are nevertheless correct. Of course the Nwiter 
does not mean to say that the name Zebulun was first given in the 
time of Solomon, any more than the Yahwistic wTiter (J) means to 
assert historically that Bethel was not called Bethel before the 
appearance of Jacob or of Jacobaeans in that locality. 

The ' twenty cities,' then, were in the lower part of the Galil 
(Galilee). The upper part had for its centre Kedesh ; the lower part, 
in the time of Josephus, but probably also when i Kings ix, 10-14 
was written, extended as far as X«/3aXa'i/ or Xaj3ov\tvv, which, by a 
natural error of Greek scribes, was miswritten ZafiouXwv (see Hudson, 
Spanheim, and Reland, as quoted by Havercamp, Josephi Opera, 
i, 434; ii, 222). Guerin, following Reland, defends the reading 
ZujiovXtvu in Josephus, Contr. Ap.,\, 17; ii, 18. 9, But, as Buhl 
rightly holds, the view that there was a city called Zebulun is 
improbable. 

Dr. T. K. CHEYNE 



179 



May 2] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



[1899. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 37, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury. W.C, on Tuesday, 6th June, 
1899, at 4.30 p.m., when the following Paper will be read : 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, President, " Hittite Notes.' 




180 



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The Egyptian Book of the Dead. 

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CONTAINING ALSO 

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President. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, LL.D., &c., &c. 

Vice- Presidents, 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbury. 

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F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A,, &c. 

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VOL. XXI. 



Part 6. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 



-#5e- 



VOL. XXI. TWENTY-NINTH SESSION. 



Fifth Meeting, June 6th, 1899. 



CONTENTS. 

F. Legge. — Recent Discoveries at Abydos and Negadah (3 plates) 

Prof. A. H. Saycts. (President). — Hittite Notes 

Prof. Dr. IIommel. — Notes on the Hittite Inscriptions 

F. G. Hilton Price, Dir. S. A.— Notes on some Egyptian 

Deities (//a/^) 
Dr. Cheyne. — The Blessings of Asher, Napthali, and Joseph 
Dr. Cheyne. — On the Hebrew words "l30^ and 1130 ... 
W. E. C- Notes on— 

I. — The Name Pachomius 
II. — " Above " and " Below " in Coptic 
III. — Egyptian " Orantes " 

Joseph Offokd. — Dancing Worship 

C. H. W. J. — Assyriological Notes ... 

Joseph Offord. — Chedorlaomer 



page 
183-193 
194-223 
224-238 

239-241 

242-245 
246 

247, 248 
249, 250 
251, 252 

253 

254. 255 

256 



published at 
THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1899. 



No. CLXII. 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



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A few complete sets of the Transactions and Proceedings still remain for 
sale, which may be obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Rylands, 
F.S.A., 37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., May, TS99. 






•« 



Reverse of tablet belonging to the Rev. J. P. Way, D.D., containing 
IN the last two lines the name of Manamaltel. {See p. 160.) 






Cylinder-Seal in the De Sarzec collection. {See p. 168. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-NINTH SESSION, 1899. 



Fifth Meetings 6th June, 1 899. 
Prof. A. H. SAYCE, LL.D., etc., President, 

IN THE CHAIR. 

^« 

The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Secretary of State in Council of India : — The Sacred 
Books of the East, Vols. XLII and XLIII. Oxford. 1897. 

From the Author:— Rev. P. A. Cesare de Cara, S.J. I Dialetti 
Italici, e gl' Itali della storia. Sommario. Civilta CattoHca. 
May, 1899. 8vo. 

From the Author : — An Egyptian Pontifical, about a.d. 350. 
Translated from the edition of Dr. G. Webbermin, with 
Introduction and Notes by John Wordsworth, D.D., Bishop 
of Salisbury. Salisbury. 1899. 8vo. 

[No. CLXII.] 181 o 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

From the British and Foreign Bible Society : — 
" Four Hundred Tongues." 

"In Our Tongues." A popular Handbook to the Translation 
Work, 

T]ie Britisli and Foreig7i Bible Society. London. 1899. 

From the Author: — Dictionnaire du Papyrus Harris, No. i. 
Publie par S. Birch, apres I'Original du British Museum, 
par le Dr. Karl Piehl. Vienne. 1882. 

From the Publishers, Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode : — Light 
from the East ; or, The Witness of the Monuments. An 
Introduction to the Study of Biblical Archaeology. Rev. C. 
J. Ball, M.A. London. 1899. 4to. 

From the Publisher, Mr. E. Stanford :— The Land of Closhen 
and the Exodus. Major R. H. Brown, C.M.G. London. 
1899. 8vo. 



The following Candidates were nominated and, having been 
by special order submitted for election, were elected Members 
of the Society : — 

Robert Barclay, High Leigh, Hoddesdon, Herts. 
Madame Lydia Mountford, 30, Budge Row, E.G. 
Miss A. Anderson Morton, 21, Chenies Street Chambers, 
Ciower Street, W.C. 



A Paper was read by the President, entitled " Hittitc 
Notes." 

Remarks were added by Mr. W. St. C. Boscawcn, the 
Secretary, and the Chairman. 



Thanks were returned for this communication. 



182 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



RECENT DISCOVERIES AT ABYDOS AND NEGADAH. 

\_Al>sf3-act of a Paper read before the Society at the Meeting of 2nd May, 1899.] 
By F. Legge. 

Introduction. 

It was stated that the object of the paper was to make plain, to 
those who had not hitherto followed the subject, the effect of the 
discoveries lately made by M. Amelineau at Abydos and by M. de 
Morgan at Negadah, so far as they affect the early history of Egypt. 
Their appreciation has been delayed till now by the late appearance 
of M. Amelineau's own account of his work.* 

Part I. — Abydos 
Site of Excavations. 

The spot chosen by M. Amelineau for exploration was the hill 
known to the natives as Om el-Ga'ab {i.e.. Mother of Pots), and is a 
succession of small hillocks or tumuli lying to the westward of the 
great necropolis of Abydos excavated by Mariette in 1 860-1 86S. 
The whole group rises considerably above the level of the surrounding 
plains, and is covered with fragments of red pottery. According to 
M, AmeHneau, its existence as a source in which funeral and 
other jars and pieces of pottery can be found, has long been known 
to the natives, who have made a practice of going there in procession 
on Good Friday to procure playthings for their children. The upper 
soil consists entirely of loose sand mixed with brick-bats and rubbish, 
the foundation being apparently limestone rock. 

Description of Ear-Iy Tombs. 

The four early tombs which M. Amelineau claims to be pr^e- 
dynastic were all excavated between the 9th of February and the iSth 

* Les NotivelUs Foiiilles d^ Abydos, i8gS-iSg6 (Leroux, Paris), giving a full 
description of M. Amelineau's first year's excavations, with phototypes of the 
objects discovered, was not published until April, 1899. 

18^ O 2 



June 6] 



SOCIETY OF lilBLICAL ARCILtOLOGV. 



[i«99. 




of March, 1896, more than four hundred workmen being employed 
on them at one time. They were situated behind the fourth mound 
or hillock, and on a j)lateau which appears to have been i23'"-93 ^ 
^ i47"'*i5. Each tomb was surrounded by a series 

of smaller and less sumptuous tombs running 
])arallel with it, which leads M. Amelineau to 
conclude that the central tomb was in each case 
that of the king, the royal functionaries and per- 
haps the royal family being interred in the smaller 
ones.* The four tombs may be thus described : — 
(i) Tomb of King Deti. Stairway tomb with 
main chamber i5'"-o5 x S^-qo, the main walls 
being no less than 4'"-39 thick. The walls have 
crumbled into the tomb, but those that remain 
are 6'"-24 high. Looking at this and their great 
thickness, it seems probable that other chambers 
and perhaps a temple were built upon these 
"■ foundation walls, and that some of the jars and 

other votive offerings may have been placed in the superstructure, 
from which they have fallen into the tomb. The walls were originally 
built of sunburnt bricks faced with a coating of Nile mud, the floor 
of the chamber being paved with pink granite in huge slabs. At some 
period a fierce fire has been kindled in the centre of the chamber, 
which has consumed the body, baked the bricks, and destroyed many 
of the objects buried with the dead. Besides the steles and other 
objects shown in the plates, there were found in this tomb more than 
one hundred carrot-shaped jars upright in the sand, containing 
provisions for the king's use in the next world, and still sealed with 
cone-shaped pieces of clay. There were also found a blank stele 
in pink granite, polished, but unworked, and an ivory plaque repre- 
senting a king bearing the Horus-name of Den [for which see Plate I, 
fig. i], smiting with a club a thin-bearded figure of Semitic type, and 
now in the collection of the Rev. W. MacGregor. From the occur- 
rence of this and of many other objects all bearing the Den rectangle, 
we are justified in assuming that this was the tomb of the king whose 
Horu.s-name is thus denoted.! 



* Noiivelles Fouilles (VAbydos, pp. 108 sqij. 

t The same rectangle is found on many objects coming from the smaller tombs 
arranged round it, which gives some colour to M. Amelineau's theory that they 
were the tombs of royal functionaries. 

1 84 




June 6] PROCEEDINGS, [1899. 

(2) Tomb oj King Qa. Tomb with one chamber, measuring 
lo^'QO X 5"'*86. Such of the walls as remain .\. 

are about 4™ high. The tomb has been entirely 
paved with wooden planks fastened together with 
fastenings of pure copper. After the planking 
was put in, the tomb has been divided into two 
by a transverse wall running from E, to \\. 
There are marks which show that at one time 
wooden pillars were inserted in the flooring, 
apparently for the purpose of supporting a roof 
or other superstructure. M. Amelineau thinks 
this was possibly also a stairway tomb, but he 
found no traces of the stairs. '^• 

(3) Totnb of Khig Khepsh-sed* Tomb with one chamber 
measuring i6'""75 x 7™'6o. Some of the walls extend to 5"''i5 in 
height. In the middle of the south wall appears the beginning of a 
transverse wall o'"'85 thick and 3™'85 high, which pro- ^ 

jects into the chamber for a distance of 2^ metres, 
and then suddenly terminates. If it met another 
wall running from E. to W,, so as to form two sub- 
sidiary chambers, all trace of these is destroyed. This 
tomb also was paved with wood for its entire length, 
and here too a great fire has been kindled which has 
reduced the wood to charcoal. It contained besides "'^ 

many fragments of vases, and part of a box in marquetry work, the 
decoration being effected with small cubes of glass enamel. This 
too bore a rectangle containing perhaps the Horus-name Az-ab. 

(4) Tomb of King Dfa. This tomb is of a different construction 
to the others. The central chamber measures 1 1'""85 from E. to W., 
with a width of g^'QS, and a height of perhaps 2'"'o7. On the N. 
side of the chamber are constructed nine smaller chambers, on the 
E. three, and on the S. seven, the largest of these measuring 
i'"'82 X I "•4 2. They would therefore be just about large enough 
to hold a corpse in the contracted position, and the fact that many 
steles containing neither Horus-names nor other royal emblems were 
found in these small chambers or loculi gives some reason to suppose 
that officers of the Court were buried there. The great limestone 

* Reading the signs as M I < r-=^~3 . Prof. Pelrie {Hist, of Egypt) 4th ed. 
Vol. I, p. 19) reads it Mcr-sed. 

185 




June 6] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH-EOLOGY. 



[iSfjg. 



stele [Plate I, fig. 4] was found attached to the middle of the 
"\V. wall, and doubtless gives the name of the principal personage for 




whom the tomb was made. M. Ame'lineau says nothing as to 
the paving of the tomb, nor as to whether it showed signs of fire.* 

The Four Steh's (Plate I). 

The Stele of King Den. This was, as I have mentioned, found 
blank, but its place is supplied by a huge mortar in grey granite 
found in the tomb, and bearing upon one of its s'des the hawk- 
crowned rectangle shown in fig. i of the plate. The work is very 
rough, and appears to have been left unfinished, the bracket under 
the sign a^a^aa having been left on the dexter side, and the upper 
border of the rectangle not having been completed.! 

The Stele of King Qa (fig. 2). This is a monolith of black 



* M. Jcquier (De Morgan, A'echcrcJies sur Vorigine dc PEg)'pte, t. ii, p. 242) 
says that all four tombs had been partly consumed by fire. As he was in com- 
munication with M. Amelineau at the time, this may probably be taken as correct. 

t I owe these remarks to Mr. Rylands, who noticed the defects when he was 
preparing the diagrams for the paper. I have to thank him not only for the pains 
which he gave to these, but for most valuable help in seeing the Plates through 
the press. 

186 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., June, 1899. 

PLATE I. , 




I'V. I. 




Fig. 2. 

Fig. 4. 

From Amelineau, Les noiivelles foiiiUcs d'Abydos, iSg_s-i8g6. In extenso 
edition. (Paris. Leroux, 1S99. ) 



PLATE II. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch ,Jiinc, 1 89-;. 






I'ie. ;v 



k 



I'-ig- A- 



Fic. 8. 




Fig. 9- 




Fig. II. 



^ ^£S jpj ;^ |iy, 



ivi^i f/ ws>y ti 



y^C ^ ^isijs^ ^gg; 



mff 



Fig. 1: 




Fig. 10. 



tig. I J. 



ton 






Fig. 14. 










Fig. p 



Fics. i-io, from Ami'xinkau, I.cs itoiivcUes fottillcs d Abydos, iSQj-iSg6. In extenso 
edition. (Paris. Lcnnix, 1899.) Figs, ii-i 5, from De Morgan, /v'tr/zt'/rto -'W 
Porigiiie de I'Eg)'//!-', Tome ]1. (Paris. Lcroux, 1898.) 



jcNE 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

granite, measuring i"'* x o"-45. It was broken into many pieces, but 
all the essential parts have been found, and it is now in the museum 
at (jizeh. 

The Stele of King Khepsh-sed (S\g. 3). This, the smallest of the 
four steles, is also in black granite, and measures in its present state 
o'"-5o X o'"-5o. This too is in the museum at Gizeh. The characters 
are much defaced, apparently by attrition of the stone. 

The Stele of King Dja (fig. 4). This is a monolith of limestone, 
measuring about 2'"'5o x o'°-63. It has been broken in three pieces, 
but the finish and delicacy of the work are most marked, and are 
quite equal to the best period of Egyptian art. 

Other Horns-names (Plate II). 

In addition to these four steles, M. Amelineau found in the 
same tombs the Horus-names shown in figs. 1-9 of the plate. They 
were all engraved on the bellies of earthen jars of the shape shown or. 
fig. 10, Figs, 1-3 come from the tomb of King Den, the others from 
those of the other three kings ; but M. Amelineau does not appear to 
have further distinguished their provenance. They have all been cut 
or engraved with a point upon the clay while it was yet soft, and 
before the jar was baked. None of the names have been identified 
with those of any kings hitherto known, nor is it even certain that 
they are necessarily the names of persons. Figs. 2, 4, 5, 7 and 9 are 
surrounded by the crenellated cartouche generally used for the names 
of cities. In addition to these marks on the body of the jar, many 
of the jars were sealed with clay cones, and these cones were impressed 
with seals engraved on cylinders of the kind familiar in Babylonian 
excavations. These jar-seahngs are shown on figs. 11-15, fig^- 11-14 
being from the tomb of King Den. Fig. 1 1 is the seal of King Den 
himself; figs. 12 and 13 have not yet been read ; fig. 14 is the seal 
of the king named Az-ab ;* and fig. 15 is that of one named Aha, 
to whom I shall have to refer again presently. 

Other Royal Titles (Plate III). 
So far I have had to do with Horus-names alone ; but we now 

' ' * M. Maspero, in Revue Critique of 12 Dec, 1897. It is probable that the 
seals also contain the names of the keepers of the king's vineyards which may be 
expressed by the signs between the rectangles. 

187 



IVNK.6] SOCIETY OK BIBLICAL ARCH. KOLOGV. [1S99. 

come to others which give us some clue to the period with which 
we are deahng. Figs, i and 2 are fragments of hard stone vases 
found in the tomb of King Qa. Fig. i contains under the royal 

titles 4^^ sii^en net, characters which Maspero and others* have 

agreed to consider equivalent to ^ Merbap, or Merbapen, 

the 6th king of the 1st dynasty, and the Mie/iioo^ of Manetho. 

Fig. 2 contains, I think, under the ^^^ and the neM or Vulture 

and Urseus title _^^, the signs which we have already seen 

on the rectangle of Qa. We may therefore suppose, from the fact 
that it was found in his tomb,t that he used the same name for his 
earthly self as for his kd, a practice which certainly was not followed 
by Sneferu, the ist king of the IVth dynasty, nor, I think, by any of his 
successors until the Saite Renascence. According to some, however, 

these signs should be read zl 1 , and are to be identified with Kebeh 

or (K)ovj3iei'0))^, the 8th king of Manetho's Ist dynasty.; It should not 
be lost sight of, that there is another Horus rectangle and other signs 
behind this protocol ; and they are probably those of the royal officer 
to whom the vase belonged, the royal title being that of his master. 
Fig. 3 is another fragment of a vase coming from the same necro- 
polis, with a well executed Horus rectangle containing the name of 
Az-ab before mentioned. It will be noticed that the rectangle is 

contained in the larger sign for habitation J and is upheld by the 

arms of the I'd \J, with some other adjuncts not very distinguish- 
able. Fig. 4 is a similar fragment bearing the rectangle of Aha 
which we have before seen. Fig. 5 is another vase fragment found in 
the tomb of King Dja. The figure under the s?/ten net and the 
nebti titles is supposed by Dr. Sethe to be the figure of Ptah, 
which is given in the Abydos tablet as the cartouche of Semen- 
Ptah, or 26/(e/<i^>)<^, the 7th king of Manetho's Ist dynasty. He 

* Dr. Sethe, in A. Z., t. x.xxv, p. 2. Maspeio, iu Rectiei! de Travaiix, xvii, 
p. 60. 

t N'ouvelks Fouilles d' Abydos, pp. 288 and 289. 

* Sethe, he. cit. In Mariette's Abydos (t. i, PI. 43) the signs for the name 

A 

of Kebeh are given as g 

\ 

188 



Pro(. Soc. Bibl. Arch.. June, iS'jQ. 



PLATE III. 




Fig. I. 





Fie. %. 



Fig. 4. 




Fig. 2. 




Figs. I, 2 and 5, from Amklixeau, Lcs uouvcUcs fouilks cTAhydos, iSg^-iSgd. 
In extenso edition. (Paris. Leroux, 1899.) Figs. 3 and 4, from De Morgan, 
Rccherchcs sitr f online de FE^sypfe, Tome II. (Paris. Leroux, 1898.) 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

is without the staff and mendt which usually distinguish the erect 
figures of Ptah, and no one, I think, has yet given more than a very 
qualified adhesion to this reading. The same remark applies to the 
two signs under the sutcji net which follows, which Dr. Sethe would 
read -ffff}- , the signs on the Abydos cartouche of Hesepti, the 5th 

\ 1 1 H" 

king of the 1st dynasty. In this case, moreover, the Vulture and 
Urseus signs are not repeated, thereby indicating that some difference 
in rank between the king — if king he be — and the person preceding- 
him is intended. Altogether it will be safest at present to treat this 
fragment as unread. 



Part II. — Negadah. 
The Royal Tomb. 

In March, 1897, M. de Morgan began operations upon a mound 
to the north of a despoiled necropolis at Negadah. He had the assis- 
tance, during the whole progress of the works, of Prof Wiedemann, 
M. Jequier, and M. Lampre, and was thus able to keep a better 
record of his discoveries than M. Amelineau, working by himself or 
with only native assistance, had been able to do. Before long he 
laid bare a huge tomb measuring 54"" x 27", and evidently belonging 
to the same period of culture as the royal tombs of Abydos. The 
external walls were distinctive, being built in the first instance on a 
crenellated design with salient and re-entering angles, and then masked 
by a second wall of rectangular form. In the centre was a large 
chamber, evidently intended for the reception of the body, with twa 
smaller chambers communicating on each side. This part of the 
tomb appears to have been built first, and then surrounded by an 
additional building of great thickness with sixteen external chambers, 
along its sides. If we suppose that the five principal chambers were 
designed for funerary purposes — the calcined remains of a skeleton 
were actually found in the central one — and that those on the 
external plan were antechambers or chapels intended for the reception 
of votive offerings, we have at once an explanation of the construction 
and of the way in which ex votos might be deposited without dis- 
turbing the funerary chambers. A fire had been kindled in the 
central chamber, which had baked the bricks of the upper walls, but 
the large earthern jars with which, as at Abydos, the subsidiary 
chambers were filled, were arranged upright in regular order, and had 

189 



June 6] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[1899. 



evidently not been disturbed or damaged since their deposition. On 
the other hand, all the vases of diorite and other hard stones which 
^vere found there had been broken into small fragments, evidently 




with a ritual intention. In this case also only the foundation walls 
were found, and M. de Morgan thinks it possible that the super- 
structure may have been supported on wooden i)illars. For the rest, 
the large earthern jars were of the same size and shape as those from 

190 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Abydos, they were sealed with clay and cylinder seals in the same 
way ; and the hard stone vases were for the most part of the same 
design.* In only one respect did the Negadah monument differ 
from the early tombs of Abydos : the jar-seal ings, cylinders, and 
ivories of Negadah all bore the Horus-name of one king only, and 
this was the Aha whose rectangle is given on Plate II, fig. 15, as 
having been found on a cylinder sealf at Abydos. 



Tlie Menes Tablet, 

In this tomb also was found an ivory tablet, unfortunately 
much broken, containing, by the side of the hawk-crowned rectangle 
of Aha, other signs under a )iebti title, which seemed capable 
of being read as 1^^^^ Men. From this Dr. Borchardt drew the 
conclusion that this was an abbreviation of Menes or Mena, the first 
king of Manetho's 1st dynasty, and M. Maspero having given a very 
qualified adherence to the theory, the Negadah tomb has been 
frequently spoken of since as that of Menes. In the current number 
of the Recueil de Travaux, however, M. Naville combats this theory, 
and shows (as it seems to me conclusively) that the signs in question 
denote the rest tent or " funerary pavilion " which the soul of the king 
was supposed to occupy after his death. This explanation, already 
foreshadowed by Prof. Wiedemann in these Proceedings, t^. will, I think, 
now be accepted by everyone, and I will only add to it, that if Aha 
had any other name, it was probably not Menes, but some word 
denoted by the three birds (said to be ostriches) which frequently 
appear either alone or by the side of his Horus-name on the Negadah 
monuments.^ The use of the Horus-name to the exclusion of any 
other royal title is not unknown so late as the XXVIth dynasty, || and 
the word Aha, or " the fighter," agrees well with the names of the 
earliest hitherto known kings, " Ati le lutteur, Teti le coureur, Qenqoni 

* The full details and excellent reproductions given in M. de Mori^an's 
splendid book, Rechenhes siir Vorigine de VEgypte, must be my excuse for not 
giving further instances of this here. 

t Also on a small ivory plaque from the same place {Kccherches, t. ii, p. 241, 
fig. 814 and infra PI. Ill, fig. 4). In some tombs adjoining that of King Den, 
but not excavated till last year, M. Amelineau found a great number of jar-sealings 
bearing the name of Aha. 

X Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Vol. XX, p. 113, 

§ Kccherches, t. ii, pp. 165 and 168. 

II Wiedemann, he. cit. 

191 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.KOLOGY. [1899. 

I'ecraseur," as M. Maspero puts it, which, according to him, are them- 
selves significant of a half barbarous age. 



Conclusions. 

From these facts it seems to result that there reigned in Egypt 
during the period covered by the tombs at Abydos and Negadah, a 
series of kings ruling over the whole of Egypt whose names do not 
appear in any of the fragments of Manetho's lists which have yet 
come down to us. These kings governed a ])eoi)le sufficiently 
civilised to be skilled in the working of the jjrecious metals, copper 
and bronze, already possessing the hieroglyphic characters, and 
capable of building vast monuments ; skilled in pottery, and in the 
engraving of the hardest materials (including rock crystal) ; burning, 
instead of embalming, their dead, and deifying their dead kings, at 
whose tombs they made votive offerings. Beyond this it is not safe 
to go at present ; but we are probably on the brink of a discovery 
which will tell us whence these kings came, and from what source 
their civilisation was inherited. As to their probable date, a great 
many theories have been broached, M. Amelineau's own notion being 
that they are the legendary Manes, or Nga.i'c9 whom Manetho 
describes as reigning before Menes. Unfortunately, there is good 
reason to suppose that this supposed ante-mortal dynasty was invented 
at a time when cabalistic theories of a correspondence between 
Heaven and earth were rife, to agree with the Third Ennead or cycle 
of demi-gods, which the theologians of Heliopolis had placed after 
the First and Second Enneads, containing respectively the greater and 
lesser deities of their pantheon.* That King Aha is later in date than 
some of the Abydos kings, is plain from the appearance of votive jars 
bearing his seal in their tombs, and for the same reason we can 
put King A/.-ab as later than King Den. But the only sound 
foundation for their absolute dating is probably the vase hearing the 
name of Merbapen, and found in the tomb of King Qa. If this be 
really the Merbapen or Merbap given by Manetho as the 6th king of 
the 1st dynasty. King Qa at any rate must have reigned before him ; 
and with this ierniiniis ante quern — to use Prof. Wiedemann's phrase — 
we must j^robably be content for the present. It should be noticed 

* Maspero, Etudes de Mytkologie, &c., t. ii, pp. 279, sqq. ; Chassinat, Les 
"SiKins de Manclliou, Rec. de Trav. , t. xix, pp. 2^, sqq. 

192 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS, [1899. 

that M. Amelineau returned to Om el-Ga'ab in 189 7- 1898, and there 
made other discoveries, including, according to his own statement, 
the tombs of Osiris, Horus, and Set ; but it is impossible to discuss 
these until the full accounts of his work are before the public. I 
have not been able yet to find any valid connecting link between 
his first year's find and the objects discovered by M. Quibell at 
Hieraconpolis,* which appear to me — though I say it with great 
diffidence— to belong to another period of culture. 

* The great slate palette of Hieraconpolis, a cast of which is now in the 
British Museum, contnins in its upper register a rectangle (noi hawk-crowned) 
bearing a cat-fish and chisel which have Ijeen held to make up the name of King 
Nar-mer {zt. A.Z. xxxvi. 81). I do not think these signs are identical with those 
on the broken hawk-crowned rectangle given by Amelineau {JV.F.d\4., PI. XLII, 
%• 3)- 




193 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.liOLOGV. [1899. 



HITTITE NOTES. 
Bv Prof. A. H. Savce, Ll.D., etc., President. 

I. In December last (1898) I made a fresh collation of the latter 
part of the Treaty between Rameses II and the king of the Hittites, 
inscribed on the walls of Karnak, and first copied and published 
by M. Bouriant {Recueil des Travaux relatifs a la Fhilologie et 
r Arch'eologie egyptietine et assyrienne, xiii, pp. 157-9). The light was 
unusually favourable, and I was therefore enabled not only to correct 
M. Bouriant's copy of the text, but also the readings of it which I 
sent to Dr. W, Max Miiller two years ago. These corrections affect 
only the names of the countries and cities dedicated to the deities 
whose names are invoked by the Hittite parties to the Treaty ; the 
other corrections, such as there are, are of minor imi)ortance, and do 
not modify the translation of a single passage. 

It is different, however, with the geographical names. The 
readings I herewith give of them have been revised by me under 
various lights, and may be considered final. The gods and goddesses 
who are invoked are the following :— 

(26) The Sun-god, the lord of heaven ; the Sun-god of the city of 
the land of Aranna. 

(27) Sutekh the lord of heaven. Sutekh of the land of the 
Hittites. Sutekh of the city of . . . (M. Bouriant reads " the land 
of Aranna," but the only characters of which I could find traces 

are [I >;y| '^ 1. Sutekh of the city of the land of Zanu-arnda. 

Sutekh of the city of the land of Pirqa. Sutekh of the city of the 
land of Khisa-sapa. Sutekh of the city of the land of Sarisu. Sutekh 
of the city of the land of Khirpa (Alei)po). Sutekh of the city of the 
land of Rukhasina. 

Then comes a break of considerable length, the stone having 
crumbled away, and then we have : 

(28) [Sutekh of the city of the land of] To-[ni]sa. Sutekh of the 
city of the land of Sakhipaina. Antharta of the territory of the land 

194 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

of the Hittites. The god of the land of Zainath-khirri. The god of 
Kar-za . . to . . . The god of Khirpa-ntaris. (29) The goddess of the 
city of [the land of] Kar-khn . . n . . . (Here there is another 
break.) The goddess of the land of (Kh ?)uakh(?)a. The goddess 
of the land of Zain[th]. The god of [the land of] Z[a]i[na] . . ta(t ?). 
The god of the land of Sa . . rpa. The god of the land of Khita (?). 

Askhir the goddess, the mistress (30) of the mountains. The 
waters of the land of the Hittites. The gods of the land of 
Qizawadana. 

In hieroglyphics the names are written thus : — 

I Aranna. 



„ ^ V, rv, v^x ^^=0^ Zami-u7-7ida. 

O ^ 1 21 I Mil _Mi. 

\\ I "K h^N<l Pirqa. 

rA I Kr aX r^^^^ Khisa-sapa. 






\\ "^ c^^Mi Riikhasina. 

[q] I \\ J^ W "^ [i^^ Sakhipaina. 

fff <cz=> Askhir. 

I I 



V I 



'^^ ^ ^ Zainath-kherri. 



1 1 



-^ ^^^ ^^^ Kar-khn ..n. 



195 



June 6] SOCIETY OV BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGV. [1899. 

i \\ ' ' ' Q^^ Zain\th\ 

(?) Za/[^^^?] . . /r7/(?). 



^ S' )C (?) & . . rt„. 

n X<><'yi-1 Ahitaii). 

In the last line of the inscription the name of the ])rinces.s of 
Qizawadana, who is stated to be the Hittite queen, should be 

Putu-khipa, not Puu-Khipa, as given by 



W 
M. Bouriant. 

The names of the cities deserve study. That of Aranna (or rather 
Arinna) occurs in the list of cities found by M. Chantre at Boghaz 
Keui, of which I have spoken in a former Paper. In Zanu-arnda we 
have the same termination as in Istunda, a country of which a certain 
Tukham was king in the time of Tiglath-pileser III. The termina- 
tion is also found in the name of Garparunda, a king of Gurgum in 
B.C. 854, a name which is also written Garparuda and Girparuda. In 
the \'annic inscriptions we find it under the form of ruadas in Khite- 
ruadas, the name of two kings of Milid. Khite seems to be the god 
Khate, the eponymous deity of the Hittite race, so that Garpa or 
Giri)a would be another divinity. It may be noted that a contem- 
porary of Tukham of Istunda was Us-khitti of Tuna (which I would 
identify with Tyana). 

In Khisa-sapa the termination is identical with that of the city 
of Khatu-sipa in the Boghaz Keui list of towns, perhaps too with the 
first element in the name of the Hittite king Sapa-lulve, though it 
must be remembered that the latter name is written Subbi-luliuma in 
the Tel el-Amarna tablets. 

Sarisu is the Serise or Seresse of Tiglath-pileser I, which is stated 
to be in Kummukh or Komagene, " on the further bank of the 
Tigris." It is identified by Delitzsch with the Sareisa of Strabo. 
The Vannic king Menuas places a " Hittite" city of the name of 
Surisilis in the same neighbourhood. 

Khirpa or Khilpa has long since been identified with Alepi)o. 

Rukhasina nuist be the Rukhizi of the Tel el-Amarna tablets. 

196 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [li^gg. 

Akizzi, the governor of Qatna, says in a letter to Amenophis IV (T/ie 
Tell el-Amar7ia Tablets, ^j), that " Teuwatti of the city of Lapana 
and Arzauya of the city of Rukhizi were in league with Aidaggama," 
or Etu-gama, the Hittite chieftain, who had made himself master of 
Kadesh on the Orontes in the land of Kinza or Gizzi, and that they 
had occupied the country of Ubi, the Aup of the Egyptian inscrip- 
tions, near Aleppo. Arzauya seems to be a derivative from Arzawa, 
" the man of Arzawa," which may throw light on the situation of that 
country.* x^s for Teuwatti, it is clearly the same as Tuates, the name 
of a king of Milid in the Vannic inscriptions, and we may also com- 
pare the name of Tutamu, king of the Khattina (erroneously read 
Patina) in B.C. 740. The city of Lapana may be the Lamena of 
Shalmaneser II, on the road to Tarsus. 

Khirpa-ntaris is an interesting name, as it is evidently a derivative 
from Khirpa or Aleppo, formed by the suffix lar and the s of the 
nominative. It is possible that we have the same suffix in the name 
of the Khattinian town Khata-tirra. 

Askhir, " the mistress of the mountains," is the Babylonian 
Iskhara, as is shown by a bilingual seal-cylinder in the Ashmolean 
Museum, on which Indilimma, the son of Serdamu, calls himself 
" the servant of the goddess Iskhara." In the corresponding Hittite 

hieroglyphs the name is represented by the two symbols "^"^ , where 

the triangle may denote a mountain rather than a sacred cone. 
Iskhara was identified by the Babylonians with Istar, and it is possible 
was borrowed by them from the Hittites. But the borrowing may 
also have been on the reverse side.f 

11. The Tel el-Amarna tablets show us the Hittites in the act of 
overrunning the Syrian possessions of Egypt. Thothmes III had 
already found them in the north of Syria, but it was not until the 
closing days of the XVIIIth dynasty that the weakness of Egypt 
allowed them to occupy the banks of the Euphrates and to penetrate 
as far south as Kadesh on the Orontes. The letters of Akizzi of 

* Arzauya is elsewhere written Arzawaya, and there are letters from him to 
the Pharaoh, in one of which (W. and A. 125. 9) he gives the phrase, " I am a 
servant of the king my lord," as ima lakii bali-me in his own language. Ale or 
mi is the possessive pronoun of the first person in the language of Arzawa, erne 
in the Hittite hieroglyphic texts signifies " I (am)," and bali must be a loan-word 
from the Semitic bcCal. Laku may be read ladiir. 

t The first symbol is found on Cilician coins whicli M. Six ascribes to Issos 
{Nmnismatic Chronicle XV, 3rd Series, p. 200). 

197 P 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1899. 

Qatna to Amenophis IV (not Amenophis III, as has been erroneously 
assumed), state that under the direction of " the king of the Hittites" 
the Hittite princes of Lapana and Rukhizzi had united with Aidag- 
gama in attacking Ubi, while Dasa (also written Tassu) had occupied 
the land of Amma. Amma must be the Ammo of the Old Testament 
to which Balaam belonged, of whom it is said (Numb, xxii, 5) that he 
came from Pethor " on the river (Euphrates) in the land of the 
children of Ammo." Pethor, near the junction of the Euphrates and 
Sajur, is still called a Hittite city by Shalmaneser II. It lay not very 
far to the north of Qatna, which, as I have pointed out in a previous 
Paper, was on the Khabur. A letter from Rabi-Khar of Gebal terms 
it the land of Am, and states that it had already been conquered by 
Itakama with the help of the kings of the Hittites and Narima or 
Naharaim. A similar statement is made by two other correspondents 
of the Pharaoh, who say that Itagama had marched into Am " at the 
head of the Hittite soldiers."* 

Whether Itagama had already made himself master of Kadesh, or 
whether the Hittite conquest of the latter city followed the conquest 
of Am, is doubtful. At all events, one of the letters in the British 
jMuseum (No. 43) states that Arzawaya (of Rukhizzi) had marched 
against the land of Gizza along with Itakama, and that they were 
threatening the territory of Abitu. When Abimelech of Tyre wrote, 
Itakama was already paivari (Egn. pa-iir), or " lord, of Kadesh." 
Itakama however was not yet secure in his new conquest, and 
accordingly we have a letter from him to the Egyptian government, in 
which he excuses himself for his invasion of Kadesh and Ubi on the 
ground that he was driving the Bedouin out of them in the Pharaoh's 
name. Ubi, it is clear, is the Abitu of the other letter ; the land of 
Gizza, in which Kadesh was situated, is elsewhere spelt Kinza. 

In these letters we assist, as it were, at the Hittite conquest of 
northern Syria and Kadesh on the Orontes. Hamath must have 
fallen into Hittite hands at the same time, since it was north of 
Kadesh; it was, however, an unimportant town, and is therefore 
unnoticed. It was only after the fall of the Hittite power that it 
rose on the ruins of Kadesh. On the banks of the Eui)hrates Pethor 
and the surrounding district became Hittite ; even Qatna on the 

* It would seem from W. and A., 143, 14, 15. that " the soldiers of the land 
of the Hittites" who conquered Am were called Lupakku ; but the passage is 
obscure, and '^ hipp&ggu of bronze" are mentioned among the wedding presents 
sent by Dusratta to Amenophis III (W. and A, 26, IV, 28). 

198 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Khabur was burned by the Hittite king, and its image of the sun-god 
carried off. 

Other letters, sent to the Pharaoh by the Amorite Aziru, tell us 
that Tunip, now Tennib, to the north-west of Aleppo, was also cap- 
tured by the Hittite invaders. It was the chief fortress of the 
Egyptians in northern Syria and defended the province on the north ; 
its fall, therefore, meant the overthrow of the Egyptian power in that 
part of the world. 

In Tunip, however, as well as on the banks of the Euphrates, the 
Hittites came into conflict with another powerful kingdom, that of 
Mitanni. The ruling class of Mitanni seem to have come from the 
plateau of Armenia ; at all events their power had once extended 
westward of the Euphrates as far as the Orontes. This is shown by 
the fact that in a letter addressed by the people of Tunip to the 
Egyptian king, certain native words are introduced which are purely 
Mitannian. They are added where the Assyrian translation failed to 
represent the exact sense of the original draft of the letter. First of 
all Thothmes III is called aminati-pi-ta, " thy ancestor ; " then we 
have tiapriUan, " college of priests," and, finally, ammati, " elders." 
Ammati is given as a gloss upon the Assyrian laberute, naprillan 
upon muta-ssu which corresponds to imite-su sa biti in a parallel 
passage in a letter of Akizzi {The Tell el-Amarna Tablets, 36, 
Jiev. 7). Ammati (or ammatl-ppi) occurs m the letter of the 
Mitannian king Dusratta, where I long ago explained it as meaning 
" grandfather," and -pi and -Ulan are both of them characteristic 
Mitannian suffixes. The native language of Tunip, consequently, 
must have been Mitannian, and the influence or government of 
Mitanni must once have extendedlthus far to the west,* 

It would appear that such was also the case as regards Nukhassi, 
the Anaugas of the Egyptian monuments. At all events, in a letter 
from that di:\%ix\ct{Winckler and Abel, 143, 11), zuzilaman is given 
as the native equivalent of the Assyrian pani-sunu tsabat, " accept 
them." The termination of this word is again distinctively Mitannian. 

It is probable that the country known to the Assyrians as 
Kummukh, on the northern border of Mitanni, was also once under 
Mitannian influence. But it had become Hittite before the age of 
Tiglath-pileser I. From his time onwards the names of the kings of 

The inclusion of Tunip in the Mitannian "sphere of influence" is also 
indicated Ijy the fact that one of the ambassadors of Dusratta of Mitanni was 
named Tunip-ipri, " the prince of Tunip" {T/ie Tell el-Amarna Tablets, 2, 47). 

199 P 2 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGV. [1S99. 

Kummukh recorded in the Assyrian inscriptions are all Hittite ; 
indeed, one of them, Khattu-sar, is compounded with the name of 
the eponymous Hittite god, and is identical with that of the Hittite 
opponent of Rameses II.* 

III. Tiglath-pileser I states that the Muska or Moschi, who for 
fifty years had held the lands of Alzi and Purukuzzi in subjection, 
invaded Kummukh, Alzi and Purukuzzi lay on the southern bank 
of the Euphrates between Palu and Khini, and were regarded as 
forming part of the Assyrian province of Subari or Subarti. The 
cities of Subarti, Tiglath-pileser further informs us, had been cap- 
tured by " 4,000 men of the Kaska and the Uruma, soldiers of the 
Hittites," and on this account Alzi and Purukuzzi had withheld 
their tribute. At first sight, therefore, it would appear as if the 
Muska and the Hittites were identified together. Closer study of the 
text, however, shows that such is not the case, and that the invasion 
of Alzi by the Hittites w^as subsequent to its occupation by the 
Muska. The Hittites were never dislodged by the Assyrian kings, 
and three centuries after Tiglath-pileser, the Vannic conqueror 
Menuas found them still in possession of the land of Alzi. 

IV. The name hitherto read Patina should be Khattina. The 
Khattina, according to the Assyrian inscriptions, occupied the district 
between the Afrin and the Gulf of Antioch on the northern bank of 
the Orontes, and immediately to the south of the kingdom of Samalla 
or Gurgum, the capital of which is now marked by the ruins of 
Sinjerli. The name Khattina is a derivative from Khatti or " Hittites." 
In the Vannic inscriptions Khati-na signifies " belonging to the 
Hittites," and in one of the Arzawa letters we find sarr-i/s Khat- 
tmifias, " the Hittite king." The kingdom of the Khattina is there- 
fore simply the kingdom " of the Hittites," and was one of the relics 
which survived the wreck of the Hittite empire in northern Syria. 
According to Tiglath-jjileser III, it was properly the kingdom of 
Unqi, a name of which Umk is the modern descendant, as I first 
pointed out twenty years ago. 

Down to the time of its extinction by Tiglath-pileser III, the 
names of its rulers, as given on the Assyrian monuments, are all 

* Hittite names continued to be borne by natives of Kummukli after its con- 
quest by the Assyrians. Mar-larim, or Mar-la'rve, the eponym for li.c. 668, is 
stated to have come from Kummukh, and the second element in his name is cer- 
tainly the same as that which we find in the name of Tarkhu-lara, king of Gurgum. 
Mar is probal)]y the divine name Mur, which we have in Mur-sar, assimilated to 
the Assyrian mar, "son." 

200 



June 6] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



Hittite, like the names of the kings of Gurgum, of Kummukh, and of 
Milid. Thus we have Lubarna (also written Luburna and Libarna), 



a 



S 



M 




w 



E 



31 



the first element in which is the same as in Luba-sunna, one of the 
Hittite chieftains mentioned by Rameses II ; Sapa-lulvi, the Sapa-lul 
of the treaty between Rameses and the Hittites, who writes his own 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

name Subbi-luliuma in one of the Tel el-Amarna letters, and Gir- 
parunda, the Garparunda of Gurgum, with which the Garbatus of the 
Eg}'ptian texts must be compared. Shalmaneser II mentions a 
Khattinian prince of whose name only the final part . . . sun has 
been preserved. This is evidently to be found again in Luba-sunna, 
and probably also in the Cilician name Suennesis. Among the 
Khattinian cities were Khata-tirra, in which we have the name of the 
Hittite, Kulma-dara, with which the name of the Arzawa king 
Tarkun-daraus must be compared as well as that of Kulma-kulma 
on a Cappadocian tablet in the collection of M, de Clercq, which has 
been quoted by Dr. Scheil, and Tarma-nazi (or Tarku-nazi), where 
the second element is that found in the name of the Milidian king 
Tarkhu-nazi. The same element is met with in Nazianzus, perhaps 
also in Suennesis, where the first element may represent the god 
Suin or Zuin, found in proper names in the Cappadocian tablets.* 

The names of the cities of the Khattina also agree in form with 
those of the Boghaz Keui list. Most of the latter end in -iva, and 
among the towns of the Khattina mentioned in the Assyrian inscrip- 
tions are Kinalia or Kunulua, Nulla and Taya or Tae. 

V. Twenty years ago, in my Paper on T/ie Monuments of the 
Hittites, I first pointed out that the " White Syrians " whom Strabo 
places in Cappadocia, were the Hittites. Indeed, Herodotus expressly 
calls the people of Pteria (Boghaz Keui or Eyuk) " Syrians " 
(i, 76; cp. i, 72, V, 49, vii, 72). These "White Syrians" Strabo 
states (xii, 3, p. 473), on the authority of Mseandrius, were the 
ancestors of the Eneti or Veneti, who were the same as the Cappa- 
docians. They inhabited " all that part of Cappadocia which adjoins 
the Halys and borders on Paphlagonia, where two dialects are used, 
and Paphlagonian words are numerous." 

It would seem therefore that the Hittites of Cappadocia called 
themselves Veneti. Now I have published in the Proceedings of this 
Society an inscription on a griffin's head of red stone, found in 
Cappadocia, and now, I believe, in the Louvre, which is in the 
cuneiform characters of the Amardian syllabary, and reads : Ku-ar- 
u-van KING Van-tu-vas, " Kuaruvan the Vantuvian king." Vantuvas 
I should explain as a derivative from Van/ii, and see in the latter the 
name of the Veneti. In this case Kuaruvan will be the name of a 



* Compare the name of the city Madaranzu by the side of that of Madara in 
Nistun in the inscriptions of Assur-natsir-pal (W.A.I. Ill, 6, Rev. 10, 15, iS). 

202 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

Hittite king, and the suffix -vas or -"lOas an adjectival termination.* 
The phonetic combination ua reminds us of Cihcian names Hke Kuas 
and Kuales found in Greek inscriptions at Hamaxia, as well as of the 
Hittite Arzauya or Arzawaya. In the Iliad, II, 852, the Veneti are 
placed in Paphlagonia, on the banks of the river Parthenius, and 
therefore on the west side of the Halys. Eastward, near the mouth 
of the Thermodon, was Khadisia, "a city of the White Syrians," 
according to Hecatjeus as quoted by Stephanus Byzantinus. Khadisia 
is evidently a Kadesh, or " Sacred City," like Kadesh on the Orontes, 
and the banks of the Thermodon were said to be the home of the 
Amazons. 

VI. The fifth campaign of Sennacherib was directed against " the 
people of the city of Tumurri," the city of Ukku, the people of 
Cilicia, and Til-Garimme " on the Tibarenian frontier." Tumurri was 
situated among the fastnesses of Mount Nipiir, and after destroying 
it Sennacherib "turned" eastw^ard against Maniyae of Ukku, over 
rugged mountains which had not previously been traversed by an 
Assyrian king. Nipur, it has been generally agreed, is Mount Taurus, 
and the campaign must consequently have been somewhere to the 
north of Cilicia. In Tumurri, or Tuwurri as the name may also be 
read, we may have the original form of the name Taurus ; at all 
events, Tumurri must be the same as Timur, " the stronghold " of 
Kate of the Qaue on the western slope of Mount Amanus, mentioned 
by Shalmaneser II on the Black Obelisk (1. 128). Shalmaneser 
further speaks of " ]\Iount Tumar " (as the text really reads), " a 
mountain of silver," on the confines of the Tubal or Tibareni [Black 
Ob., 11. 106, 107). This can hardly be the Bulgar Dagh where the 
Hittites mined ibr silver, as the Tibareni seem to have been too far 
to the east, but it may be the Alyba of Homer (//. II, 857), in the 
territory of the Halizonians, " from whence silver was brought."! 

However this maybe, Sennacherib enumerates along with Tumurri 
the cities of Sarum, Ezama, Kipsu, Khalpuda, Qua and Qana. Sarum 
has the same name as the river which rises in Cataonia and forces its 
way through the range of the Taurus ; Kipsu must be the Kipsuna 
of Tiglath-pileser in the territory of Qumani or Comana ; Khalpuda 

* Compare the termination of Samalius, "the Samalian" of Samalla, a 
Hittite chief mentioned by Rameses II. 

+ Prof. Maspero has identified Mount Tumar with the Aghir-dagh above 
Marash, where there is a silver mine, as well as two quarries of pink and black 
marble [Proc. Soc. BiM. Arch., 1898, xx, pp. 133, 134). 

203 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.^OLOGV. [1S99. 

I would identify with the modern Kharput ; and Qua brings us to the 
Que, called Qaue by Shalmaneser II, who inhabited the south-eastern 
part of Cilicia, and in whose territory Tarsus was included. I believe 
that Cataonia and Tyana were also comprised in it, and that in 
Cata-onia, as compared with Lyka-onia from the Lukki of the Tel 
el-Amarna tablets, we have a derivative from the name of Kati, king 
of the Que in 850 b.c. The same word is found in the name of his 
contemporary, Katu-zilu or Kata-zilu, king of Kummukh. The name 
reappears in Greek geography as Ketis, the Keteioi occupying the 
same district as the Que of the Assyrian inscriptions. With Que we 
may compare the Cilician name Kuas, as well as the Qaui-sar of the 
Egyptian monuments.* 

VII. The fact that the bilingual inscription of Tarkondemos has 
helped us so little towards the decipherment of the Hittite texts, has 
always seemed to me a proof that we cannot have interpreted it 
correctly, and I now have a new explanation of it to propose. In 
some of the Tel el-Amarna tablets, more especially those of the king 
of Jerusalem, we find the combination mat all, " country of the city," 
while a letter from a son of the Egyptian Pharaoh (W. and A., 29, 
I, 8) speaks of mat all Misri and mat ali Khatti. In the bilingual 
inscription I would accordingly read »"Ciy| ideographically instead 
of phonetically, and translate "king of the land of the city" instead 
of " king of the land of Er — ." In this case the corresponding 
Ilittite sign ?^, which seems to me to represent a plough, would 
mean " city," and not have the phonetic value of er as I used to 
suppose. This agrees well with its position in certain passages in 
the Hittite texts, e.g., H. II, 2, III, i, V, 2, as well as Bulgar 
Maden 2, where it is followed by the ideograph of country. On the 
other hand, there are passages where it must be used phonetically. 

We should naturally expect that in the bilingual inscription the 
words "land of the city" would be followed by the name of the city 
or country of which Tarkondemos was king. But a country or city 
of the name of Me is so unlikely, that in spite of the strangeness 01 
the expression I am inclined to see in mc y>- tfy the Hittite first 
personal pronoun. The letters of Arzawa and the Boghaz Keui 
fragments have shown that the cuneiform syllabary was used for the 

* Dr. W. Max Miillcr connects the name of Kuinda, a Cilician city mentioned 
by Strabo, with Que. However this may be, Kuinda is the Kundi of the Assyrian 
inscriptions, in the neighbourhood of Sizu (the modern Sis), whose king, Sandu- 
arri, was conquered by Esar-haddon. 

204 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Hittite dialects, and that ;;// denoted the possessive pronoun of the first 
person. Consequently I should now read the bilingual inscription as 
follows : Tar-qu-it-dim-me sar mat ali me-e, " Tarkondemos king of 
the land of the city am I." Perhaps there is support for this reading 
in the fact that the cuneiform characters 77ie-e are immediately above 
the head of the figure of the king, and that there is a space between 
them and the ideograph of city. 

VIII. The two chief obstacles to our decipherment of the Hittite 
texts are the scantiness and imperfection of our materials, and the 
uncertain reading of so much of them. Where both the language 
and the system of writing are unknown, it is impossible to copy 
correctly characters which are at all injured. The corrected copies 
of the Hamath inscriptions published by Mr. Rylands* illustrate the 
danger of building systems of decipherment upon texts which have 
not been examined by the decipherer himself, and I should advise 
those who did not spend hours over the squeezes of the Bulgar 
Maden inscription, Avhen they arrived in England, to leave that 
inscription alone. 

Another difificulty in the way of decipherment is that of knowing 
when characters which resemble one another are really different 
signs or only variant forms of one and the same. Thus a com- 
parison of the Jerablijs texts shows us that the first ideograph in 

J. II M^ is merely a variant of the face-sign, that the sixth character 



is a variant of the head of the goat g^ , and that the depressed 
hand ^ m{\J~\\ ^'^ '^'^^ ^'-^ ^^ "^ variant of the hieratic and more 
usual (^^T which has developed (or degenerated)t through the 

forms found in J. II and J. Ill {^\f^ and on the bowl _) *, . 
But, on the other hand, is the crook \ merely a variant of the 
lituus cS or a distinct character? And what relation do the various 

* Prof. Sayce having very kindly asked me to add a note en the forms of 
various characters as they occurred to me, in drawing and re-drawing the 
inscriptions, I do so with great pleasure in the hope that some of the notes may 
assist in the graphic decipherment of the characters. — W. H. R. 

t The latest addition to the series of changes the depressed hand lias passed 



through, though hardly to be recognised is (/l/y) j found in the centre cf the 

Skanderun inscription. Face I, line 3. — W. H. R. 

205 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [iJigg. 

hieroglyphs which seem to denote " king" and "country" bear to one 
another?* 

Then again does the same character possess more than one 
phonetic value ? The analogy of other systems of hieroglyphic 
writing would lead us to suppose that it did, and that a character 
could be used both ideographically (or as a determinative) and 
phonetically. The number of characters used phonetically, how- 
ever, does not appear to be large. In fact, the comparatively small 
number of signs found altogether in the inscriptions is somewhat 
puzzling, and can be accounted for only on the supposition that the 
writing is for the most part ideographic. But there are a few signs 
which appear repeatedly, more especially as suffixes, and these signs 
must obviously be phonetic. 

Those which appear the oftenest will be the vowels and the 
grammatical terminations of the nouns or verbs. But even of these 
the number is so limited that I am driven to the conclusion I pub- 
lished years ago, that like the Cypriote syllabary the phonetic 
characters of the Hittite script made no distinction between tenues 
and medics. The conclusion has since been confirmed by the Tel 
el-Amarna letters, in which we find the te?wes and j?iedia; inter- 
changed in Hittite proper names. Thus the name of the Hittite 
prince of Kadesh is written A-i-dag-ga-ma, E-tak-ka-ma, I-ta-ka-ma 
and Tta-ga-ma ; Dasa is also written Tassu, and l> and / are 
repeatedly interchanged.! 

In the use of ideographs and determinatives the Hittite script 
would naturally be principally influenced by the cuneiform system of 

* Our copies of the texts have not always reproduced these ideographs cor- 
rectly. There are three ideographs for "king," the cap M or /-s, the more 

hieratic M, and the still more conventionalised ^- The ideographs for 
'■country," on the other hand, are Mjm.' /pM\M (which seems due to 

Egyptian influence), and A or M.- The constant association of the ideographs 

of " king" and " country" caused them to be assimilated to one another. 

t Similarly the Hadrach of the Old Testament appears as Khata-rikka in the 
Assyrian texts, where a comparison with the name of the Khattinian town Khata- 
tirra seems to show that we have a compound of Khata or "Hittite." The 
Arzawa letters, however, contain the word khatrikki. 

206 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

writing with which it was so long in contact, but after the rise of the 
eighteenth Egyptian dynasty it is probable that the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphs, which bore so close a resemblance to it, would also affect it 
to a certain extent. It is to this Egyptian influence that I should 
ascribe the repetition of determinatives, the constant employment 
of them — at all events in some of the texts — and the mode in which, 
I believe, the word they determine is sometimes enclave by them.* 

Dr. Peiser has suggested that ^ or is the determinative of a 
" city." There can be no doubt that the character is sometimes used 
phonetically, but I believe that he is partially right in his suggestion. The 
character, I believe, denotes " place " or " locality," and corresponds 
to the cuneiform ki. Like ki it usually follows the word determined 
by it, but it may also precede it, in which case it was probably pro- 
nounced. For instances of its use as a determinative see H. II, 2, 
III, 2 (where, if we adopt my new explanation of the Tarkondemos 
boss, it would be preceded by the words " prince of the land of the 
city of [Kadesh ?] •'), V. 2, J. Ill, 2, 3. 

In J. Ill, 2, 3, it follows the picture of a house '' 



(followed by two phonetic signs) as well as the word ^^ ||- after 

which comes a verb represented by the ideograph of a mason's square 
ri Oy j and the determinative of " action." On the Bagdad bowl 
it is attached to the same word, which as it consists of the pictures 
of two altars and a standard (which may have a phonetic value here), 
I believe to signify a " sanctuary." In H. V, 2 it is again attached 

to the same word, and precedes a word Jl o^=a □[][] which, for 

reasons given by me fifteen years ago, I read kii-u-e. Then comes 
an ideograph which from the parallel passage in J. Ill, 4, where 
it is preceded by the determinative of divinity, we know to be the 
name of a god. In H. V, 3, however, the word kue (which is followed 

by the name of the god Sandan ^^ — ) is preceded by a determinative 

M 

representing an image or doll i . I therefore give to kue the 

* I must apologise for the use of this French word, but we have no English 
equivalent. I mean that a word is as it were shut in between two determinatives 
which both precede and follow it. 

207 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

signification of ''image," and since in J. Ill, 4, IT y^ ^^ D|]D 

the boot accompanies the phonetic characters ku-u-e, it must have the 
value of Me. 

Now D. Leopold Messerschmidt, in his merciless dissection of 
Prof. Jensen's " decipherment " of the Hittite inscriptions, comes to 
the conclusion (which, however, he subsequently rejects) that in the 
title of the kings of the Bor (B.) and Bulgar jSIaden (B. M.) inscrip- 
tions we have the name of the Que. The inscriptions belong to the 
territory of the people who are called by the name of Que on the 
Assyrian monuments, and we should therefore expect to find it in 
the native texts. And the title which we actually find (B, I, i, B. M. i), 
is i|\ ,^A^ ^\ , that is to say, the ideograph of " country," the boot 
and the nominative suffix -s, agreeing with the nominative suffix of the 
royal name. The same title is also met with at Merash (M. I).* 

At Bor the title is followed by another title (with the nominative 
suffix) which precedes it at Bulgar Maden. This second title, I 
believe, must contain the name of Tyana, which is now represented 
by Bor. In the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III, Tyana appears as 
Tuna, of which Us-khitti was king. 

IX. Dr. Messerschmidt has published at the end of his Bemerk- 
iingen zu den hethitischen Inschriften, an interesting Hittite inscription, 
from SkanderCm. When M. Menant sent me a copy of it in 1889, 
I remarked to him in a letter that it contained the symbols of the 
Hittite numerals, and that as the numerals up to 9 were denoted by 



* As Merash was not in the territory of the Que, the name cannot have the 
same signification at Merash as at Bor. Now in a symbolic picture at Boghaz 
Keui the high-priest is represented supporting the solar disk on his head while 
he stands upon the boot. The boot, therefore, symbolizes the earth. On two of 
the Schlumberger seals (15 and 16) the arch of the sky stands above the boot, and 
in one of them the two symbols replace the figure of the god who stands upon a 
panther. In J. IV, 4, 4, the arch and the boot, each with the same suffix, 
jn o,^ G=0 are coupled together with the head of an ass between them, 
which must therefore express the copulative conjunction. They 
will here signify "heaven and earth," or more probably "above 
and Ijclow." In J. I, i, (^) (g ^^ the boot may re- 
T*;^ i^^^ present the postposition "under" ("under the god" or "god- 

born"). At any rate, at Merash I should explain it as the phonetic complement 
of the ideograph of "country," the name of the country (? Khana) following it 
immediately. In this case the Que will be simply " the natives." Qumani is 
the Assyrian equivalent of Komana, where the goddess Ma was worshipped, and 
an obvious interpretation of the name is Qu-ma-na, " the land of Ma." 

208 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

the perpendicular line (Gurun II, 5), )/ must signify 10 and /^^ 

100. Dr. Messerschmidt has independently arrived at the same con- 
clusion, which we may therefore consider to be settled. But he has 

not noticed that there seems to be another numerical symbol /^ /7 

in the inscription, which must represent either 1000 or (more probably) 
the soss, 60. The inscription shows that I was right in the conclusion 
I came to nearly twenty years ago, that S© is the determinative of 
plurality, since the words preceded by the numerals are followed by 
this ideograph. To most of them, moreover, the suffix S) ''^ is 
attached. See also H. IV. 2. In the Arzawa letters the plural ends 
in -d as in hibbid, " chariots," and -s as in GAL-GAL-(7i-, " great ones," 
so we may assume that the suffix represents a syllable which ter 
minated in one or other of these sounds. 

X. Dr. Messerschmidt points out that the vase ^^Qp^ which 
usually accompanies the name of the god Sandan must be its 
phonetic complement, and therefore probably had the value of da. 
A seal-cylinder lately published by Dr. Hayes Ward shows that he 
is right, as here the name of Sandan, with its phonetic complement, 
is coupled with that of the deity of Carchemish. The name of the 
god, followed by the vase and the vowel e, is also found at the 
beginning of the inscription of Agrak (near Kaisariyeh), where it 
must plainly represent the dative, " to the god Sandan." The inscrip- 
tion on the Bagdad bowl, on the other hand, has the name of the 
god (like the Ivris text) without the vase. 

This inscription begins with a picture of a bowl Wi'iVij /, preceded 
by the crook G^ , which must therefore denote the demonstrative pro- 
noun, and followed by the suffix of the accusative (the gloved 
hand K ^^^^^ , -//). Then comes the name of Sandan with the 



boot and altar (a) and then the group which I believe 

to mean " sanctuary," (10'^ consisting of a pair of altars and a 

standard. To this is attached the same suffix as in H. I. 3, namely 
the depressed hand. The general sense of this is clear ; it can only 

209 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCtLEOLOGY. [1899. 

mean, " This bowl for use in the sanctuary of Sandan X (or X and Y) 
has (or have) '' made " or " dedicated." 

XL The verb " to make " seems to be expressed by an instrument 

resembhng a builder's trowel T T |f ? followed by the suffix ku. 



The same ideograph, with the nominative suffix -s, follows the word 

which I suppose to mean " sanctuary" in J. Ill, 5, and in the fourth 

line of that inscription is coupled with the words " image of the god 

(Khata)," and the picture of a house. At Ivris it follows the words 

" image of the god Sandan." As it replaces the picture of a mason's 

square in the second line of J. Ill I conclude that it signifies 

" to make " or " build." 

§^ 
Another form of the same ideograph occurs A , with the suffix 

ku, in H. I, 3, II, 3, where it is followed by the word "sanctuary" 
and the depressed hand. Then comes another verb represented by 
a hand grasping a staff and furnished with two suffixes (or with one 
suffix expressed by two characters) which differ from the suffix of 
the first verb, and therefore presumably denote a different person. 
Lastly come a proper name with the nominative suffix and the 
ideograph of " king." 

All this can admit of only one signification. It must mean : 
" I have built (or restored) this sanctuary which X the king 
destroyed " (or " founded "). The depressed hand will accordingly 
denote either the relative " which," or, as is more probable, the 
demonstrative " this." The exact meaning of the second verb must 
remain doubtful as long as it is uncertain what exactly is meant by 
the staff (?) in the ideograph which denotes it.* In H. IV, 2, 3, 
where the verb is written phonetically, the first character used to 
represent its pronunciation may be either the plough or a knife, and 
in H. V, I, a second determinative is added to it, a head with a 
word (?) issuing from the mouth. Perhaps, however, the latter has 
merely a causative sense, "command to destroy" or " found." 

* An idea I have long held wilh reference to tliis character is that when held 

in the hand w;=3 it had a meaning connected with "strength" or "power." 

A more simple explanation and extension of this meaning would be to " support " 
or " establish," which would agree with Prof. Sayce's interpretation. The staff 
alone occurs lying under the characters, mentioned by Prof. Sayce in the previous 
note. It is found in the same position with different groups of characters on 
several of the fragments from Jerabis. — W. H. R. 

210 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

XII. Fifteen years ago I suggested that in the second Hne of 

H. I, II and III || ^ ^^ ^^^ f[^ ^ ^^'® ^^'^ *® ^^'°^^^ 

"king of the Hittites," on the ground that a similar group of 
characters [follows the ideographs of "king" and "country" in 
J. Ill, 2.* It was merely a guess, supported by the fact that, so 
far as we know from history, the only territorial title common to 
the princes of Hamath and Carchemish would be " king of the 
Hittites." I still believe that my guess was right, though I now 
doubt whether the title belonged to the pnnce of Hamath (or 
Kadesh), who was rather the vassal of the Hittite kin^. But I can 
now strengthen my guess in more than one way. The ideograph 

y^^ to which I attach the value of Khatta, " Hittite," represents 



"water,"! and is also the name of a god (see J. Ill, 4, ^~;: where 



it is preceded by the determinative of divinity ; also J. I, 5, II, 4, 6, 
III, 5, H. V, 2). We know from the name of Khatta-sar (or Khattu- 
sar) that Khata or Khatta was an eponymous deity, like Qaui or Que 
(in Kaui-sar), Khilip (Aleppo) in Khilip-sar, (S:c. Furthermore, it is 
noticeable that the Hittite region in northern Syria between the 
Euphrates and the Orontes was just the Nahrina or " River-land " of 
the Egyptian monuments. According to the treaty between the 
Hittites and Rameses II, the Hittites worshipped " the waters of the 
land of the Hittites," and in J. II, 4, 6, we have the ideograph of 
water followed by the numeral 6, and the arm with a dagger 

/^^ Dj lD Lu v^ * ^^^^ latter is usually a determinative expressing 
action or power, but in J. Ill, 5 it is attached to a word 
^u^ xini^ v^ which in line 3 precedes the ideograph of "king." 
"When, therefore, it is used alone it must represent this word, and 

* Since my suggestion was made, the obelisk of Izgin near Albistan has been 
discovered, on which the sign which I would read Khaita is again attached to the 
ideograph of "country" (A 4, B 3, D 4, 5). It was therefore a territorial title, 
used alike in Hamath, Carchemish and Kataonia, that is to say, the precise 
region in which the Hittites are placed by the Egyptian, Assyrian and Vannic 
inscriptions. 

t I am glad to find that Prof. Sayce has arrived at this conclusion, as I had 
independently formed the idea that this character probably represented a canal 
or river. — W. H. R. 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGV. [1899 

have some such meaning as " great " or '' powerful." Hence the 
meaning of the phrase in J. II, 4, 6, will be, " tlie six great water- 
gods."* That they are gods is indicated by the fact that in line 4 

the phrase is followed by a picture of two men embracing 

each other, which must signify samething like " loved by " or 
" loving," and that in line i this picture follows the name of a deity. 
I shall henceforth assume, therefore, that the group of characters 

at the end of H. I, 2, means " king of the land of the 



Hittites," and corresponds with the Arzawa sarr-?^^' Khattajinas. 
Comparing the various forms of the group together, we shall then get 
the following values for the characters composing the ethnic name : 

or y^/ khaffa, [f\f=^ tan, ^1]J 7ias (or possibly no), 
a. In J. Ill, 2, the reading will be khat(td) -tan-n-e-7i. 

If the depressed hand {taii) signifies the sufifixed demonstrative 
pronoun, the latter would be tan in Hittite. We find the termination 
tan both in the Arzawa letters and in the Boghaz Keui fragments. 

XIII. We are still completely ignorant of the relative chronology 
of the Hittite monuments, and have no materials for settling it. The 
discoveries of M. Chantre, however, show that they go back to at 
least the age of the Tel el-Amarna tablets, while some of them, like 
those found in Cilicia, may come down to the Greek period, and con- 
tain Greek names written in Hittite characters. Similarly in northern 
Syria we may expect to find Semitic names, phonetically spelt, in the 
Hittite texts, as well as words borrowed from Assyrian. Indeed, a 

* A cylinder in the Tyskiewicz collection, published by M. Reinach in the 
Revue Arch., vol. XXXII, June, 1898, p. 421, and Plate IX, besides the scenes 
represented round the drum, has at the base, within a double ring of spiral orna- 
ments, six heads in a circle, with two other signs which I am unable to distinguish 
clearly. M. Reinach describes the whole as "eight Hittite characters." The 
six in a circle are clearly the heads of a man, a lion, a bull, a lion full-faced, a 
goat, and an eagle ; these heads, I would suggest, are not characters but emblems 
of the gods. 

The scene on the cylinder appears to be sacrificial, as M. Reinach states, and 
it is to be noticed that on the lowest tier, i.e. in front of the main scene, ajipear 
together with vases, etc., two other heads, that of a bull, and some other animal 
without horns similar to one of the symbols also already known from the inscrip- 
tions.— W. 11. R. 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

people could not well use the cuneiform syllabary and write (like 
Sapalulve) in the Babylonian language without borrowing some 
Babylonian words. 

What is the age of the Hittite inscriptions of Hamath ? So far 
as we know there were no Hittite princes there after the age of 
David. In fact the Hittite occupation of Hamath must belong to 
the time when Kadesh on the Orontes was a Hittite city, since 
Kadesh lay to the south of Hamath. While the Hittite power 
lasted Kadesh was the predominant city ; it was only with the rise of 
Semitic influence that Hamath took its place. 

The Hamathite inscriptions must therefore belong to the period 
between the fall of the Asiatic empire of Egypt at the end of the 
eighteenth dynasty and the foundation of the Hebrew monarchy, that 
is to say, between B.C. 1400 and 1000. Beyond this we cannot at 
present go. 

But it must be remembered that during this period Hamath was 
merely a subordinate town dependent on Kadesh " in the land of 
Kinza " (or Gizza). Like Etagama of Kadesh or Arzauya of 
Rukhizzi, its prince was merely a vassal of " the great king of the 
Hittites." Moreover, it is questionable whether he was prince of 
Hamath at all. It is more probable that he took his title from the 
dominant city of Kadesh, like Etagama. 

Under these circumstances we must not expect to find the prince 
who is commemorated on the Hamathite stones entitling himself 
^' king of the Hittites," or even caUing himself " prince of Hamath." 
If the king of the Hittites is mentioned on them, as I believe is the 
case, he will be a different personage from the author of the inscrip- 
tions, and the territory over which tlie latter claims rule will be likely 
to be Kadesh or Kinza rather than Hamath. 

Now let us examine the beginning of the Hamath texts. After 
a great deal of hesitation I have returned to my original idea 
Transactions S. B. A., V, I, 1876, p. 24), that the first word 

eOy [jj rn etne (also written emea), signifies " I," though there is 

much to be said in favour of the view that it denotes " he says." 
Then comes the arch or basket-handle, g=d , the ideograph of what 
is " above." Here it must signify " prince," as in B. M. 2, where it 
interchanges with the ideograph of " king " in line 3.* Next comes 

* At Gurun it is placed over the determinatives of deity, and so must either 
signify " supreme " or indicate that the gods were those of the sky and not of 
Hades. 

213 Q 



JiNE 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 

a determinative, the exact signification of which is still doubtful, and 
then the nominative tan-7?ie-s, followed by the word-divider. This 
word-divider, by the way, is the same as the oblique wedge which 
similarly divides words in the Cappadocian cuneiform tablets. In 
taji-me-s (ox dan-7ve-s) we have the phonetic equivalent of the ideograph 
of " prince."* On the bowl (where it precedes the determinative of 
place) and in H. V. 3 (where it is attached to the name of Sandan) 
the ideograph (the arch) is used alone. In J. I, i {Determinative 
e-7ne-a i{-iarch)-c-s) it determines the word t/es, which I should identify 
with the ueu and tieiva of the Tel el-Amarna tablets. Then comes 
a phonetically-spelt proper name with the nominative sufifix, the last 
syllable of which is represented by the sign ??, and the second by the 
arch here used phonetically. Next comes the ideograph which, as 
has long since been recognised, corresponds to the Assyrian rain/, 
with the nominative suffix and a determinative which, as far as my 
observation goes, is attached only to derivative adjectives, including 
patronymics, and which is often accompanied by what in certain cases 
is its phonetic equivalent, ku-s or ku-e-s. Next comes a phonetically- 
spelt name (with the same determinative) which analogy would lead 
us to infer was the name of the prince's father,! and then the 
ideographs of " king" and " country." 

* At Bulgar Maden (3), as also probably at Ivris, t )lt takes the place 

of w^(j-). The word occurs in Gurun II, 2, after " Etagametarkus (?) the king," 
and so replaces the aba-ka-li of G. 111,3- 

This fist and arm, without the dagger, aj^pears in various forms, easily 



nr 



recognised. The character on the bowl t ill and at Ivriz a puzzled 

me for some time, Init I now feel satisfied that they represent the closed fist. 
Having once lost its actual form, it is probably not impossible to identify it with 
'fUf . The character Prof. Sayce interprets as altar, I would compare with 

the altar censer &' ; the object connected with the altar having been taken to 

represent the thing itself. No representation of an altar of the form found on the 
rock carvings is, so far as I am aware, given in the inscriptions. — W. H. R. 

t At Carchemish, J- H, i, we have " I am " (or "he says," represented by 
the human profile and an onion "(?)) " Eta-game-tarkus (?) the king of the 
country of the Bull (cp. the Taurus mountains, called Nipur by the Assyrians) and 
the country of the Hittites." At Bulgar Maden the formula is, " I am Sanda-n- * *, 
the city lord, the Tyanian, the son of Sanda-e- * *, the mighty, the prince (?), of 
the family of Eukaes, the Quan." At Bor, " Eukaes, the son of * -e-n-es, the 
king of the land of Qua, the Tyanian, am I " (re]iresented by the human profile 
and onion). At Malatiyeh, " Sanda- * -u- * -s, the Milidian (?) am I (human profile 

214 



JrxE 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

XIV. Analogy would lead us to infer that at the end of inscrip- 
tions, like those of Gurun and Bulgar Maden, various gods would be 
invoked to protect the monument, and curse those who should destroy 
or injure it. And such, I believe, is the case. The last line of each 
of these inscriptions contains the names of a number of gods. At 
Bulgar Maden the list begins, as is natural, with the name of Sandan, 
" the god of the district," and the fourth column from the end of the 
line contains the picture of a tablet or stela. At the end comes a 

character f offRk which enters into that of the king mentioned in 



H. I, 3, and which ought to mean "to protect." 

The determinative of "god" (^^ seems to me to represent a 
sacred stone, wrapped round with cloths. That such sacred stones 
were revered in Asia Minor we know ; the image of Artemis of 
Ephesus was a stone " which fell down from heaven," and at Delphi a 
sacred stone was enveloped in wool on festivals. Another similar 
stone, with four holes in it, is associated with the determinative of 
"god" in H. V, 2, and may signify "goddess;" we meet with it again 
at Merash (line 4). 

The sacred cake <0> appears to be represented by the character 
which forms part of the name of the deity who occupies the foremost 
place on the monuments of Carchemish. The second character is a 

bird ^m^ , which sometimes resembles an eagle, sometimes a duck 

(J. 11,3), but is really intended for a dove. As the dove is associated 
with the figure of a seated goddess found on Hittite monuments, I 
would identify the deity of Carchemish with her, and regard the dove, 
not as a jDhonetic character, but as an ideograph or determinative. 
In this case only the first character would phonetically express the 
goddess's name. The name of the city of Mabug, which succeeded 
Carchemish as a sacred city, joined with the fact that the name of a 
neighbouring town was Dabigu, makes it probable that dug or dig was 



and onion) of the Bull country, king of Milid (?), ruler of Komana." At Merash, 
"I am Sanda- * -u- * * -a-u(?)-s, the son of Us-khitti (?), the son of Ma- 
manas(?), the king of the land of Khana (?)." I need not say that the reading and 
translation of several of the above words is merely conjectural. 

In the case of the Bulgar Maden inscription, it may be noted that the group of 
characters which I have doubtfully translated " prince " occurs again in Bor I, 2, 
where, however, the sign /eit or ya is inserted between e, the final letter of the 
word, and its ideographic determinative. 

21 ^ Q 2 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.HOLOGY. [1899. 

a separate word, and leads me to suggest that the goddess bore the 
same name as Ma of Komana. 

Now in the inscriptions of Merash and Mih'd we find the name 
of a country which is common to both. At Mihd this is ex])ressed 
by the pictures of a seat, a sacred cake, and a htuus ^ . At Merash 
a very compHcated hieroglyph takes the place of the sacred cake. 
Milid, as we learn from the Assyrian texts, was in the territory of 
Komana, and therefore Merash, to the west of it, must have been the 
same. If the sacred cake represents the name of the goddess Ma, the 
seat would have the value of ku or /:av/, and the lituus of fia or ni, 
the complicated central character being ;;/(?;/. All this, however, is 
very uncertain, more especially as the suffixes attached to the name of 
the goddess (as I will call her) are us and ?^-;/.* 

XV. I am now going to launch into a series of conjectures, but 
where certainty is unattainable conjectures are permissible. At 
Carchemish the author of the inscription, besides the title of " king," 
assumes another which is denoted by the head and tiara of a high- 

priest, above which is the arch (J. Ill, 3).! In J. I, 5, A 41 the 



two ideographs are followed by a character — a glove — which gives 
the phonetic value of the word or a part of it, after which comes a 
grammatical suffix ^^. The glove in J. Ill, 5 follows another deter- 
minative, the head of a priest with the word (of prophecy?) C7 issuing 

from the mouth. At Ivris the two ideographs follow the name of 
the high-priest to whose figure the inscription containing them is 
attached. I 

* The name of the goddess is the first element in that of the grandfather of 
the Merash king. The "word-divider" (or simple line) is attached to it to 
indicate that it is separate from the second element in the name (? iiianas) which 
begins with the same character as that which expresses the name of the goddess. 
This second element is found as a separate word in Bor I, 2, where it is probably 
a title, since it is coupled with the ideograph of "great." 

t A somewhat similar arrangement t^ which I have endeavoured to copy 

from the very indistinct photograph, occurs on the rock carving at Fraktin, 
above the figures. — W. H. R. 

X In J. Ill, 5, a character resembling the glove is enclosed by two of these 

heads with another character which looks like the numeral l Vr-Af ; a very 

w 

similar arrangement is found in the first line of the fragment in the Armenian 

2 16 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

So far all is clear. But at Carchemish (J. Ill, 3), the place 

of the glove is taken by two characters, a (^ '^ bulb (?)* which 

I will call X, and a ram's head (>'). In the same inscription (line 4) 
after the ideograph of priest the glove is replaced by a quiver 

^"—^'J^ 'f {z)l and the ram's head, and then comes the name of the 

god Khatta. The glove therefore must be equivalent to x + y 
and z + }'. 

Now almost the only Cappadocian word which has come down 
to us is abaklcs, the title given to the priest-king of Komana. I have 
long ago analysed abakles into aba " chief," and kali " priests." 
The Cappadocian priests of Ma or Kybele, as is well known, were 
termed ga/li, and in this name I see a loan-word from the Assyrian 
ka/u, "priest" or "mage." The discovery of the Cappadocian 
tablets and the letter of Sapalulve explains how technical Babylonian 
words came to be introduced into Cappadocia, and that ka/i was 



Seminary at Merash. Again, on the lion vM, is found, the heads having 
assumed a form y^ in which they occur singly on the same inscription, and 
call to mind the character ef . The real picture of a head only occurs once on 
the lion. Another symbol of somewhat similar form ffx, on H. 11,3, may per- 
haps be thus explained, ^(f repeatedly occurs on the lion ; I cannot think 

that it is to be identified with ^ , as it never faces the reader. (They both 
appear on J. III.) Its position on J. I, 2, J. Ill, and the lion is worthy of note. 
If any corresponding character occurs on the Hamath stones, I think it must be 
the seat.— W. H. R. 

* In order to name this character Prof. Sayce has called it a bulb (?). Several 

similar forms occur on these inscriptions, /'^r\^ ■> /^^^ > Cjf^ an*:l A 3^ » 
y^^ > the two last being clearly the heads of animals, perhaps a calf or cow, 

and I think certainly that of a hare or rabbit. Whenever one of the lobes at the 
end stands out, it seems most likely that it is to be taken as representing the ear 

or horn of the animal. These heads, for example the ass's fT , which is 

upright, appear to be figured as they are ordinarily seen on the animal to which 
they belong. The same rule seems to apply to the vegetables, which are uniformly 
represented in a vertical position, as if growing. — W. H. R. 

t A portion of this quiver is well represented on J. VI. — W. H. R. 

+ Also written ^^^X^ . 

217 



June 6J SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY, [1899. 

really a Hittite word is proved by the name of the king of Kum- 
mukh, Kali-AN-Tesub, which could well mean " Minister of the god 
Tesub." Similarly the Cai)padocian name Aba-skantos, met with in 
Greek inscriptions, certifies the existence of a word aha. 

I therefore propose to read the title of the high-priest in the 
Carchemish inscriptions Aba-kali-s, aba corresponding to the two 
ideographs, the arch and the priestly head, which occur alone at 
Ivris, while kali corresponds to the characters which follow them in 
J. Ill, 3, and the simple priestly-head in J. Ill, 4. The exact 
nature of the initial guttural is doubtful ; we have galli by the side 
of kalil, just as we have Ittagama by the side of Itakama, and 
Karkamish and Qarqamisha by the side of Gargamis. For the 
present, therefore, I propose to read both the bulb and the quiver 
ka or ga (though the bulb may be gat)^ and the ram's head as //. 

At Bulgar Maden, line 2, we have the name of the goddess of 
Carchemish, followed by the suffixes ic-u, the arch or " prince," the 
ideograph of " place," the word or phonetic complement un, then a 
character compounded of the ideographs of " place " and " city," 
then the quiver, and finally the character which we have observed 
is attached to plurals. Is not this : " The goddess Ma (?) the regent 
of the city of Carchemish" ? if so, ^ — [fg will be ga or ka, and q "^ 
mis. The Arzawa tablets teach us that the Hittite plural sometimes 
ended in -s, and at Merash (line 4) the character which I propose to 
read mis takes the place of me-es in a word which seems to signify 
*' this person " (see the beginning of the line and J. I, i).* 

A little further on in the Bulgar Maden text we have " city of 
the country," then a human head -t- a, then the determinative of 
" place," then a character which is doubtful, the »C of the published 
copy being uncertain, then ga, mis, and a suffix a, corresponding to 
the a which follows the head. Perhaps this signifies " chief of 
Gargamis." In the next line the arch is replaced by the ideograph 
of " king : " then comes the determinative of place and the word 
iin ; next is kuc-mis-niis, with the determinative of "place." On this 
I can throw no light. 

The compound character which combines the ideographs of place 

and city is a favourite one in the Cilician inscriptions J: 11 . Ii^ 

* Na(?)-kn (or ya)-iiie-es. The crook which on the Bagdad Bowl clearly 
means " this," is here placed over the human profile. In the Arzawa letters iias 
probably signifies " these." 

218 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

Bor II, 3, it precedes the name of the Ivris High-priest ^-?/-/'(7(?)-f-(i), 
which is followed by the determinative of place," so that " the city of 
Eukaes " must be meant here. In B. M. 2, the name of the older 
prince is followed by the ideograph of " city," and in the first line 
of the inscription, the king Sanda-n- * *, the son of Sanda-e- * *, 
is called E-u-ka-e-tar-s , which must mean " of the family of Eukaes." 
For the suffix tar, compare the name of the city Khalipa-ntaris. 

In Bor I, 2, the compound ideograph follows a picture of the 
human profile, with the nominative suffix, and is followed by the 
word for " city ; " so I conclude that the phrase signifies " the 
inhabitant of the city." In Bor II, 2, the human profile precedes a 
modification of the compound ideograph, two determinatives of 

"city" being combined with the ideograph of "place" jj? . This 

seems to indicate a particular town which was divided into two 

quarters. The same ideograph occurs in J. Ill, 3 V, immediately 

after the ideograph of "king," where, in consequence of its position, 
I suggested in 1884 that it represents the town of Carchemish itself. 
Since then M. Menant has pointed out that the double ideograph of 
" city" is held in the hand of one of the deities at Boghaz Keui. 

To return now to the bulb, to which I have assigned the value of 
ka. It is the second character in a word which M. Six first suggested 
is the name of Carchemish, but which is rather a man's name. That 
is proved by the position it occupies in J. I and II. The word is a 
compound, as the first character in it is the name of a god according 
to the Bagdad Bowl. As the third character is me, we are irresistibly 
reminded of the name of Etagama or Itakama. That 'Ati (or Etu, 
as it is written in the Egyptian hieroglyphics) was a Hittite deity has 
been known for years, and on the Bowl the vase {da) is added to it 
as a phonetic complement. As we have seen, d and / interchange 
in Hittite names, and indeed in that of Etagama itself. 

XVI. In J. Ill, 3 the ideograph of "country" is preceded by a 
word which is spelt with the character e and the picture of a 
bundle (?) |}ni^ , which I will call x. Prof. Jensen believes that it 
represents the word "king." In the fifth line of the inscription, how- 
ever, it is followed by the determinative of action or power, the arm 
with a dagger, and its sense would therefore be rather "ruler," or 
something similar.* But that it was the equivalent of " king" is shown 

* The word is also found on the Bagdad Bowl. 
219 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIDLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 

by the fact that in Bor I, 4 the ideograph of " king" is substituted 
for X. Unfortunately we do not know what the Hittite word for 
" king" actually was. In the Boghaz Keui fragments it seems to be 
\anzi. In Vannic it was eri-las, but the Lydian /a/;/ri'j-, the Phrygian 
balen, and the Karian gela (which presuppose a common root g7val), 
indicate a different word in, at all events, western Asia Minor.* At 
Bor the word is followed by another, which consists of two boots 
walking backwards, the syllable dapi {tati) and a suffix. The ideo- 
graphs imply that the word signified " former," and in fact the word 
"king" or "ruler" is preceded by a proper name which begins with 
"Sandan." 

XVII. With our present materials we cannot get much beyond 
the graphic decipherment of the Hittite texts. But this graphic 
decipherment is a necessary preliminary of their phonetic decipher- 
ment. The Hittite .system of writing was mainly ideographic, and 
until these ideographs are classified and analysed, and the use of 
them explained, there is little good in attempting to decipher in the 
ordinary sense of the word. The arrangement of the characters is 
another matter which has to be carefully considered. Not only was 
the boustrophedo7i mode of writing adopted in the case of the lines of 
the texts, it was sometimes adopted also in the case of the columns 
of characters of which the lines are composed. The position of the 
determinatives and ideographs, again, in relation to the phonetic 
characters, was as little fixed as it is in the hieroglyphic inscriptions 
of Egypt, though the rule was that in most instances . the deter- 
minative should precede the word it determined if the latter were a 
substantive. Whether it were pronounced in such a case is a 
question. Usually, indeed, the name of a man's father, or of the 
country over which he ruled, assumed an adjectival form, as in Vannic 
or the Arzawa sarr-?/.? Khattannas, and in that case it followed its 
subject, though, as in Greek and other inflected languages, there was 
no reason why it should not also precede it. As in Greek, too, the 
ethnic and patronymic adjectives could have the .same suffix. 

In the foregoing Notes I have assumed the correctness of my 
identification of the vowels e (or ?') and u, made nearly twenty years 
ago. The characters representing them occur more frequently than 
any others in the inscriptions, and it is a well-known rule of decipher- 

* Prof. Ilomniel {Expository Times ^ May, 1899, p. 368) adds the Lydian 
hoalddein (or koalaJeiii) and the Lycian khbida, and suggests that the Hittite 
word for "king" was vialvis. 

220 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

ment that the most frequently recurring symbols must represent 
vowels. Moreover, both characters are sometimes inserted and 
sometimes omitted in the same word or group of signs. Whether 
the vocalic values I have assigned to them are correct is another 
matter, and, it must be understood, are merely provisional. M. Halevy 
has the credit of pointing out that the altar must also be a vowel ; if 
e (/) and ?/ are already provided for, it must represent a. But since 
it follows 7ne (Merash I, i, etc.) it may really be e. 

That there are other characters expressing vowels is probable 
and we ought to find also a series of nasalised vowels (an, in, un). 
But until a bilingual inscription of some length is discovered, it is 
hopeless to endeavour to determine them. 

In the foregoing Notes 1 have further retained the value of ku I 
assigned nearly twenty years ago to the standard planted on the 

ground ll .* If I am right in making the trowel + ku the first 

person of a verb, the Arzawa letters would lead us to give it instead 
the value of ya, iya or i. But I confess I do not see how my old 
conclusion can be avoided. The boss of Tarkondemos gives tarku 
as the value of the goat's head ; in J. Ill, 3 and 4 the goat's head 

with the suffix '^ DHn ^-e interchanges with the flower and the 
standard ^ 1r . In J. I, 2, 5 the standard planted in the ground, 

and followed by the nominative and accusative suffixes s and n, 
takes the place of the standard alone. That the latter ended in s 
is evident from H. I, 3 as compared with H. II, 3. There is, 

therefore, only one means of escape from the inference that JT 

is ku and ^ kus, and that is to suppose that the goat's head had 



more than one phonetic value. But even so, it is made to inter- 
change with hvo characters, and so presumably represented a word 
of two syllables. What makes the matter puzzling is that although 
classical mythology gives us Sandakos by the side of Sandan, 

* I am pleased to see that Prof. Sayce has arrived at the conclusion that this 
sign represents a standard, as it is exactly my own opinion. It appears in two 



forms J , representing perhaps a standard borne, and 11 a standard planted. 

That the lowest portion of the latter, is intended to represent a base, may be inferred 
from the base of the moon altar on Dr. Hayes Ward's cylinder, and other instances, 
in which the same arrangement occurs on cylinders. — W. H. R. 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

neither in the Arzawa letters nor in the Boghaz Keui fragments 
can I find any trace of an adjectival suffix -kus, much less a verbal 
form in -kii. The word k/iatri\Ic\ki at the end of the second Arzawa 
letter is obviously a noun, and ziniiuk in the first letter (line 25) is 
probably the same. In Arzawaya, from Arzawa, the gentilic suffix 
isji'^ ,• in Vantuvas it is va or wa* 

XVIII. A fresh examination of my squeezes of the inscription on 
the figure of the pseudo-Sesostris in Karabel, aided by a fuller 
acquaintance with the Hittite characters, has enabled me to correct 
my published copy of the text. The following is my revised copy 

ofit: ^Lj Y I should translate: "The builder of the sanctuary 
of the fV 1/ city of X . . ." (name of builder lost).t 



XIX. In J. Ill, 5, we have a picture of the sun Q preceded by 
the determinative of divinity and followed by the letter «. The word 
"ruler" or "king," which I have already discussed, precedes the 
group, and after it come the ideographs of "city" and "place." The 
whole phrase must signify " the ruler of the city of the Sungod," and 
it would seem probable that the name of the Sun-god ended in -n. 
The probability is strengthened by the fragmentary inscription copied 
by Mr. Munro at Merash, where we have a compound proper name 
with the patronymic suffix formed of the following characters : 

(\) the quiver, (2) the sheep's-head on a stand asj in H. V, i f^=^ 

* If the goat's head had another vakie besides tarku, it would be s{i), the 
flower {tar) Ijeing si, and the standard yas. We could then adopt M. Six's 
suggestion, and see in the name of the Jerabhis king a derivative from Carchemish, 
like Arzawaya from Arzawa, or Samalius from Samalla. In J. Ill, 2, %ve could 
read Gar-ga-me-s-u-e, and in the next line Gar-ga-fiie-si-yas, while the goat's head 
in Merash I would represent the s of the nominative, as it ought to do, since it 
is attached to adjectives in agreement with a noun in the nominative. But such 
a reading for the goat's head is absolutely excluded by H. IV, i and V, 3, com- 
pared with \, 2, where the character appears as the equivalent of the flower and 
the boot. 

t On a Phrygian monument discovered by Prof. Ramsay in the valley of the 
Sangarios [Journal of Hellenic Studies, III, i, fig. 3 and pi. xxi) is the figure of 
the Asianic Hermes with a caduceus in his hand, accompanied by the two Hittite 
hieroglyphs of a bird and a triangle. The triangle elsewhere enters into the name 
of a Hittite deity [e.g., Iskhara, on the bilingual seal-cylinder). In Lydian Hermes 
was called Adramys, and the Karian Ilermes is entitled Imbramos or Imbrakos. 
Perhaps the Karabel inscription means : "... the builder of the city of the 
temple of Hermes." 

J Another instance of a head on a stand occurs in the jM.nlatia Inscription, 
line 2.— W. H. K. 

222 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

(3) the sun, (4) ;;, (5) ;/, (6) determinative of derivation, (j) ku, (8) s. 
Here the name of the Sun-god either terminates in -nen or -?in(a), 
or is itself nen. It is noteworthy that the proper names found in 
GreeJ' Cihcian inscriptions give us as names of deities Neni, Nin and 
Nana, the two latter of which are doubtless borrowed from Assyria. 



Additional Note. 



(XVIII). Dr, Hayes Ward has lately published an important 
seal-cylinder which is in his possession, and on which are three 
lines of Hittite characters. The first two lines contain the names 
of the deities of Ivris and Jerablfis, and I should read the whole 
inscription as follows : — 

(i), Determi?iative of deity, Sanda-da (2) Determinative of deity, X-Y 
(3) n, word-divider, E-ka {?)-s. 

By X- Y I represent the name of the goddess of Carchemish, who 
appears here as the consort of Sandan, and consequently will cor- 
respond to the Rhea of the Greeks. 

It is clear from the analogy of other seal-inscriptions that the 

text means " To the gods Sandan and Ekas," the last word 

being the name of the owner of the seal. It is also clear that the 
n which follows the second divine name must be the copulative 
conjunction, which is suffixed like the copulative conjunction in 
Mitannian, where it is also -n (e.g., Gilias Maness-an " Gilias and 
Manes "). With the name of the owner I should identify the name 
of the Cilician prince which I have read Eukaes (?) above ; while 
the name on the seal is written E-ka(?)-s, that of the prince is 
expressed more fully by E-u ka (?)-e-s. It must be remembered that 
the values attached to the vocalic symbols are merely provisional, 
and that the second ojjb (e) is doubtless the vowel of the syllable 
denoted by the preceding character. Among the Hittite names 
found on the Egyptian monuments is Aki-Tesub. 



223 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL^OLOGY. [1S99. 



NOTES ON THE "HITTITE" INSCRIPTIONS. 
By Prof. Dr. Fritz Hommel. 

The following interesting series of notes are the contents of 
several letters which Dr. Hommel wrote to me some months ago, 
but which unfortunately could not be printed at once as the necessary 
type was not in the possession of the Society. This I hope he 
will accept as a satisfactory reason for the delay in printing his 
paper. It is now many years since the Society commenced to 
collect a fount of this type, and it has been a great pleasure tO' 
me to make the drawings now required, in order to publish properly 
the paper of so old and valued a correspondent. 

In reply to my request Dr. Hayes Ward very kindly sent me 
excellent casts of his most interesting cylinder, which enabled me to 
produce the drawing (enlarged) in illustration of one of Dr. Hommel's 
notes. The emblem of the deity, with the snake-like wreathings- 
round the standard, is without doubt a stag with a fine pair of 
antlers : and I would point out that this animal is unknown on 
the inscriptions. The question at once arises, was the stag an. 
animal well known to the "Hittites" as belonging to the fauna 
of their country, or is it a borrowed emblem ? 

W. H. R. 



A. 

Munich, f^th April, 1899. 
Dear Mr. Rvlands, 

A comparison of the Hamath Inscriptions I-III shows that in 



|\ la « vawiX be found the name of the land + expression 

for king. Jensen's ''of this land king" is impossible ; nowhere else 
in Oriental inscriptions does a king speak in this manner of his 



kingdom, he always gives the 7ia}]ie of his land. Now ]||[ (in later 

224 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

inscriptions yj) is probably /, ^Q probably k or h (comp. Ka-wi, 

ofo t^) Jensen Tar-zi, inscription of Bor, for I read Jensen's 

J^-a-n-s rather vi-a-l-vi-, comp. TrilX/nv!, Lydian " king," f«Afct-ATT//?, 
Bn\/iioav, etc.), and in TA we never hear of Hamath, only of 
{Inoga-s = A^ii/iassi, the land north-west of Martu-Amur. So I 
suppose in the inscription of Hamath I-iiu-g vi-r"- " of Inoga(s) 

the king." A variant of it is 

7iokhaz, Ti}d^io<f?). 



I-nng (comp. Pers. -U; , Arm. 




Postscript {of lotk April, li 

The cylinder published by 
Mr. Ward gives the direct proof 
for (^ = "god" (not "land" 
as Mr. Jensen proposes). I sup- 
pose Tarku (comp. in the silver 
boss only the head of a goat or 
ram, here a serpent with the head 
of a stag ; and the ideogram 
Tlflf = dragon ; perhaps also cpdicoi'T, an old loan-word from the 
Scythian language = Tarku) and his wife (?), the goddess with a 
dove (not eagle). What the third column means is not yet clear. 
Jensen would translate it " from Cilicia (and) from Arzapi ar-s 
(shepherd), the valiant, the king." But this (only a title) is impos- 
sible. We expect either a proper name (possessor of the seal) or 
the name of a god or both. I suppose that the third column is 
perhaps the name of the possessor ; in this case : " (To) Tarku, 
(and to) his wife, N.N. (has dedicated)." 



'fA 



(Schlumberger, 18), perhaps 



^ 



^ 



In other seals we have 



Ishara-vi-vi (comp. -oov) "servant {^^^) of the god w " ; or seal 
of Aidin /\^^ "servant of /\^ (Ishara)";* or in a third 

* Another seal in the Louvre has the characters alone. The last /\ 
character also occurs round the Yuzgat seal alternately with roses. — W.II.R. c?3 

225 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGV. [1S99. 

seal, ^^> ^^'' 2' 3' 4> " servant of the god Tarkhu " (a proper 



name). Very often, we find ^^ I after the name of a god ; if 

Jensen is right (= te), then we have to compare Te-sub, Te-khip 

(comp. Shipak, Khipa, Ae-ff«j'f>ys) and to read Te (the name 

of the god written at first, and then te "lord") so e.g.. Ham. V: 

%^ ^ Te + A-m-n (?) (perhaps the Egyptian Anion, comp. the 

® -^ 

Mitanni letter). 

B. 

Munich, 12^/1 April, 1899. 

For the title of ^ ^^ of ^ (in Ivriz I, title of the god, in 
Bor, Andaval, etc., of the king) we have now three possibilities : 

(i) The most improbable, Syennesis (Jensen), because Syennesis 
is a proper name and not a title. 

(2) My former proposition vi-a-l-vi-s (comp. Lydian Tra'X/u'?, 
"king," and /:?«\/i< in FoAFg^-ot//?, /3a\/5ioav, etc.) 

(3) A title of the Cappadocian Heracles, which came in my mind 
only some days ago, Disandas (comp, Synkellos and Eusebius). 

We would have in the latter case : 



(«) Dflo ^ mZ:^ aflo 
d - s - n - d - s 

(p) In Hamalh V lines 2 and 3 (name of a god of Hamath)* 

D.P. S-m* - {te) 
perhaps ^^^"^11"^^, 2 Kings, xvii, 30. 

* Most of the names of gods begin with (^ and end with ^, the latter 
probably te, " lord" (comp. ^e-sub, /^-khip with Shipak and Khipa). 

t On the supposition that (J|) has the value vi (Jensen) ; comp. Cyprian [□ mo. 

226 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

(c) o[]d (^ <2> 

d - mi "I," or "lam," 

comp. du, zu in almost all of the North Caucasian idioms ; mi or 
/;;// would in this case be a verb (" to be," resp. "am "). 

id) dD° <2 /^ 

d - r - s "king"* 

comp. cjieppa^ in TapKwcjilpimv (" God Tarkon is king?") or TjSepa- 
aipa'i ; perhaps sibilated in Cappadocian caapi, " king " (on coins). 

{e) Ham. II, 2,^% d1]o and Ham. I, 3, II, 3, ^^ ^ oOo 

(great) Jii-d / ^\ j 

^'^ ' (great) in - d 

probably the phonetic writing for <^, synon. ^^^s^, "great." 

Now, if we combine the name of the land of the Hamath kings, 



^^^ 



I - 7121 - g 

(Inogas, Nuhassi, the latter in T.A. always for the territory of 
Hamath, whilst Hamath itself is there nowhere mentioned) with the 
land of the king of the Bor inscription, we get : 



(/) t^ ^n 



which must be the well-known land of Kode in Northern Syria and 
Eastern Asia Minor {Kuti-ti of T.A.). 

Following Jensen's system we had to read rather {a-)i p-tar "of 
this land " (instead of Inuga) and Tar-s Tarsus, instead of Kode). 
Now, it is impossible to imagine that a king should have written an 
inscription of the following tenor (comp. Jensen's translation) : 

" I am the great, the mighty, the Hatian, of the goddess the 

man, of this land the king, I the , of the kings the man, the 

mighty, X (name of the king), the king, the mighty, the great, the 

king, the prince, the great, the mighty, the of the great god, 

the , the great, the , the king." 

* On the supposition that __)j has the vahie r (Jensen), which is still only a 
possibility. 

227 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII/EOLOGY. [1S99. 

Such a mixed composition of tautologies, without mention of the 
name of the territory (no king at all would say in an inscription " of 
this land the king," instead " o( X the king"), and with the name of 
the king only after eight insignificant titles, is the best proof of the 
impossibility of Jensen's " decipherment." How a Hittite inscription 
could have begun, we learn, e.g., from the treaty between Ramses 
and Cheta-sir " this is the treaty which was proposed by the great 
king of the Cheta, Cheta-sir, the mighty, the son of Mora-sir," etc.). 

In the Proceedings, XX, 263-266 (Nov. 1898) every reader has 
at hand a most instructive comparative table of the first three 
Hamath inscriptions, so I need only reproduce in the following 
the single groups. I think it accepted by all scholars that the first 
signs mean " I am " ; between this word and the first occurrence 
of the well-known ideogram for king, we find three nominatives 
and another group without the sign of nominative.* Here we 
expect necessarily "the great, the mighty, X (name of the king), of 
y (name of the land)," which is followed by the word "king." So 
we have (I give here the characters from left to right) : 

G==D 

G=o is an ideogram or determinative (perhaps "prince," Jensen 
"the Hatian"); j L_ is a sign which lays stress on a thing, and 
l):\ means that the word is ended, whilst Aj would 
mean that a new word begins. 

00 08 

;/// - s 
(the great) 

comp. -/<oo9 in proper names of Asia Minor. This adjective or 
epithet is left out in Ham. IV, making it clear that it can be only a 
synonym of the following : 

* It must Le remembered that Prof. Sayce discovered the ideogram for king 
and the sign for the nominative (/^^ = S). These two discoveries must be 
always the starting-point for further inquiries ; even Prof. Jensen had no other 
starling-point. 

228 




June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

(the mighty) -s 
Here is (f^ the same determinative as above; ^^^^pi perhaps 
I' '^^iii^ °^ ^^^ other inscriptions (later form ^^) ; I suppose 



vi or di (otherwise suffix of the genitive). 

In Harn. Ill we have n\ ^ instead of t$\\^, whilst Ham. IV 



adds the determinative element _ before the nominative 

r 



ending 



^ ^ I" lOi 



Khirpa {?)-r -u - S 

This group must be the ttame of the king. The hand is an 

ideogram (comp. the I '—1 above and under it), probably meaning 

"god," khirpa, comp. Proceedings, XIX, p. 79 (" Assyriological 
Notes," § 24). So I propose to read Khirpa-ru'as or Khirpa-ruwas 
(comp. Tarkunda-raus or Lykian ^lca-p6>] ?). The difference between 

and jT (and similarly between Q and J||) seems to me to lie 



in the semi-vocal character of ?/ (and /) ; the one is probably 71 (or /'), 
the other i> (or j>). Whilst in Ham. I-III the king is Khirpa-ruwa, 

the king of Ham. IV is <£wtF^ ^ °[1° ^%, Khirpa-r-d-s, i.e., Khirpa- 

rudas (Assyr. Garpa-runda, Girpa-ruda). 
The next group is : 

I - mi - g d - r (king) 
of Inug(as) the king 

Since -as in Inogas (Nukhassi, T.A.) is the nominative ending, this 
ending is here, in the genitive, left out. 

229 R 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

If in Bor I, ^ \'? J/ A A B ^^ ^ ^^^ K)-d-vi d-r-S, 
oIq ^^ (^ L\ tJ g 

qOq 



<^ (TTL oiiQ 

"of Kode (Jensen, Tars) the king," m Mar. L., i, M [lip* /^ 

" of X (Jensen, Gurgum) the king,"* in Ordasu (Malatiya), <|3 S) ^ ^ 

" of Mil-indi^) the king " (comp. seal of Indilimma, ^ i) Liin + ind, 
but pronounced Ind-lim, because Lim, as name of a god, is put 

first?), and in Jer. I, i, if ^ JJ ^ Kark{-rk)-mi-vi dera-s, "of 

Karkamis the king," then we are obhged to see also in (j] <^ nns the 
name of the land of the king. An interesting variant of I-nu-g is 



given in Ham. IV, viz., ] / f^^-i I-'>iu-g (the head of a ram above 



the ideogram for " servant " or " man "; comp. Persian jtehdz, Armen. 
nokhaz, " he-goat "?). 

By this analysis we see that the inscriptions of Hamath I-III 
are set up by the same king, Girpa-rua (?). Now if we read that 
this same king is called in Ham. I, 2 : 

K - s (great) d-r-s (ymg) 
but in Ham. II, 2 : 

(Stork-land) d - r (great) vi-d (king) 
and in Ham. HI, 2 : 



O e ^ ouo ^ 
Ideogr. or D.P. s - r - s d - r (great) (king) 

it is clear that K-s and the Stork-town or Stork-land and Sh-r-s must 
have been three different parts or towns of Inogas, probably one of 

^^ being the ideogram, pi> the phonetic complement. 
230 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

them being Haniath itself, or Kadesh (Kidshu, T.A.) on the Orontes, 
or other Hamathite towns or countries. 

As the Babylonians could make t'ssu, " new," out of /n'dsu, 
ti^in? so it is probable that Kidsu became in the mouth of the 
people, or in vulgar language Kissu, and it seems not strange that 
the king of Inogas bore also the title " king of Kissu," K-s d-r* 
The third name, Sh-r-s or Sh-l-s is perhaps the old Semitic name of 
Tripolis (t^^^Xi^), to which may be compared the tripolis of Mahallat, 
Maiz and Kaiz (vulgar form of Kadsi ? ?) in the Assyrian inscriptions. 
Finally, if we would be allowed to see in the Armenian aragel, 
" stork," an old Alarodian or Scythic word (comp. TreXapr/of, pro- 
bably for an older givelarg, garagl), the stork-town would be 
Harankol or Harakol, so often mentioned at the side of Inogas in 
the Egyptian inscriptions ; in this case Irkhulini (name of a king of 
Hamath, time of Salmaneser II) would be originally " the prince of 
the town Irkhul " (comp. the Vannic suffix -7it, e.g., in Khaldz-ni, 
" Chaldian," " belonging to the god Khaldi "), a name like Prince of 
Wales, Prince of Naples, &c.t 

In the end of Ham. I, I think I have found the name of the 
father of the king. Whilst Ham. II ends with a nominative, viz., 



r- (ideogr.) -nu-s (perhaps z'rnu-s?), probably a title or an adjective 
meaning "glorious," the rest of Ham. I is broken off, and the 
expression corresponding to end of Ham. II has not the sign of 
nominative. So I suppose, 



TarkJm - x - s d - r - u (king) 

contains a proper name -f king (in the genitive) 4- a word for "son,'' 
which latter is unfortunately broken off. 

* I think it not impossible that Kadesh was the old name of Hamath, nOH 
(comp. Arabian ^^z>- liiniay, "a consecrated territory, asylum") only being 

another Semitic translation of Kadesh ("the holy.") 

* Even Reckendorf, Zeitschrift fiir Assy., XI, 38, compared aragil and 

Irkhulini, but he thought erroneously ^--^ a name of a king (instead of a 

town). 

231 R 2 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

The proofs for 10 (^^ j 1^^ = ^ proper name (probably 

Tarku-nasi) are the following : 

(«■) (^) is the determinative prefix for god, (^) "^ is the 
serpent or dragon-god Tarku (see my former communication), but 
as a composition element in proper names, "^ alone (without the 
D.P. (^)) is sufficient; comp. Leopold Messerschmidt, Bemerkungen 
zu den hethitischeii Inschriften, Berlin, 1898 (Mitth. der Vorderasiat. 
Gesellsch.), pp. 33 and 37. 

{U) We find the same name, only with the variant e—v/ instead 



of [^^V in the beginning of Marash L., after the expression 

d-mi-i "I am"; comp. Messerschmidt, p. 40, note i. And, with 
another variant, ^^ for '^j the same name occurs as the name 
of the king of J3 ^ (head of a beast + fruit?) in the Ordasu inscrip- 
tion (Malatia) : Tl||f ^^ ^ . Even Mr. Messerschmidt, loco citato, 
p. 40, gives this identity with a " perhaps." In every case the 

honour to have discovered in the group yVJlfl// ])f0OO) °^ 

Marash L. (line i twice, and line 2) the proper name of a king, 
belongs to Mr. Messerschmidt. 

(c) In Bulg. Maden, line i, we read: 

(i. e. Tarhi-vi-u priest-son = of the god Tarku priest-king ?) 
IC 

Tarku - d - r - s Khirpa* -u - u (?) - d-(son) 
with which may be compared Bor, hne 2 : 



^tdirJtf 



Or perhaps 'C^I^ J (^TTl ) I i^ ' ^^^^ Khirpa-r-u-il^)-d -V son. 
232 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

^c<^c.[4l? ^C/Qla? 

Khirpa -r - ii{i) - d - zi (son) Khirpa -r - s (title) nom. 

i.e. (Bulg.) Tarku-dara-s , son of Khirpa-uda (or better -ruda). 
(Bor.) Khirpa-rtidu's son, Khirpa-riias. 

To 'N = ideogram for " son," I should like to remark that it 
occurs, Alarash L. lines 1-4, almost a dozen times, always in con- 
nection with proper names, e.g. (line i): ^^^ jfj x\ iff (name 

of a god . S \ (J), E=^ ^ qQo f , "^ W. 

Khirpa -I'li^) - d - %i \i 

(here a second time, and afterwards, line 3, a third time), etc., etc. 

So we would have here a long and interesting genealogy of the 
king Tarku-nasi (?), the author of the Marash Lion inscription. 

Even in Ordasu, 2nd line, we have two proper names (probably 
name of an official) : 



czi) 



name of a god of Khirpa-ii (?)-d servant (?)-i-i 



\ 



comp. Bulg. Maden 2 / \ • 

Concluding I give a resume of the results attained till now by 
different authors. 

A. — Results without any dotibt. 

(^) ^%L = ^> ending of nominative sing. (Sayce). 

(3) I (Silver-boss), 1 " king " (Sayce). 

(c) QGi »z/ (Silver-boss ; Sayce). 

233 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 



{d) sQ-j-' I (istsing.) Menant (resp. <^>j nnfl "I am"). 

{e) ® , var. ®, (©, D.P. for "god" (Sayce), so indicating a 
number of names of gods, e.g., (^) "Hlf (probably Tarku), 

® ^W m ^-^^ '^^^' ^' ^^^'^ (perhaps his wife), @ ^, etc. 



(/) \^f7 case-ending (Sayce) ; y] vowel / (Halevy) ; 

vowel (Halevy). 

a, b, d, e, forming at the same time the starting-point for every 
other successful attempt of further decipherment ; they did so too, 
e.g., for the only partially right analysis of Prof. Jensen. 

is) A " queen " (Menant). 

{k) CS sign for the beginning of a new group, and SQ indicating 
an ideogram (Peiser). 

(0 aOo 't^ .^^^mi cQq (^) tifk of the god of Ivriz (Sanda ?), 

and of the kings residing in Bor, Bulgarmaden, Andaval ; {four 
letters of which the fourth is the same as the first) — Jensen. 

{k) o[[o Qr^ ((^^) phonetic spelling of the word "king" (Jensen). 

(/) ^^^^ ideogram for "great" (phonetic mn, w/) (Jensen); 
perhaps a synonym of it ^, phonetic (D a]]o (Jensen). 

{ni) ^ ^ [JZ]^ (J. II, !),&% (Ordasu), ((^ q\o (Bor. I, i), 

IS ( lim ) (Lion), fe^ /^^niin (J. II, 2), local names, the latter 

probably Karkmi (Karchemish) (Jensen) ; of these the first is un- 
doubtedly the name of the territory in which lays Hamath (resp. 
the second Malatiya, the third Bor, the fourth Marash and Bulgar- 
maden, the fifth Jerabis). 

{n) \^ ^ ® (Mar. L.) = HM ^ '^ (Ordasu) 

and perhaps = 1^ [^m\ (^J (Ham. I, end), a proper name of a 

king, composed with the name of the god (^ 1$^ (Messerschmidt). 

234 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

(o) Many other proper names, composed with "^ and also with 
<g:i=q (= "god,"* probably KJiirpa), see above (Hommel). 

(/) ^£3 ^ det. suff. after names of gods (probably te "lord," 

Jensen), e.g., :^^^, (^'^(IDiP^^^, @)(S 
etc. (Hommel). 

{q) *^^P tp*' ^ ^"^ ^^ ^ S ' ''^'''^' °^ ^""^"^ 
in the territory of Hamath (Hommel). 

ir) 'H ideogram for " son " (Hommel). 

B. — Results highly probable. 

(a) oOo ^^ ^^ ^-nrg oQl /^ = D-s-H-d-s = Desandas ; in con- 
nection with this are the following (b, d, etc.). 

(b) i(;ZI^ nQa = x-d = Kode, and in connection with this latter, 



(^) n{ \y (iTTn = •^-•^ (Kissu = Kidsu, Kadesh) or perhaps 

Xd-s ; in this latter case the divine name (^^) I jj j "^""^J 

would be not Tarku but Tarka{fi)d, comjD. Tarhunda, TpoKovta^, 
and the divine name (^) ^ WT"^ probably the same ( fei 
perhaps /^ar^ and tark, or comp. the god Kakka for Karkad in the 
contract-tablet of Khana ?). For (^ (^ ^^ .S'/z-?'-^ or Sh-l-s (see 

above) comp. perhaps Sa-ri-su, name of a Hethite town in the time 
of Ramses (probably to be read Sa-li-su = Tripolis). 

* Jensen: "perhaps ideogram for a (certain) deity"; the different variants 

he thought ideograms for different deities. But he did not see that t~^ is 

almost always only part of a proper name, and that it must be only a general 
expression for "god" (because (^ is wanting before it) and not of a single 
deity. 

235 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 



W W ^ @^ Tarhi - X - s = Tarku - nasi ; Jer. Ill, 5, 
^^ ^ (friT) d[]d = 6'-/'(? (Jensen) -i'-^, 2oT<-ff«'c;/9 (comp. Ma<-ffagi^9, 

M.ai-Trapvo's^ ^ari-(/)epvr]<f^ 'S.aSa-adui'i, Sadi-Teshup, Sac w-aTT/y?. Tjiijpa- 

arjTaf, TapicvuS^eppa^, etc., &// being the name of a god, comp. 
Sutekh, and sada an epithet) ; Jer. I, i probably ^1==^ C^:^] 
(C^ oD° /^^ Sa-te-r (Jensen, but only by insufficient reasons) 
-d-s = Sati-rudas ; and so in other proper names ( oJq = ruda, 
Q f><Tf\ q{q either -r-7i-d or perhaps -r-im-d, etc. (see above). 

(/) d-mi, u-d-mi (or un-d-mi}) "I am"; comp. in the Lesghian 
group of languages dun, dildil (for dudiin), zun, uzu " I " (see above) 

{£) ^-?- " king " (see above, and comp. the pr. n. Tarku-d-r-s =■ 
Tarhund-daraus ?, Hke Lye. Yli^eBapo^, Pichd-dara, or Cilic. Ova-oapo's; 
perhaps only a dialect variant is Tarkhu-lara). 

Direct proofs for the correctness of these " highly probable " 
results (B) can only be found in new inscriptions or in a new 
bilinguis. If I am right, the inscriptions of Hamath, at least, must 
be much older than Prof. Jensen asserts ; Inogas and Kadesh 
belong to the end of the second millennium B.C., not to the 
Assyrian time, where the names Nuhassi (Inogas) and Kadesh 
(probably Hamath itself) disappeared. To the same result would 
bring us Kode (T.A Kuti-ti, Northern Syria and Cilicia.) 

A comparison of my translation of the first (and second) Hamath 
inscription and that of Prof. Jensen will give the best proof for the 
probability of the one and the impossibiMty of the other. 

My Translation. 



d + mi {= I am) + ideogr. for 
" great " + mi-s {mi probably 
= great), ideogr. for " mighty " 
-vi {?)-s. 

i.e. / am the ^reat, the mighty* 



Jensen's Translation. 

^s-mi, mark of honour or dignity 
(beginner of a word) msi(d) 
mi (—mark of nominative)? 
Uaiia-'?} (— mark of nomina- 
tive) 

i.e. / am the}, the great, the 
mighty, }, a\ of Hati 



* I have not transcribed some signs, which are probably only pleonastic 
determ. -signs, and have therefore omitted them in the translation {e.g., ci=D > 
which Jensen thinks — Hatio). 

236 



June 6] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



My Translation. 

Khirpa-r-v-s (name of the king) 
I-nu-g d-r 

i.e. Khirpa-ruas, of Inogas the 
■ king, 

D.P. (?) d, man, mighty, 

-tn Q)-v, 
D.P. (?), king (three times) 4- 

m (?) r + "^ (syn. of great) 

-V {■= arva ?) 
i.e. I the mighty, the priest Q), of 

the kings (?) the high one (?), 
Kad (or K-) -s great d-r-s king 

(with modification of the sense 

by F=^^) great -s, lord or 

chief (?) v-i-u-i gxe'cXX. ni-d 

i.e. of Kadesh the great king, the 
great lord 

Tarku-na (?) -^ d-r-ii king [son] 
i.e. of Tarku-nasi, the king [his 
son] 



Jensen's Translation. 

goddess X, r (+ mark of nomi- 
native) 

d-i w (or py ? s-r dsario 

i.e. of the goddess x t/ie man, of 
this land the king, the king 

dividing-mark, s -f " man," ? ? ? 
m-d, 

dividing-mark, dsario-m, r imia-a 



i.e. /, the ? ? ? ?, of the kings the 

man, the mighty 
K-' (= name of the king), msi 

s-r {+ mark of nominative) 

dsario x dsario msi-i {+ mark 

of nominative) 
? -a i-a-i msia-'i-m-s 
i.e. K,, the king, the mighty, the 

great, the king, the ?, the king, 

the great, the mighty. 
KhiliJi-Jd-a s-r-a dsario 
i.e. a Cilician king, the king. 



If " the kmgs " is plural, then ^ {in or b ?) seems to be the 
plural ending ; comp. -b in the South Kaukasian languages and in 
the Persian, in North Kaukasian also sometimes -m. Therefore 
I see no necessity to see in this ending an Indogermanic (Aryan) 
ending of the gen. plur. 

In my opinion the language of these inscriptions has the nearest 
affinity with the Vannic language (comp. above all the nom. Sing. -^ 
and the gen. sing, -i or vi'), but the kings and probably, too, the 
inventors of the Hittite script, were Eranian chiefs (so called 
Scythians, comp. my pamphlet " Hethiter und Skythen," Prag., 1898) 
from Cappadocia. 

Now, whilst some of the titles and some letters and ideograms 
can be read, it is to be hoped that these results will be the beginning 

237 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCIL-EOLOGY. [1899. 

for a real, till now not yet attained, decipherment of these interesting 
documents. Perhaps our Desandas will become the key for it. 



Postscript {of z<^th April, 1899). 

In a prehistoric tomb at Kedabeg, N. of Goektchai-lake, Mr. 
Belck found a truncheon (or baton) of command, with the following 

signs on the top : 'l\jL/r' ^ (ju , comp. Verhandhi7igen der Berliner 
A7ithropoL Geselisch., 1 893, p. 63. Now it seems to me certain that we 

here have a Hittite proper name iUiyi |l ^% Tarku-dara-s (=god 

Tarku is king). Nobody has hitherto seen that these signs are Hittite, 
but there can be no doubt of the fact. Comp. seal, Schlumberger 

6 mi and 17 



[I have read Professor Hommel's paper after the final revise 
of my own was sent to the press, and am delighted to find that in 
several cases we have independently reached the same conclusion. 
There is therefore a fair probability that in all such cases the 
conclusion is correct. Professor Hommel's suggestion that the 
sleeved hand means "servant" is very plausible, and may be 
supported by J. II, 2 (where I have supposed its signification 
to be : " To whom the goddess of Carchemish has given the 
Hittite," but which may be : " the servant of the goddess of 
Carchemish, the giver of the Hittite "). The Hitdte inscription 
discovered by Professor Hommel on the baton from Kedabeg is 
highly interesting ; there is another Hittite inscription on a bronze 
vase from Toprak Kaleh, near Van, and now at Berlin. As for 
the serpent on Mr. Hayes Ward's seal, it must be remembered 
that it was sacred to the god Sabazios, or rather Saboi, who is 
sometimes represented with horns. — A. H. S.] 




23S 



Proc Soc. BibJ. Arch., June, 1S99. 




Al'UAT. 





Axurr. 



Apuat. 




Anui'T. 




t 



/^.i 



Set, 



AT'UAT. 



In the collection of !•'. (1. IIii.TON Price, Ksti-, Dir. S.A. 



June 6] TROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



NOTES ON SOME EGYPTIAN DEITIES. 



SET n ^ 'Vj , or Sutekh 1^'^ >5_J , eighth member of the 

company of the gods of Annu, son of Seb and Nut (the earth and 
sky), and husband of his sister Nephthys (sunset). 

The worship is very ancient and is mentioned in the Pyramid 
texts certainly as early as the Vth dynasty. 

After the XXIInd dynasty he was regarded as an evil god, 
having previously been considered a beneficent one. In the XlXth 
dynasty we see two kings were styled beloved of Set. He typified 
" Darkness," and was daily at war with his brother Osiris, the sun of 
yesterday, whom he overcame and slew ; Osiris was avenged by his 
son Horus (the rising sun). 

At Ombos he was worshipped under the name of Nubti. 

Figures of this god are very scarce, owing in later times to his 
being looked upon as an evil demon and murderer of Osiris. It is 
presumed in consequence of this reaction of feeling against him, 
that all his statuettes and monuments were destroyed and his 
name erased from them. 

He was represented as a man, with the head of a strange beast 
not yet made out, with large upright square topped ears, also as an 
animal sitting up with his tail raised vertically. 

In the British Museum there are two bronze specimens, No. 
18,191 and No. 22,897, 

Set may be often seen depicted upon scarabs. 

Figure of Set, in the attitude of walking, left leg advanced, 
wearing the long head covering falling on his shoulders, with the 
pschent on his head, arms pendent, wearing a tunic ; loop behind 
the head. 

H. 2yV in. Bronze. No. 4173. 

239 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

APUAT \^J ^^«j> . There is very little known of this god 

beyond what has been written upon it by the late Sir P. le Page 
Renouf.* 

He says the name signifies the " opener of the roads " of the 
northern and southern skies. 

This is a title of the sun, who in his daily course from east to 
west also opens or divides the earth into two, the north and south, 

and is accordingly called \J ^^ " JH , ap-tau. There is a 

specimen in my collection, jackal-headed, wearing the large head 
covering, with tunic round his loins, seated upon a throne. His 
left arm rests upon his knee, the right arm is bent at the elbow, and 
in his right hand he holds the flail. The throne is ornamented with 
figures, and on the base is a hawk ; round the base of the pedestal 
is a dedication by Peta-Her-se. H. 5 inches. In bronze. 

Another figure of Apuat, a form of Osiris, represented jackal- 
headed, kneeling upon a pedestal ; in his left hand he holds the 
crook, and in his right the flail or whip after the manner of figures 
of Osiris. Upon the back is the head of the hawk wearing the 
disk and urjEus, with its tail feathers in front of it. It is furnished 
with a ring for suspension. H. i^in. Bronze. 

Another figure is represented kneeling upon his left knee, 
jackal-headed, holding the sceptre and flail, with a loop for 
suspension. H. i|in. Bronze. 

ANUPT (1 ^"^57^- This goddess, a form of Hathor, sym- 
bolizing probably the dawn or evening twilight, is a feminine form 
of the god Anpu or Anubis. It has been found at Denderah, where 
probably at one time it was worshipped. Figures of this deity are 
very rare. 

A figure in my collection similar to that figured by Lanzone,t of 
wood, H. 2^ inches, represents the goddess standing upon a 
pedestal with the head of a jackal, wearing a long head-dress and 
a garment descending to her ankles, leaning against a plinth, 
holding in front a large tet with both hands. It has also been 
found in the form of a jackal, holding knives in its hands.J 

* Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Vol. XIII, p. 157. 
t Dizionario di Mitologia F.gizia, p. 74. 
X Dizionario di Mitologia Egizia, p. 31. 
240 



June 6] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



Another figure represents the goddess seated upon a throne, with the 
head of a jackal, wearing the atef crown and a long head attire, 
holding a bow, upon the back are the wings and tail of a hawk, 
H. if inch. Lanzone * figures a similar specimen from the Turin 
Museum in faience, holding a shell, but I consider that is only a 
clumsy representation of the bow. 



Dizionario di Mitologia Egizia, p. 31. 



F. G. H. P. 




241 



June 6] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 



[1899- 



THE BLESSINGS ON ASHER, NAPHTALI, AND JOSEPH. 



Two things seem to be specially necessary at the present moment 
for the study of the Old Testament ; one is the zealous prosecution 
of Biblical archEeology, and the other the correction of the Massoretic 
text. In open-eyed recognition of this few can claim to equal 
Mr. Ball, who has no doubt given his chief attention to archaeology, 
but has also made one valuable contribution on a large scale to the 
correction of the text. He knows me too well to think that I 
undervalue his labours on Genesis, or that my abstention from 
critical remarks on his own treatment of Genesis xlix in the present 
Note means that I write in an arrogant spirit. Not until my 
promised commentary on Genesis is in the press will rny conclusions 
be even in a modified sense final. To save space and time, I limit 
myself to giving the corrected text, with translation, of Gen. xlix, 
20-26, and a few notes, suggesting the principles on which I have 
acted. 



^rhn: nrii^ ^hr\^^ 

•• T : • : T T : v - . 

antpi2 "^n^p "i^tp";i 
: Dnn*" ■'S*'2i« ^3"^''i 



20 Asher — fertile is his land ; 

Precious things are those which 
he produces. 

21 Naphtali — luxurious is his pos- 

session ; 
He produces heaps of fruits. 

22 Ephraim is an ornament for 

Joseph, 
Manasseh a bracelet for Israel. 

23 Though they irritated him and 

strove with him, 
Though the archers persecuted 
him, 

24 Yet he broke the strings of their 

bows, 
And the joints of their hands 
became loose. 
242 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

il"^ti^^ ^^li^ T'fc^ 25 The God of thy father help thee, 
'7!]"^1'^ "^lUJ hi^^ God the Sovereign bless thee — 

hv^ Q^^'^^ nbli With blessings from heaven 

above, 
r\'nH ]n!2!lh Dinn^^ ^"d f^'om the flood which 

couches beneath, 
•7^ "^"^"irr ni^lS. ^6 with blessings of the eternal 

mountains, 
aSii; nii^lil n'^^^iri The products of the everlasting 

hills, 
V?2rT^T i'^Orr nili with blessings of his loving 

■ kindness and compassion, 

J npi^'^ ^"^^i^ ni"^i With the blessings of thy father 

■ Jacob : 

f\D'V "C^t^l/ r'^nn Let these be on the head of 

Joseph 
'. VnSi I*'"?!] "Tp"Tp7^ On the crown of the head of the 

prince among his brethren. 

20. in^-rt^. So Tg. Onk. ; Pesh. ; Gratz. MT. i^^nS.— 

Q'^'H^np. MT.'s ^^1^72 is corrupted from ^intD; "[^^ from 

ni^2 (a dittogram or duplication). The alternative is to read 

1f2Tl "^^IV^; but this is tautological. D"^l^nD is better than 

D"^^"!^^, for it will include the mineral riches of Asher (Dt. xxxiii, 
24). 21. 'iriTTlD n^'^li^- No one has yet found a satisfactory 
explanation MT.'s of nn^"^ H^'^^^- ^ fell out of n2*'"Ti?, h^ 
became y, and "7 became h- 2 ir^ lilTTfi became ti? ; Jl 
became n. The blessing of Naphtali had to resemble that of 
Asher ; both tribes were distinguished by the natural riches of 
their territories. But the products of the land of Naphtali were 
less varied than those of the land of Asher ; indeed, it was the 
land of Gennesaret which alone could excite a poet's enthusiasm. 
The "heaps of fruits" of this fertile tract deserved an encomium 
(see Jos. B./., iii, io8). For H'bli? (f- 2 Chr. xxxi, 6-9. 

22. Corrupt dittograms have much disfigured this verse. "^^^ 
(v. 21, end) comes from D'^IDb^ (i^ and )2^ are liable to be con- 
founded); T2 comes from Q"'1, the second part of D''1?:;b5- 

243 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.EOLOGY. [1899. 

ri'^D is a shrivelled up form of nit«^^ri; cf. jl^"^!, Isa. xlii, 6, 
xlix, 8, which probably comes out of r\"l^^Dn- Wellhausen's 
theory {Comp. des Hex., 322) is ingenious, but, I think, he 
trusts the text too much. The second r\"1f] p is dittographed, 

and to be omitted. '[''>?"^7y comes from r]D'^''^ (so read ; cf. 
next line) ; the initial i^ is dittographed ; D and i^, pi and "l are 
confounded. ri121 is a bad corruption of ni!^i!2 (^ and 1, Ji 
and 11> confounded). ■TlU?""<^i> comes out of ^fc^Tkl^i^ ; when 
the letters had been misarranged (a common source of misreadings) 
the editor tried to make some kind of sense ; " upon the wall " is the 
strange result. 23. Ephraim and Manasseh are viewed as divisions 
of one tribe. irQ"l''1 (Sam., LXX, Ball, Holzinger). 24. Dillmann, 
who has but little insight into textual problems, strangely remarks, 
"•^^^^'•fTl (LXX) has everything against it." The proposed correc- 
tion, which is approached by Ball, seems to me virtually certain. 
The next line I am not so sure about ; when the letters had been 
misarranged, MT.'s reading may quite possibly have come out ; but 
the corruption may in this case lie deeper. 25. Much ingenuity 
has been spent on the closing part of v. 24 (see Ball's note), but I 
am afraid that it has been thrown away. Ipi^*) "^ilt^ "^T^ is 
certainly a corruption of "7312"^ "^111^ (v. 25); it is corrupt ditto- 
graphy. D1I>D comes from i"I1i^Q. pb? has arisen out of "Tili^. 
ni?"^ and ~!'b^"111?'' both came from '7"TPi;^. Dittograms are often 
useful in suggesting corrections. This is the case here. 3,pi?"^ is 
wrong in v. 24 (25), but deserves to be read for T^n^ in v. 26 (see 
below). Farewell, then, to speculative arguments as to stone- 
worship, as suggested by the phrase (the corrupt phrase) " the stone 
of Israel." 25. ~i^ for "i^^!^, and 7St for jlt^jneed no argument. 
The ") before the two verbs may also be securely omitted as editorial 
insertions, as a consequence of corruptions. iftl? for I'lt!? will also 
be self-evident to archaeologists. □'inri!^ is required by metre {cf. 

Dt. xxxiii, 13); this involves reading D'^^^O- MT.'s Q^iTfl^ rCDin 
Qrr^l is of course wrong. We must not venture on harmonising it 
with Dt. xxxiii, 13-15, for this passage (viz. from ri3H?2 to Vl^^ 
nb^7Dl) is an interpolation based on a corrupt form of Gen. xlix, 
25, 26. One word only may and should be adopted, viz., Jlb^^Uri 

(Dt. xxxiii, 14), though in Dt. I.e. it stands in the wrong place. It 

244 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

should almost certainly take the place of MT.'s ni^^jl i^'^ (jen. xlix, 
26. In place of "blessings of the breasts and of the womb: the 
blessings of thy father have prevailed," we should, I think, read 
something much more appropriate, which can quite well be detected 
underneath the received text ; only it clearly ought to stand after the 
reference to the mountains and hills which winds up the list of 
material sources of blessing. rTl^^ri IV ''liH JlD'^S.'T'i^ ^^ by 
common admission incorrect. 73;, as we shall see, is an editorial 

patch, designed to make sense with the impossible T^H^. "^"Iin, 
"my progenitors," should be 'i"^"^n " mountains (of) ; " LXX, opewi- 

fiovi'^wv) ; so recent critics since Tuch. Of rTlb^n I have spoken 
already; the " products " of the hills — the glorious " trees of Yahwe " 
• — are in fact the " blessings of the mountains." Then follows the 
conclusion — quite in the style of the later poets (vv. 25, 26, 
seem to be a later insertion). Q^^ltl^ should be i'lpn (IDH 

is very often misread) ; Qni had probably ones a mark of abbrevia- 
tion, to indicate that it was to be read 1'^^n'^. " Loving kindness 
and compassion," as Jer. xvi, 5; Hos. ii, 21; Zech. vii, 9; Ps. ciii, 4. 
^"1^5, J "have prevailed," should probably be l^pl?''- The only 

difficulty is about the "^ ; ;i and p can easily be confounded. But 
in a passage so badly misarranged as this, we must allow the editor a 
little scope to manipulate the text in the interests of sense. 

T. K. CHEYNE. 




H5 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 



NOTE ON THE HEBREW WORDS 12t?i^ AND -^1:10. 

There has been much discussion on the meaning of these 
words. Of the former no proper explanation exists. The latter, 
however, I think I am right in identifying with Ass. sakru in the 
phrase lutrasu sak-ru, " massive, or solid, gold," Delitzsch, Ass. 
H.W.B., 499 b. The phrase "^I^D nilT occurs several times, e.g., 
I K. vi, 20 f. ; vii, 49f; TlHD? alone, in Job xxviii, 15. As 10 
I3\2^i^) it is clearly corrupt in Ezek. xxvii, 15 (read perhaps 
'TJ"'">nb). In Ps. Ixxii, jo, it is generally rendered "tribute." 
This suits the context, but is, I believe, not quite right. I^IZ^t^ 
here should be either *\3D or -i:iD, "solid gold." The initial i^ 
is dittographed. Happily the correctness of this hypothesis can 
be proved. In Ps. Ixxii, 15, we meet with these words, which 
painfully interrupt the context, and are, by Bickell and Bathgen 

rightly pronounced to be a gloss, t^llT IH-f^ "^ '"]-^'!l "'H"!!- 
(The gloss however begins at 'jJi'^T ; Tf^l is dittographed, see v. 16.) 
But why should a gloss on v. 10/^ be supposed to be wanted? 
This is the reason — because the rare word "^^D or ");}D needed 
explanation. The glossator considerately interpreted this to mean 
nm, "gold." 

T. K. CHEYNE. 




246 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



W. E. C. Notes on :— 

I.— THE NAME PACHOMIUS. 
II.— "ABOVE" AND "BELOW" IN COPTIC. 
III.— EGYPTIAN " ORANTES." 

The name borne by the father of Egyptian coenobites appears 
in Greek texts under the forms n«xoi7"o? (' Vita ' in Acta SS.) or 
Ilr/;^w/((09 (Palladius) with less frequent variants in papyri and 
inscriptions. Corresponding feminine forms are Tnxof/us, Trtxt^V'- 
Coptic MSS. and inscriptions have Sa'id. TT^^CUJUL, Boh. 
n.<L^UJJUL,* while Brugsch cites as the common original a 
Demotic name consisting of the identical consonants.! 

There is however a secondary form, not uncommon in Sa'idic 
texts and differing from those above mentioned by the addition of 
a third syllable. It appears as n^.^(J0JULO, n^,^OJULO, 
ni.^(JOAJL(JO or TI<L^OJULU0.+ So far as I know this form has 
not been accounted for, though the explanation I here offer has 
probably suggested itselt to others. The usual two-syllable form of 
the name being of a normal Egyptian type, the added third syllable 
may be assumed to represent a distinct word, "annexed" to one 
already complete. Thus disintegrated, the name calls to mind the 
small group of words compounded with the adjective ''"'^^, O 
^great"^ — in its independent use superseded long since by rtO(T^ 

* No distinctive Mid. Egypt, furm is, I think, extant. 

+ Wb. 216, A. Z., 18S8, 67. 

J The first of these occurs once in the subscription of a Boh. scribe (Zoega, 
175)- TTi-^OJUL^- (Rainer Corpus I) and n^L^UJJUL^. (Brit. Mus., 
no. 299), though the termination is Mid. Egypt., occur in texts otherwise 
Sa'idic. 

§ Stern, Gram., § 194, Steindorff, Gram., § 148, Maspero, Rec. de Trav., 
XX, 150 ff. Stern's ClJ<LIO is confirmed by an ostrakon from Deir el-Bahari 
(letter from bishop to clergy) . . . XepTlClJ^, e^OTFt e^^ItXOOTe 

^x«.ncij'^a«J^ JULnoTcoxJULeT -frtoT eic^Hxe ceo 
it^.noKXHp[oc]. 

247 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

— a group which might probably be enlarged from among the 
numerous Grseco-Egyptian proper names now available.* That 
the name HA-^^OJULO is of this formation was first suggested 
to me by the following passage (Brit. Mus., fragt. no. 299) 

, . . <LOA.nA-cioc eT-en^-XJULo-yue . . . ^.n^. nA^^coAjLA. 
nestJOT itxKomojniA. tn'Ji9.iWJtjLom^;x.oc e^-qaji^e 
rtxeig^e n^eqcTbxJL THpc cy^.riTeqcycon'^ ^0^^0(3^ 

eJUL^Te, " Athanasius, that is The Deathless . . . Apa Pahoma, 
the father of the monastic koivwvui, who changed thus his whole 
power and so became a very great man." As an interpretation is 
here given of the first name, it seems probable that what follows the 
second should likewise refer to its etymology. Some memorial stelce 
further support the above explanation. Gizeh, no. 8382 has a list of 
eight names of which the last two are ^..HA. IC^^LKO) and ^.TTA. 
SU0CH4"JJ; while ib., no. 841 1 commemorates ^H^ lOTXlOJ.t 

The appellation o Me'^/os (without the name) by which Pachomius 
is so frequently designated in the ' Paralipomena ' \ and less often 
in the 'Vita,' is presumably not more distinctive than niltlOj'f" 
as applied to Paulus Eremita, Macarius etc., e.g. Mus. Guim. XXV, 
323. He is himself nilticy'f nA.^(JO.&A, ib., 403.§ 

Side by side with the names in -o stand a larger number 

compounded with ® V\ ^^^^ cyHAJL, ' small,' and among them 
nf(x«^Vx'//*'*>!l ^" exact counterpart of n^^OJLJLO. 

* Can n^eiTUO A.Z., 1868, 66, be compared with (j ^^ | Liebkiii, 
1542? Cf. the genitive "Aiiros, cited by Brugsch, A.Z , 18S4, 14 

t SOTtXi is the usual form of Julius; v. e.g., Rainer Corpus I, index. 

i M. Ladeuze, Museon 1898, 391, shews that this is an adaptation from a 
Coptic text. 

§ I have seen but one similar case in the Arabic texts, RIus. Giiii/i. XVII, 

669, / wj„^«»r^l,' ,_*o..0\ UjOi- If til'-' epithet 'great' refers merely to 

^ J" J ■ J" • ■• ■ 

seniority in age or rank, it may have served to distinguish the head of the 
monastery from his namesake and disciple, naxo'V'"^ dWns (' Vita,' § 50), or 
subsequeitly from another P., 'the anchorite,' commemorated on the 12th 
Paopi (Lcyden Cat., 214). Cf. 'Avnoi'ins 6 jutyas Ka ' kvaomos (' Vita,' § 60). 

II Cf. COJtCLjH-tJL and COFt^HJUL (Brit. .Mus., Or. 1060). One 
name of this class, Taloshem, has Ijcen attributed to Pachomius' sister, apparently 
on the authority of Bsciai (v. Nilles, Z. k. Th., 18S2 373). But her name was 
in fact Maria {Mits. Guiinct, XVII, 36) and the one occurrence I know of the 
other name is in reference to a different saint {Miss, frajif. I, 399, the Pachomius 

248 



Tune 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

One is tempted to add to the short Kst of forms in """^T^ a word 
which since Zoega's time has lacked explanation. Of the word C^L^O 
I know four published instances: (i) Zoega, 531 =^ Miss, franf. 
IV, 696, where Apa Moses, writing to some nuns, says " God hath 
made you worthy of this great and holy calling, pcA.^O KlShjO^C 
ItXexri'j'eoO'C ri^q behave wisely ( ? or learn wisdom) and do 
Him honour"; (2) Lepsius, Denkm. VI, 103, an inscription com- 
memorating Paul nc<L^O^HJUL ; (3) von Lemm, Sahid. Bibelfr. 
I, (end) where '^'"^^(JO appears to be a title followed by a proper 
name ; (4) Rainer Mitthgn. V, 52, nK^-rtC^.^^. (Mid. Eg.), 
which is likewise a man's title.* Besides these a Jeme papyrus 
(Brit. Mus., Or. 4883) mentions a woman TC^^O TCtjeepe 
rtI<LKUoK ^^Xe, while an ostrakon from Deir el-Bahari is 
written jointly by John TrpefT^inepo'i of the village of UlCJO^e, 
David TTC^L^CU and Simeon ava~ivu)a7)]s of the same village. 
Dr. von Lemm has already connected the word with c^^I, C<L^ 
and its use as a title, especially as in the last example quoted, 
makes it probable that we have here the ecclesiastical C^L^ 
cicaGKiiXosj with an added ^''^^ . O as before. 



II.— 1' ABOVE" AND "BELOW" IN COPTIC. 

These expressions usually translate in Sa'idic the words e^pA.1 
and eneCHT respectively, or other forms derived from the same 
roots ; such words being either adverbial or prepositional. There 
is however another pair of words one of which, compounded of ne 

in Nilles, Kalend." II, 712 being there and in Brit. Mus. no. 144, Moses). B.'s 
etymology too is quite unlikely ; " the little maid " is far more probable. Cj. 
T<,/V,u~s, liaAouy, R^^XoT {A.Z., 187S, 12). 

^' V. my Coptic AISS. from the Fayyuin, 32, and add to the list there 
Mus. Giiimet,-XK.V, 292, the locality ^IieTpi. rtKOnfrttteXI. 

t As in the Leyden Catalogue 150, 153. For this SiSatr/caAos, v. Du Cange, 
s.v. In the ' Scala Magna ' (Paris 44, p. 62) the two words stand side by side 
among the church functionaries. In Georgi, Fragiii. 358, the bishop is called 
ncrtCA-P, ; but there its use need be no more technical than when applied 
to Christ, e.g.. Mat. viii, 19 ; ix, II. 

249 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 

" heaven," is a recognised equivalent to ufw* The parallel term 
is to be found, so far as I can ascertain, only in the legal documents 
from Jeme (Thebes). It has two employments; (i) in reference to 
the notary or witnesses whom the author engages to draw up or sign 
the deed, e.g. : — 

Aeg. Z., 1888, 129 (= Erit. Mus., pap. cii), JULJUL^ pX'JpOC 

. . . e^-^^.2,T^o^p^-c^H ^^poi juLnnrrt K^.x^- 

T^-HTICIC. 

Aeg.z., 1891, 18 nexrt^.2^nfiiovp<Lc^e ^^>.poq Axnixn. 

The same word in the same context appears in Pap. Turin 1 
{AUi 23, 341), Brit. Mus., Or. 4879 and 4882. 
With these quotations compare — 

Reviiiout, Aaes 3, ^iTirrcTix rtrteTrt^-JUL^-pT-rpico/ 
2^^-p^.Tc m-emp^-cic. 

Brit. Mus., pap. xc, ^.Hoit . . . rtexit^.g^'riiorp^.^'H 
£,A.nicHX nni2ia3pe^-CT"iK(Jort. 

Reviiiout, /./. 47, eXIt^-pJULrtTpS . . . JULnitCOJC. 
Clearly the word niTIt here corresponds to " below," w/m, 
and is the opposite of TWe, supra, as used e.g., Aeg. Z., 1884, 151, 

TertTTA-ccypnc^^-i rtxne.t 

(2) niTIt is frequently found in descriptions of property or 
definitions of boundaries, e.g. : — 

Brit. Mus., Or. 4870, nX^P^-*J^'^ THpCq 6X1X111X^6 

{var. juLnixn) nuHi nrtKXHponoAXoc &c. 

Brit. Mus., 4883, Property n^.1 6XrtneiXn JULn6IJULrtX 

Brit. Mus., 4868, UHI XKpq . . . eX-ULUeiXn JULUHI 
JULcJ)lXoe60C. 

Ciasca, pap. vi, OJULOl/ ltV^IC6 eniXIt ^I^oX ItnpO 

rtx6^62^p^. x^-uixn ertvoTuop^ (?) neK^^o ^-rt^HX. 

Brit. Mus., pap. ciii, nc^.ii:ua)cio« ex£,mx(Jopx 6XIt- 
uixrt itx6xe2^p^. 

With these cjuotations compare — 

* E.g.., Gal. iv, 26 ; Col. iii, 2. 

t Bodl. Hunt. 393, p. 19, has K^-X-?- Q^ rtX^.^O•^ftJ0 Z(JD JULU^.J 

nci.eH. 

250 



June 6] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



Brit. Mus., pap. ci A, T-XHpe eXItXHG nTe^p^.OT 

Ciasca, /./., ojuLoi/ nvKeXeve rtxne n[T"]xHpe 
m"e^e2^p<L. 

The meaning of the word eiXIt in more strictly hterary texts 
appears to differ considerably from that here exemplified and to 
translate such Greek words as Ko-rrpia, ^/7j &c. (v. Peyron). 

Whether p^OOfTn Zoega, 295 is a derivative of the same root 
I do not know. The Latin version of the passage (Migne, J^.Z., 73, 
952) supports Peyron's translation {rf. Goodwin, Aeg. Z., 1871, 24). 

Mr. Griffith informs me that eiTft is often met with in 
Demotic texts in expressions such as " on the ground," " down to 
the ground " and the like ; a usage clearly preparatory to that 
displayed in the above quotations. 



III.— EGYPTIAN "ORANTES." 

Much attention has of late years been paid to the type of male 
or female figures with outstretched arms met with on the early 
Christian monuments (catacombs, sarcophagi &c.) and known 
generically as orantes. It is assumed that the type is of Christian 
origin and though some admit the 
occurrence of pagan statues in similar 
attitudes,* others declare that " no 
certain parallels from prte-christian 
times " are to be found.! 

I wish here merely to call atten- 
tion to certain Egyptian representa- 
tions which, while indisputably pagan, 
bear an undeniable resemblance to 
the orans figures ; and among these 
a sepulchral stele in the Alexandria 
Museum, from which the accompany- 
ing sketch is taken, | is especially 

* Liell, MariadarstelhiHgen, 124, 125. 
t Sittl, Die Gebiirden, 306. 

X No. 342; limestone; 35 x 17cm. Below the figure, ^^IHCMHNU)^^^ 
I "LH MEXIP IZI^I- C/: the name 'I(7M»jv65a>pos-, C./.C, 1542. 

251 




Tune 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

noticeable. It is true that the arms are lifted somewhat higher than 
is the case with most Christain orajiies ,■* yet one is inclined to 
assume a similar meaning in the gesture. Here however there can 
be little doubt that the figure is — as in most classes of Egyptian 
stelse from earlier epochs — a conventional portrait of the deceased ; 
and such a consideration has already led Liell to argue against any 
real relationship between the pagan and Christian types, the latter of 
which it is now usual to regard as a personification of the departed 
soul. Seeing that the rare Egyptian monuments whereon such a 
gesture is represented all belong to Graeco-Roman times,! there is 
no need to seek an Egyptian genealogy for the figure in our sketch ;| 
it is probably best regarded as directly borrowed from European 
models. This is the more likely owing to the known aversion 
(or incapacity) of the native artists for representations of the human 
figure en face. 

* Tertullian, De oral., iii, " ne ipsis quidem manibus sublimius elatis sed 
temperate ac probe elatis " (quoted Did. Chr. Ant., 1464). 

t Another stele in Alexandria, no. 113, has a similar figure without the 
jackals, while Botli's Notice dcs Mons. (1893), PP- 88, 89, nos. XII, XV, 
describes female figures with raised arms. Brit. Mus., no. 821 (Egyptian Gallery) 
shows the deceased reclining on a couch at the foot of which stands a smaller, male 
figure with raised arms. Is this a relative, as in the older stelce ? Jackals and, 
offering-table (?) are here in a lower register and the inscription ends with iv^vx^^. 
In Sharpe, Egypt. Inscr., II, 64 three male figures raise the arms before Osiris, 
presumably in adoration. 

% No early representation of a Christian orans is known from Egypt. One of 
the oldest must be — if indeed Christian, — the sketch on papyrus, said to be of the 
3rd century (Rainer Fiihrer 1894, 93). Figures with similarly raised arms on the 
more ancient monuments, e.g. L.D. III. 108, seem to express joy or gratitude 
(z/. Erman, Aegypten, 174). 




252 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



DANCING WORSHIP. 



June 3, 1899. 



Dear Mr. Rylands, 

In the Journal of Biblical Literature, 1898, p. 108, Prof. 
Morris Jastrow has a note upon □"^Si^pn, i Kings xviii, 21, showing 
that the emendation of Klostermann into D"'2pn "thresholds," is 
the correct reading: " How long leap ye over the two thresholds.?'' (see 
I Samuel v, 5, and Zephaniah i, 9), and alluding to the rite of 
leaping upon the altar in the same chapter of Kings, verse 26. He 
cites the Targum paraphrase upon Zephaniah i, 9, " those that 
walk in the custom of the Philistines," and the LXX addition to the 
passage in i Samuel v, 5, " because leaping they leap over it " (the 
threshold), and points out the prevalence of the rite of jumping or 
eaping in Semitic worship. 

He does not, however, note, as an author in the Revue Bihlique, 
1896, p. 228, did, in reference to the leaping upon the altar, that in 
two Greek inscriptions and one Latin, Baal is called Baal Markod, 
Lord of Leaping, from Rakad, and therefore the passage in Kings 
is a jest upon this form of worship, and that Herodian tells us 
Heliogabalus in his assumed role of a Syrian priest acted the rite 
irepl Te toTv /Sw^oii xop^vovju. The new " Golenischeff Papyrus " 
{Recueil de Travaux, XXI, p. 81, &c.), containing the travels of an 
Egyptian functionary upon the Syrian coast in search of timber for 
the building of a sacred barque, has an interesting passage upon 
this dancing worship. In this case the dancing was instigated by 
the Canaanite deity, and was the exciting cause of oracular 
utterances upon the part of a courtier of Bodil, prince of Dor, the 
Canaanite city to the south of Carmel, the site of the events of 
I Kings, xviii, a town that the tribe of Manasseh failed to conquer ; 
.see Judges i, 27. 

Yours sincerely, 

JOSEPH OFFORD. 



253 



June 6] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 



ASSYRIOLOGICAL NOTES. 

There was a god Allai or Alai, venerated in Assyria. The 
names Isdi-A-la-a-a and Man-nu-ki-(ilu)-Al-la-a render this certain. 
The forms of these names are pure Assyrian, so that if Alai is 
foreign, the adoption must have taken place somewhat early in the 
history of the country. Cf. also Ardi-(ilu) Al-la-a-a. 

Although the verb rahamu, " to be piteous," is not yet entered 
in Assyrian Lexicons ; the names Rahimu, Rahima, and especially 
Rahimu-sarri point to its being known. ^Vhether it is a loan word 
from Arabic or Hebrew, or whether it is a bye-form of the common 
word ra/nu must be left open. 

Names like Putu-(ilu)-Paiti, Putu-Piati, and Putu-umhiesu serve 
to establish an element putu as compounded with a divine name 
following. This suggests a god Piati, or Paiti, and also Umhiesu. 
In the latter case the first element may be Putum. Alongside these 
names we may put those beginning with Pudi, or as it may be read, 
Puti. Such are Puti-ili, Puti-hu-u-ru-u, Puti-kit-a-a or Puti-sah-a-a, 
Puti-ma-a-ni, and Puti-seri. The second elements, iU and Hiiru, 
support the suggestion that Sahi, Mani, and Seri may be gods, but 
of what nationality? There I is an Egyptian flavour about some of 
these names. On the other hand Putu may belong to some other 
speech. They do not seem Assyrian. 

A number of names in Assyrian are derived from the date of 
birth. The forms derived from the names of the months have long 
been remarked. Thus we have Tebetai from Tebetu, Ululai for Ululu, 
which have been often noted. Also we have Nisanai from Nisanu, 
Simanai from Simanu, Abu-ai(?) from Abu : these seem to me new. 
Still more singular are the names from the day of birth : such are 

^r Vy A-< V, n, -^T V ^ -4- V, n, -1 « ^i^ Vy n; names 
actually borne by living men as parties to contracts. Whether each 
day was sacred to a god, and these names are derived from that 
divine name, or whether we are to build up phonetic readings from 
the numerals themselves, does not seem clear. These names are 
cieariy distinct from ^] ]>**■ ^^f *-}]l, ^] ]*'*^ ^^ S^TTT V"' 

254 



June 6] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

•^y y>*-»- f^yyy ^^yyy ■^'- , which may be read Tammes-idri, 
Tammes-natanu and Tammes-tatapu ; but seem to have some relation 

to ^y y^ ^ j.yyy^ y^, -^y y^ \, and !.yyyjz >^ ^^y< ^^y 

which may be read Ume-tabati, Ume-damkati, and Umii-balati. 

The practice of " fulHng" or whitening clothes as distinct from 
mere washing of them was an organised trade in Assyria and 
Babylonia. We have frequent mention of the amel pusaia, or 
" fuller," and of garments sent to be " fulled," ana push It may 
not have been noticed that the kakkaru puse, of which a diminutive 
\s kakkiru puse, ?in<i which clearly denotes a "fuller's field," occurs 
often in Assyrian contracts. It was situated outside the city wall, 
near a brook, was enclosed, and needed planks and beams for its 
construction. These must have been for the tables and benches at 
which the fullers worked. Its dimensions vary very much, from a 
size 5 cubits by 4, to one 28 cubits by 20. The prices paid for 
these properties were high, showing that the trade was lucrative. 
AVe also have a reference to " fuller's meal," se'ic pusi, of which the 
ideogram is 4<^ -^^y t:y^ ^li^Cy. Whether this was bean-meal or 
some white earth does not appear. 

C. H. W. J. 

i2,tk March, 1S99. 




255 



June 6J SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL AKCILi:OLOGY. [1S99. 



CHEDORLAOMER. 

Dear Mr, Rylands, 

With reference to a copy of an inscription published by Pere 
Scheil in the Recueil de Travaitx,\.\wo years ago, mentioning Cfedor- 
laomer, which was printed in the Proceedings, it has now, I 
beheve, been conclusively settled that the translation, as far as 
Chedorlaomer is concerned, was an error. 

The tablet has been published in The Letters of Hammurabi, 
by Mr L. W. King, and the question is again discussed in Light 
from the East, by the Rev. C. J. Ball. I may also refer to the 
paper by Knudtzen and Delitzsch, published in the Beitriige fur 
Assyriologie (iv heft i, 1899), i"^ which this and other tablets 
relating to Hammurabi have been re-edited and re-translated. 

As many readers may make use of the note in our Proceedings 
for March, 1 S98, in which I gave a copy of Pere Scheil's trans- 
lation, I think it may be useful to send you the above references. 

Yours sincerely, 

JO.-^EPH OFFORD. 



The ne>:t Meeting of the Society' will be held at ly. Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C, on Tuesday, 7th November, 
1899, ^t 4.30 p.m. 



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CONTAINING ALSO 

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President. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, LL.D., &c., &c. 

Vice- Presidents, 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

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Gray Hill. 

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VOL. XXL Part 7. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XXL TWENTY-NINTH SESSION. 

Sixth Meeting, Nove^nber ytk, 1899. 

*j^ 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

F. Legge. — Notes on the Xllth Congress of Orientalists held at 

Rome, October, 3-15 261-268 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. — Notes on Hieroglyphics. The 

Head. The Papyrus Roll. The Soldier 269-272 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. — Transliteration of Demotic 273-276 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. —Notes on ]\Iythology. Eileithyia in 

Egypt. The God of Busiris. Hermes Trismegistus 277-279 

General Hastings. — The XXIInd Egyptian Dynasty 280, 281 

Percy E. Newberry. — Note on a new Egyptian King of the 

Xnith Dynasty 282, 283 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns. — Notes on Assyriology 284,285 

E. TowRY Whyte, M.A., F.S.A. — Note on an Egyptian Bolt 

{plate) ^ 286 

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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-NINTH SESSION, 1899. 



Sixth Meeting, yth November, 1899. 
JOSEPH POLLARD, Member of Council, 

IN THE CHAIR. 



The Chairman referred to the loss the Society had 
suffered by the death of several of its distinguished 
Members, who took the greatest interest in the Society, 
and were always ready to assist in securing its welfare. 

Monsieur Joachim Menant, Membre de I'lnstitut, 

Conseiller Honoraire a la Cour d'Appel, Chevalier de la 

Legion d'Honneur, Officer de I'lnstruction Publique, etc., 

etc. Honorary Member of the Society. 

Born, 1820. 

Died 30th August, 1 899. 

Canon St. Vincent Beechey, Honorary Canon of 
Manchester. 

Born August the 7th, 1806. 
Died August the I9t'h, 1899, 

[No. CLxiii.] 257 u 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 



William Simpson, Member of the 


Royal Institute 


of Watet 


• Colours, etc. 

Born, 1823. 
Died August, 1899. 




Rev. 


William Wright, D.D., Editorial Superin- | 


tendent ( 


3f the British and Foreign Bible 
Born January 15th, 1837 
Died July 31st, 1899. 


Society. 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Author : — Rev. P. A. Cesare de Cara, S.J. I Dialetti 
Italici e gl' Ilali della storia. Sommario. Civilta Cattolica. 
June, July and August, 1899. 8vo. 

I Dialetti Italici e gl' Itali della storia. Sommario la 



Grammatica. Civilta Cattolica. September, 1899. 8vo. 

From the Author : — Prof. E. Schiaparelli. Di un Vaso Fenicip 
rinvenuto in una tomba della Necropoli di Tarquinii. Folio. 
Rome. 1898. Momtmenti Autichi, Vol. VIII. 1898. 

From the Author : — Prof. E. Naville. Le pere de Thoutmes III, 
Figurines Egyptiennes de I'epoque archaique. (Avec trois 
planches.) Rec. de Travaux, Vol. XXI. Folio. 1899. 

Les plus anciens monuments Egyptiens. Rec. de Tra- 



vaux, Vol. XXI. Folio. Paris. 1899. 

From the Author : — Prof. Dr. Fritz Hommel. Die Siidarabischen 
Altertiimer (Eduard Glaser Sammlung) des AMener Hofmuseums 
und ihr Herausgeber Professor David Heinrich Miiller. 8vo. 
Munich. 1899. 

From Joseph Pollard, Esq. Catalogue of Antiquities from the 
excavations of the Egypt Exploration Fund at Diospolis, and a 
Loan Collection of Prehistoric Vases, exhibited by permission 

258 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

of the Council at University College, Gower Street, London, 
July, 1S99. Svo. 

From the Author : — Prof. Eduard Sachau. Studie zur Syrischen 
Kirchenlitteratur der Damascene. Svo. Berlin. 1899. 
KbnigL Preitss. Akad., B. XXVII. 1899. 

From the Author :— Rev. H. \V. Dearden, M.A. Modern 
Romanism Examined. Svo. London. 1899. 

From the Author:— John Irwine Whitty, LL.D., D.C.L., M.A. 
Ode on the Discovery at Jerusalem of " Whitty's Wall " (King 
Solomon's Rampart), etc. Svo. London. 1899. 

From the Author :—Vilh Thomsen. Remarques sur la parente 
de la langue Etrusque. Svo. Copenhague. 1899. 
I'Academie Roy. des Sciences. 1S99. No. 4. 

From the Publisher :— A. Durlacher, Paris. La Bible de la 
jeunesse, traduite de I'Hebreu et abregee, par les Membres 
du Rabbinat Fran9ais, sous la direction de M. Zadoc Kahn, 
Grand Rabbin. Tome I (Pentateuque — premiers Prophetes). 
Svo. Paris. 1SS9. 

La Bible traduite du texte original, par les Membres 



du Rabbinat Frangais, sous la direction de M. Zadoc Kahn, 
Grand Rabbin. Tome I (Pentateuque— premiers Prophetes). 
Svo. Paris. 1899. 

From Dr. Hayes Ward. Palestine Exploration Society [American] 
No. 2. Second Statement. September, 1873, Contains 
Husn Sulayman. Hamath Inscriptions. First Year in the 
Field. Lieutenant Steever's Despatches. New York. Svo. 

From the Author :— Sir Henry H. Howorth. The Early History 
of Babylonia. 1. The Rulers of Kengi and Kish. III. Shir- 
purla and its Neighbours. English Historical Review, October, 
1S99. 



259 u 2 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

The following Candidates were nominated for election at 
the next Meeting, on the 5th December: — 

George Alexander Pirie, M.A., M.D., 43, Tay Street, Dundee. 
Fayette L. Thompson, Pastor of the First Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Jackson, Mich., U.S.A. 
Francis Davidson Outram (Late R.E.), A.M.I.C.E,, The Manor 

Lodge, Worcester Park, Surrey. 



F. Legge, one of the Delegates of the Society, read a 
Report on the 12th Congress of Orientalists held at Rome, 
October 3-15. 

Remarks were added by the Rev. Dr. Lowy, Dr. Gaster, 
Sir H. H. Howorth, and the Chairman. 

Thanks were returned for this communication. 



260 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

THE CONGRESS OF ORIENTALISTS OF 1899. 

By F. Legge. 

The Xllth Congress of Orientalists was duly held at Rome, and 
was very largely attended. Instead of the usual week, it lasted from 
the 3rd to the 15th of October, the extra time not being more than 
sufficient for visiting the museums and other objects of interest 
which are so abundant in Rome. The papers read at the Congress, 
if not quite so learned as usual, were rather more popular than has 
sometimes been the case, and although there were no startling sensa- 
tions announced, one or two at least may prove to be of lasting 
importance. For the sake of clearness I will divide those which 
especially concern the work of the Society into three groups, one of 
which I will call Biblical, the second Egyptological, and the third 
Assyriological, although, of course, the subjects sometimes overlap* 
The Egyptian and most of the Assyriological papers I managed to 
hear myself, but I was seldom able to attend the Semitic section, 
which generally sat at the same time as one of the others. I have 
therefore had to rely for the papers there read upon the reports of 
others, and had it not been for the kindness of Mr. Perowne, a 
member of the Society, and for sometime Secretary of the section, 
I should not have been able to give much account of its proceedings.* 

(i) Biblical. 

Dr. Ginsburg announced the discovery in the Geniza of the 
Sephardic Jews at Cairo, of a Biblical text written entirely in abbre- 
viations, each word being represented by a single letter, the 
letter chosen being that which bears the Masoretic accent. He 
thinks that the MS. was made either for use at public readings of 
Scripture, or as an aid to the memory of pupils. It is said to 
account for many of the abbreviations on Maccabaean coins and in 
the LXX. Dr. Ginsburg also read a paper on a Masoretic fragment 
from the same Geniza giving some new readings attributed to the 
Babylonian school. Some of the Masoretic points in this MS. are 
here met wath for the first time, as are certain signs intended to mark 

* Even now I am not sure that I have in all cases reported the speakers 
correctly. But, in view of the fact that the Acts of the Congress will not appear 
for at least two years, it seems that even a faulty report may be better than none. 

261 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.liOLOGV. [1899. 

the diflferent readings of parallel passages. In the few cases where 
the MS. gives vowels, they are inserted above the line. 

Dr. Jastrow (of Philadelphia) read a paper on the name of 
Samuel, and the different word-plays of some of the passages of 
Scripture in which it is used. He traces the root of the word in the 
first instance to the verb 7t«^"tl^, " to ask," which is, apparently, near 
enough in sound to Samuel (/^^^Dtl?) for the name to be sug- 
gested by Hannah's speech (i Sam. i, 20), which he reads, "And she 
called his name Samuel, for from lahweh I asked him." But 7^^tl^, 
according to Dr. Jastrow, means especially to " ask an oracle," and 
the noun formed from ^^12^ therefore means " one who asks 
oracles," /.e., a priest. Of this he gives many instances from Scrip- 
ture, as Deut. xviii, 11, " the tier of knots . . the inquirer ; " (Th^tl?")), 
I Chron. x, 1 3, " one that had a familiar spirit to inquire of it (T'li^ltJv)^ 
and the like,* and thinks that this is the pun contained in i Sam. i, 28 
which he would read not as in the R.V., " Therefore I have also 
granted him," but "therefore I have devoted him [qy,, made him 
priest?] to the Lord." The name Samuel itself he compares to the 

Shebuel vb^inU?^ grandson of Moses, of i Chron xxiii, 16, and 
thinks that the first syllable can be explained by the Assyrian su/fm 
{" son "), which is found in name like Nabu-sum-iddin, Samas- 
Sum-ukin, etc. He therefore considers the whole name to mean, 
" son (or offspring) of God." 

Professor Haupt (of Baltimore) read a paper on the Seraphim 
and Cherubim. The Seraphim, he thinks, should be considered as 
serpent-formed beings typifying the lightning, and correspond to the 
erect serpents [ur^ei ?] found in the decorations of both Egyptian 
and Babylonian temples. The Cherubim originally represented the 
winds, and as the winds fertilize the female flowers of the palm-tree 
by bringing to them the pollen of the male, he finds it natural that 
the Assyrian cherubs should so frequently be represented as engaged 
in the fructification of j)alm-flowers.. The name cherub [^'IHS ?] 
in Babylonian means "gracious" or " favourable," and is a synonym 
of damqu. The winds are sometimes favourable, sometimes un- 
favourable, or limmi. Some doubts as to this derivation were stated 
by Dr. (faster, Dr, Hommel, and others. 

A discussion also arose in the Semitic section on the Hebrew 

* Also with the Assyrian Sa-i-ln as in the Tel el-Amarna letters (22 of W. ). 

262 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

fragments of Ecclesiasticus lately discovered by Dr. Schechter. It 
began, I understand, in a communication from Dr. Belleli setting 
forth their importance and originality, and contradicting the opinion 
of Prof. Margoliouth ihat they were but a Hebrew translation of a 
Syriac or Araniccan original. M. Israel Levy, who with others 
supported Prof. Margoliouth's contention, has, I believe, since pub- 
lished a paper on the subject in the current (November) number of 
the " Revue d'Etudes juives," and I will therefore make no further 
mention here of the discussion, a full report of which was taken by 
Mr. Perowne. 

The Abbe Bourdais contributed a paper, of which only the third 
part was read to the Congress. He told us that being convinced that 
the cosmogonies of the two first chapters of Genesis were first put 
into shape on the banks of the Euphrates, he had turned them 
back into cuneiform, and had also translated them into " the language 
of modern science." The part read only showed the agreement 
between the two, but the whole paper will doubtless be printed, and 
should be interesting. 

Among the other papers in the Biblical group were one by Prof. 
Montelt (of Geneva) on a medallion of the 1 5th century, bearing an 
image of Christ with a derisive Hebrew inscription, one by Prof. 
Merx upon the age of the Targum on Canticles, which is interesting 
in view of the opinion of Canon Cheyne ("Encyc. Bibl.," s.v. 
Canticles) that this book obtained by mistake its place in the Canon, 
and one by Dr. Castelli upon the antecedents of the Cabala as 
shown in the Bible and Talmud. A proposal by Dr. Zanini for a 
" scientifically-incontestable version of the Bible " was not received 
with much favour. 

(2) Egyptological. 

Dr. Borchardt (of Cairo) contributed a paper, read by Dr. Erman, 
on a new find of papyri last winter at Kahun, which are now in the 
Berlin Museum. They seem to have formed part of the archives of 
a temple, and to include a sort of day-book in which the priests 
recorded any events which they considered remarkable. In it is 
mentioned that in the seventh year of Usertesen III, the star Sothis 
(Sirius) was for the first time on the horizon at daybreak* on the six- 
teenth day of the eighth month. Working back to this, Dr. Borchardt 

* This is, 1 think, what was meant. Dr. Erman used only the word 
" aufgegangen." 

263 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

was able to announce that the seventh year of Usertesen III must 
have fallen between the years 1876-1872 b.c, and this he claims as 
the earliest absolute date* in history. Prof. Petrie, whose chronology 
is mostly founded on that of Mahler, i)uts Usertesen Ill's latest date 
at 2622 B.C., and if Dr. Borchardt's figures hold good, he will therefore 
have brought the Xllth dynasty nearer to us by nearly eight centuries. 
The paper was at once attacked by Dr. Eisenlohr and others, but 
the President decided that the discussion was too mathematical to 
be usefully continued in the absence of the author. Mr. Fleay's 
remarks in his just published book on Egyptian chronology, that 
all such records were manipulated by their authors so as to get 
Sothic periods from their epochs for first kings down to some 
important change in the condition of the country, or else to the 
monarch regnant when the scheme was made, might explain the 
discrepancy, but this, as well as the proofs on which Dr. Borchardt 
relies, will no doubt appear better when the paper is printed. 

Professor Schiaparelli (of Turin) gave an account of a great mass 
of papyri, unfortunately in a very fragmentary condition, which are 
in the Museum of which he is Director. These, which I afterwards 
saw at Turin, are all in Hieratic, and have already been reduced to 
order and mounted, although the cataloguing of them is by no 
means complete. They comprise, among other things, some war- 
songs in a language which is not Egyptian, but which Professor 
Schiaparelli thinks may be a Libyan dialect. There are also many 
religious texts and several historical fragments, including some 
with plans of the necropolis at Thebes. They are all of the time 
of the XlXth and XXth dynasties. 

Professor Schiaparelli also exhibited to the Egyptian section a 
piece of woven stuff made during the Coptic period, on which was 
displayed the full-face portrait of a man with fair hair and a peculiar 
type of features. This was recognised by both Prof. Schiaparelli 
and Prof. Revillout, the historian of the Blemmyes, as resembling the 
modern Ababdeh, the descendants of the Blemmyes, who so troubled 
Egypt during Byzantine times that one of them was actually pro- 
claimed Emperor. It follows from the apparent age of the portrait 
that it forms an authentic likeness of some Blemmye chief. 

Professor Schmidt (of Copenhagen) contributed two papers, one 
upon the cartonnage or papier inache envelopes in which certain 

* That is, fixed on astronomical data. The battle of the Ilalys, fixed by a 
solar eclipse at about 600 B.C., has hitherto held that position. 

264 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

mummies are laid. He thinks that the practice began with the 
XXIInd dynasty and came to an end with the XXVIth, although 
the practice of using papier machc masks continued well into Coptic 
times. The original idea seems to have been to prevent the mummy 
from being crushed by the fall of earth and the like upon it, the 
arched shape of the cartonnage being able to withstand a very 
considerable pressure. Prof. Schmidt's other paper was on the 
Petubast or Petibast of the demotic romance just published by 
Dr. Krall from a papyrus in the collection of Archduke Rainer. 
He thinks that this Petubast is neither the Pharaoh of the XXHnd 
dynasty, as Dr. Krale asserts, nor the Petibast spoken of in the 
Annals of Assurbanipal, as M. Maspero thinks, but a hitherto 
unknowii kinglet, of whom there is a bronze statuette in the 
Strogonoff collection and a mutilated stele in the Museum at 
Copenhagen. 

M. Guimet, head of the Paris Museum of the same name, gave 
an account of Egyptian objects lately found in different Isaic tombs 
in France. From this it appears that several objects known to the 
ancient Egyptian worship, such as the iishabti figures, were found in 
tombs at Nimes and elsewhere belonging to the worshippers of the 
Greek or Alexandrian Isis in such quantities as to leave no doubt 
that their deposition formed part of the regular funeral ceremony. 
This is a very singular fact, and seems to clear up a point which has 
often been disputed, viz., whether the Alexandrian religion, which 
most scholars are agreed was founded on Orphic or Eleusinian 
doctrine, really contained any traces of Egyptian admixture. 

Prof. Naville, a member of this Society, made a commu- 
nication to the section on certain bas-reliefs relating to Queen 
Hatasu, which had been photographed by M. Legrain at Karnak. 
The blocks on which they were had been built into a wall 
by direction of Ramses IH. The bas-reliefs depict scenes of 
adoration of Amen, the consecration of two obelisks, and a 
ceremony which M. Naville thinks is the apotheosis of the queen. 
He does not know any other example of this ceremony, and hopes 
that further excavations may enable him to complete a description 
of it. 

Prof. Haupt also contributed a paper to this section on the 
Mitannian wives of Amenhotep HI and Anienhotep IV. He 
assumes that Gilukhipa the sister of king Dusratta of Mitanni, 
was the wife of Amenhotep HI, and that Dusratta's daughter 

265 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 

Gilukhipa was the wife of Amenhotep IV and the niece of Gihikhipa. 
[See table in Petrie's Hist. </ E^^pt, Vol. II, p. 181.] He 
endeavoured to show from the cuneiform text that the e.xpression 
in the letter from king Dusratta of Mitanni to queen Tyi which 
Winckler [Tell-el-Amarna Letters, No. 22] translates "your con- 
cubme," really means " your daughter-in-law." The subject has been 
already touched upon seveval times in the Proceedings of the Society. 
The theory of Prof. Wiedemann that Tadukhipa was the daughter of 
queen Tyi {Proceedings, XVII, p. 157] is of course opposed to this. 

M. Philippe Virey gave a detailed reading of the stele of 
Minephthah, generally called " the Israel Stele." The part relating 
to the Israelites he translates " Le Hittite rend I'hommage ; les 
Kananeens sont captures, comme tous mauvais ; I'Ascalonite est 

transporte Israel est deracine ; il n'y en a plus de graine 

(en Egypte)." He therefore on the whole confirms M. Naville's 
translation (for which see Proceedings, XX, p. 54). And he places, 
like so many others, the Exodus at the beginning of the reign of 
Minephthah. 

Prof. Hommel (of Munich) also made a communication on the 
plumes represented on the head of the god Bes and the goddess 
Anuket. He showed that there are several Babylonian cylinders in 
existence (for which he referred to his Die sildarabische Altertiimer 
des Wiener HofniuseuniSy p. 32, sqq ) in which an Arab who fights a 
lion is represented Avith a crown of feathers on his head exactly 
similar to those worn by Bes and Anuket. He therefore considers 
them as an Arab head dress, and he deduces from this that the 
worship of both Bes and Anuket was imported into Egypt from 
Arabia. 

The other papers in the Egyptian section included further con- 
tributions of Prof. Piehl (of Upsala) to the Hieroglyphic Dictionary, 
communications from Prof. Revillout on points connected with 
Egyptian law, and from Prof. Botti, of Alexandria, as to excavations 
recently made in the neighbourhood of Alexandria and at Gizeh. 

(3) Assyriological. 

Prof. Haupt's communications under this head comprise one 
delivered to the whole Congress on the sanitary effect of the Mosaic 
ritual, which he held was derived not from Egypt but from Baby- 
lonia. Thus the book of Leviticus, which he supposes was written 
in Babylon about 500 h.c, contains many well-devised rules for 

266 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

avoiding the contagion of leprosy. This leprosy he concludes to be 
not true leprosy, or elephantiasis, but a great number of skin 
diseases, some of which are not particularly dangerous, but for 
which the treatment prescribed is a fairly safe cure. He declared 
that the priests were the health officers of the community, and 
as such had to see that their flocks were provided with pure 
food, pure water, and pure air ; that the linen prescribed for their 
dress has been shown to be the clothing material least likely 
to carry infection ; that the pilgrimages and visits to holy places 
were the means of providing the Israelites with that change of air 
and scene which modern science has shown to be necessary for 
health, and that all their sanitary regulations had a similar origin. 
He also thought that these observances were put under a religious 
sanction because that was the only one that the people were likely 
to heed. 

He also read a paper before the Semitic section on the name of 
Xisuthros, the Babylonian Noah, which he would read Per-napistim. 
The older readings of Nuh-napistini, or Sit-napistiin he declared to 
be untenable. The other name of Per-napistim, i.e., Atra-khasis or 
Watra-khasis, he translates "very wise," comparing the first syllable 
with the Aramaean yattir [*^r\Tl?], and thinks that the adverb is 

transposed in later tradition, as in the Aramaean yatiir-hakkii)i or 
hakkim-yattir. The khasis with the a syncopated would be naturally 
represented in Greek by Xis, as in Khshayartha^Se'/jf/ys, Artakh- 
shatra='A/jTa^e/j|';/?, and the like. The u in Xisuthros he gets from 
the first stem-consonant in watra, while the 6 is the proper trans- 
literation of the /. And he thinks, with Jastrow, that the " Noah 
walked with God " [Elohim] of Genesis vi, 9 may be an echo 
of the Babylonian tradition of Per-napistim's apotheosis. 

He also made some remarks upon the importance of the Baby- 
lonian ritual tables for the understanding of the Israelite ritual, and 
stated his belief that the words Torah [pT'^'iri?], Urim [Dil^t^l 
Berith [ri*'^^.]* ''^"d Pesah [npS] had a Babylonian origin. 

The Hon. Emmeline Plunket, a member of this Society, read a 
paper on Vedic Astronomy to the Indian section. It was to have 
been reproduced with limelight illustrations before the whole Con- 
gress, but at the last moment it was discovered, to the disappoint- 
ment of all present, that the slides did not fit the lantern provided. 
Miss Plunket opposed the theory, started, I think, by Letronne, 

267 



Nov. 7] SOCIETV OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

and until now pretty generally accepted, that the astronomy of the 
Hindus, and particularly their Zodiac, was necessarily derived 
from that of the Greeks, from whom the Hindus are said to 
have received it after Alexander's conquest. Her contention 
is that the Accadian calendar, which depends on the Zodiacal 
constellations, was constructed not less that six thousand years 
before Christ — a view which was first put forward by her in 
the Proceedings of the Society — and that the knowledge of it had 
very early penetrated to India, where it inspired the imagery of some 
of the Vedic myths. The proofs offered for this are very difficult to 
summarize without the diagrams, but it may be pointed out that it 
would be necessary for the author's purpose to prove the Babylonian 
origin of the Hindu Zodiacal system as it existed in pre-Alexandrine 
times only, and not, as some of the speakers at the Congress seem to 
have assumed, of that which the Hindus adopted from the Greeks 
afterwards. Dr. Burgess, who spoke on this paper, admitted that the 
nak shatras or lunar stations which are mentioned in the Rig Veda 
were derived by the Hindus from Arabia, and ultimately from Baby- 
lonia, while Dr. P'ormichi gave some proofs that Hindu astronomy 
in the 6-5 centuries B.C. had reached a high degree of development. 

Prof. Johansson (of Lund) read a paper to the Semitic section 
on the Khabiri in the Tel-el-Amarna Letters. He thinks that the 
word means "confederates," and has the same root as the Hebrew 
habur [''IH^?]. Also, that they could not have been a scattered 
folk like the Israelites, but must have been a settled people of 
nearly equal strength to the Hittites. 

Prof. IMontet read a paper to the same section on the origin of 
the Israelites, in which he negatived the idea that their first home 
was " Ur of the Chaldees." He sought to show that the Arabic 
traditions are unanimous in attributing the common birth-place of 
all Semitic peoples to Arabia, and he gave instances from Arabian 
inscriptions to show that the ancient Aramaean and Arabic languages 
must at one time have been the same. He therefore claimed that 
Arabia must have been at some date before 2000 b.c. the point 
whence the Israelites emigrated. 

The other papers in this group included one by Dr. Gaster of 
this Society upon Magic Alphabets, of which he gave several 
examples from Hebrew MSS. of Xlllth to XVth centuries, and a 
curious study by Dr. Senes on the Assyrian Sphinx, which he 
claimed as, amongst other things, an emblem of the Trinity. 

268 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



NOTES ON HIEROGLYPHS. 

THE HEAD. THE PAPYRUS ROLL. THE SOLDIER. 

By F. Ll. Griffith. 

The value of demotic study in connexion with hieroglyphic re- 
search, will be apparent from many of the following notes : — 

1. The Head. — Professor Erman (^Papyrus Westcar, Text,'^. 21, 

has noted an apparent variation of ^ with i ^^ ft ^^ @ > t)ut 
it will be admitted that the example affords no absolute proof 
that ^ is ever to be read z'z'. The value tp for the head in the group 

^Wtpi, is not questioned, and demotic spelling clearly shows that 
D 

*'head" ^ is also to be read tp. (If this be so, then ^ stands to ;^ D 
I I 

in orthography, much as 'o' to I [q] ^^, , MU to U<T ^^v , i 

to ^ 1^ ; ^ being used in the original picture-value and its homo- 

nyms, but ® D in derivatives, in which marked differences of 
pronunciation occurred from the picture value.) Now '^ ^ " prince," 
is written out D-^T l^^P in demotic, Br. Thes., 1024, Krall, HisL 
Rom., Gloss., No. 209. In demotic the common word for "head" 
is zz, ZCJO-, but in archaistic texts (never in the stories) there is 
along with it another word ^^ ip, masculine gender, e.g., p'e-k fpe, 
"thy head," Rh. BiL, XI, 11, Apparently ^ ^^^^ is an old word 

gradually displaced by sV. The latter seems not to occur before 
the Middle Kingdom, but then rapidly got the upper hand. It is 

possible that tp represents an early |) n zp, as no early variants 

exist ; but certainly '^ was never z'z\ 

2. The Papyrus-roll. — In '■'■Hieroglyphs'''' (p. 55) I have given 
the masc. value of ■ "^ < as a, and the fem. (doubtfully) as 

269 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCII.iiOLOOV. [1899. 



' ''^_ ^ 3 . The value of the former is indisputable, but demotic 
proves a different reading, mz' . /, for the latter. There was no proof, 
but onl\' a moderate probability, that '^^"^ S and ' ^ { "^^ were 
identical. 

From the Rosetta inscri^jtion and elsewhere (Br. Wtb. 732 cf. 

Thes. 930, 936) an equation is well known ap] | j^I ^ ss .7v (ses/i . n) 
. . . . t ntr = either -Tcpo^popot or else ic/io'/fimiuaTeiv (the latter being 
being indicated by one of the copies of Canopus) = ^2 iti J— 2^ 11 1<& 3 

n' SS.7CI mzy ntr. The fem. word inzy.t occurs in //. 6"., for 
"roll" or "book." The meaning of the demotic title is there- 
fore precisely that of the hieroglyphic, viz., " scribes of the divine 

book " or " roll." The natural equivalen of mzy . /, viz., ^|\ A 
occurs in the plural in Pyr. of Unas^ 1. 601 (no parallel text). Thus 
the rather common group ' ^ ' 1 ' ^^ is to be read mz\ t {meza . i). 
For the meaning it may be noted that in Pap. Ebers. xxx, 7, there is 
a reference to a " inz'. t without writing." 

This original word-sign value of ' ^ ' 1 ' is transferred to the spelling 
°^ |\ J ^ 8 Leyden,\\\, PI. XXIV, Tomb, de Sety I, part 3, PI. XIII). 

It is here the name of the chisel used in " opening the mouth " of the 
deceased, not unlike the menkh-z\\\'iit\ in form {Hieroglyphs, p. 49). 



In the papyri its name is written £J, " Nav. Todfb., ch. 

xxiii, etc. It is found in demotic (Hess. Seine, p. 26) in a papyrus 
at Vienna, and is the origin of the Coptic, B. AX^XI, in Septuagint 
Xti^aurijptou (Tattam), "a mason's or wood-cutter's tool" (not quite 
seair/s, bipeniiis, as Peyron renders the Coptic word).* 

3. The Soldier. — In continuation of my note, P.S.B.A., 189S, 
p. 299, I now have other evidence to bring forward which seems to 

upset the proposed value ss for the early period entirely. M- ^ 

means " superintendent of an expedition," " captain of a host," 
generally military or naval, but sometimes civil, e.g , of quarrymen 

* I have since observed that Brugscii, Wth. siippL, pp. 860-863, f.t'. A//, 
had already assigned the true value, niz\t to ' \ \ The value, however, seems 
now quite neglected by Egyptologists. The present proof, I believe, leaves no 
doubt of its correctness. 

270 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

to cut stone {Cat. Ab., 914). The reading of this title, which I and 
others have tried to read mr ss {Hieroglyphs, p. 14, F.S.B.A., 1898^ 
p. 299), in opposition to the usual reading mr ms\ is finally settled 
as mr ms by the equivalence of S. XHAJLKHcye, XeJUt-HHOje, 

XejULecye (Tattam, Did., i8i). in Job, XV, 24, we have noe rt 
OTXHJULHHoje (rTTp«T7/709) e^.q^e ^A-Oh rtoTJULX^.^^, 

CiASCA, Fragm., Copt. Sah., II, 27, and i Sam. xvii, 51 {il>. I, 175), 

nxepoTtt^.v ze ^, neTXeJULHHcye (o ci/faTo? avTa-i/, " their 

champion ") JULOT . The change from mr to Xe is perhaps shown 
also in hieroglyphic writing by the occasional variant of <z:> for 

the !^ in late texts (Piehl, A.Z., 1883, 128, etc.). In Coptic the 

title preserves the military sense as "leader of the troops.'' The 
demotic instances likewise seem free of the non-military side of the 
title ff-/jfl'T//7ov of Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt {cf. Br., Thes. 1017,^ 
inscr. of Terermen at Philae, temp. Trebonianus Gallus), /' 7nr mf 
n /' mw, "the commander of the fleet," and Krall, Hist. Rom., 
Glossary, No. 364. 

l-i:—)).^ (so in /. S. = \M + ' + ^ + determinatives) reads' 
mse, not ss or gl. For variant forms, etc., see Hess, Seine, p. 187. 
The Coptic JULHOJ : JULHHClje preserves the old Eg. military 
sense of |^ 1 only in the above title XeJULHHCtje, nor is that 

meaning usual in demotic {Ros. 1. 12). The common sense in 
demotic is \«o9 "people," especially the profane as distinguished 
from the priests (perhaps not unconnected with the two leading 
classes of /e/>G<9 and ^irtX7<o< in Herodotus). This sense is prominent 

in late hierosrlyphic inscriptions i^ , ^ M*^ {Ccrn. 1. 37). In 
" V^A II I I I I ^ 



R/i. ML xxiv, 5, V^!— ,j = ^ m W "people," and in 

Ros. 1. 7, \<^—i xi = 6 \(to^, i.e. (ace. to Mahaffx) the native 

population of Egypt. This meaning is very rare in Coptic, but in 
Ex. viii, I, TIIJULHCLj = h \ao^. Acts xii, 22, JLJlKHCLje = h]^io'^ 
(Tattam). The common Coptic meaning of a " multitude," 
"abundance" of persons or things is not easy to find in demotic. 

How it is that in late times 1^ = i'i- and = ms, I do not yet 
understand, but the origins of basse-epoque values must be left for 
others better acquainted with them to discuss. 

271 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY 0¥ BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

The identification of the origin of AeAXHHCye raises the 
question whether the Sahidic magistrate's title A<Lcy^rte, dis- 
covered by Goodwin in the Jeme papyri, A.Z. 1869, 144 is not derived 

from the demotic w^- s// = o/j^'c/'cik' z= ^ K [t-d in H'os., 1. 4 and 

Can., and this again from the J^ *='u ;;/r s//f of the Middle 

Kingdom, who, however, was not in the hierarchy. The reading 
of the demotic word was first recognised by Brugsch, a/>i/d Spiegel 
BERG, J?ec. de Trav., xvi, 25, the ligature A being the same as for 
sn cyirtl, "enquire." The Middle Kingdom title is discussed by 
Spiegelberg, A.Z., 1898, 138. For the rare Coptic word, Mr. 
Crum informs me that, though in all the papyri he finds no exact 
equation between AA-Clj^rte and cioiKijTi/i, he is fairly certain that 
they are identical, and that they are entirely civil, not ecclesiastical. 
In one case the magistrate is called " fioikijTiff of the monastery and 
of the whole castrum," but elsewhere they are always " cioik. of 
Castrum Jeme." 

There is evidently no close correspondence in meaning between 

the hieroglyphic j^ ^, the demotic mr sn, and the Coptic 

A^cy^ne, yet the variation in the meaning of titles is so great 
at different periods, especially with Ptolemaic, Roman, and Christian 
reconstructions, that the etymological equation of the three seems 
quite possible. A^ has the form of a " verbal adjective " (Steind., 
A'. Gram., p. 322), from Xo, but this may be due to false analogy. 




272 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



TRANSLITERATION OF DEMOTIC. 
By F. Ll. Griffith. 

In the Proceedings for 1896, pp. 102-4, I S^ve a few gleanings 
from the first story of Setne (here quoted as / S.). Lately I have 
again been occupied with demotic, and am preparing a newly- 
discovered story (// S.) for publication by the Clarendon Press. 
It is difficult to fix the age of literary documents, but perhaps / S. 
may be assigned to the first century B.C., and II S. to the second 
century a.d. The former is a very fine example of writing of what is, 
perhaps, the best period ; the latter is carelessly written, and belongs 
chronologically to the group represented by the story of the "cat 
and monkey " at Leyden {Leyden I, 384), little if at all earlier than 
the Gnostic papyri with Greek transcriptions. 

The present note is intended to briefly explain and justify the 
system of transliteration that I am using ; it will be followed by 
attempts to fix the value of some common groups in demotic which 
are wrongly or inaccurately read in the most recent publications, 
and to set down definitely some leading grammatical forms and 
rules, drawing attention at the same time to the interest and value 
of demotic study in connexion with Coptic and Egyptian. 

l.—Syste>}i of Transliteration. 

Demotic writing is so complicated that transliteration of some 
kind is an absolute necessity, whether to aid the new student to 
master the reading of a text, or to show an editor's interpretation 
of the script in particular passages where there is special difficulty 
or ambiguity, or to enable a printer to render a quotation in simple 
types. And one of the most necessary conditions of a practical 
system seems to be that, when the transliteration is made, it should 
be easy to refer from it to a vocabulary alphabetically arranged, 
/.(?., that the words as transliterated should be easy to arrange in a 
natural alphabetic order. But where the spelling of different scribes 

273 X 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

and different periods is so variable and vague as it is in demotic, 
this condition is one that can only be approximately satisfied if 
etymology is to be in the least respected. While the language of 
the texts was essentially Coptic — far more so than in the period 
of late Egyptian — the spelling was necessarily founded on that of 
old Egyptian ; the writing is full of examples of false analogy, and 
most remarkable combinations were sometimes resorted to for 
rendering simple vocables. 

Demotic, like hieroglyphic writing, as a rule represents only 
consonants, leaving the vocalisation to be supplied from the context. 
The system of transliteration here adopted is the outcome of several 
attempts. It is only by extensive use that it can be ascertained to 
be such as will answer the purposes for which it was designed : after 
transliterating several long texts of the later periods, I find it suffici- 
ently satisfactory. To attain any ideal seems impossible. The 
transliteration cannot be made to represent fully the values of the 
hieroglyphics from which the demotic groups have sprung ; ancient 
and modern elements are much too intricately combined in the 
writing to admit of this Nor, on the other hand, can it be worked out 
entirely from the Coptic side. Neither is it worth while as yet to 
aim at representing the pronunciation of the scribes who read and 
wrote the demotic. All that we can do in transliterating is to mark 
the most essential phonetic elements recorded by the script. Alpha- 
betic characters are easily dealt with, but for the numerous word- 
signs, biliterals, and various ligatures the task is difficult. Some- 
times it is convenient to keep close to the original hieroglyphic words 
or values, at others to the Coptic descendants ; and often neither 
the one nor the other enable us as yet to grasp the meaning of the 
strokes composing a demotic group of which signification, origin, and 
derivations may yet be well known. It is often impossible to decide 
whether some of the subsidiary signs in a word are, or are not, pho- 
netic. Is it best and most convenient to transcribe a_ i> X jm'e or 
mv = (It<L')f "see,") ^ii2_ nme or jnti, ("remain," JULOTH) ? To 
vocalise words seems inadvisable : not only would it greatly com- 
plicate the printing, but it would also be particularly unsatisfactory 
on account of the great variations in the different dialects. 

The " alphabetic " elements that need be distinguished do not 
number more than twenty-two (and some even of these perhaps might 
be thrown together with advantage) ; but to help the reading those 
letters which are entirely superfluous, or are lost or much modified in 

274 



» 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Coptic, may be italicised : thus hr-y-r-{ = ^^poq " with him/' 
e-yr-hr-i = (rt)^.^pe "before thee (fem.),"/?- = HI "house," pr = 
ni-, n-. In the case of word-signs and biliterals which anciently 
had an alif _^ in the second or third place, the latter is generally 
quite lost, or else it appears in a modified form as »> y, following 
the character. The ancient b' must therefore be transcribed as 
b, w' as w, etc. I have perhaps made no absolute rule for this in 
transliterating, but have done what seems most convenient. 



T/ie Alphabet. 

= a:? (^, alif). Ancient alif'x's, generally lost or changed 
to y, except at the beginning of words. In late texts (e.g.^ II. S.), 
non-initial oo and 3 often represent a vowel. 

e = 1) (H _p) e, A.. It saves much trouble not to transliterate 
this yw. In I S. it stands often for final € (B. \). w may represent 
(^ following final /vwyw, but I have always transcribed it ۥ 

y=i. )orJ^(l])at the beginning of words only. This 
is either (a) y, Coptic GI, I, or (b) y, Coptic lost, frequently repre- 
sented by e, ^. 

2. »»» ((]f]\\-), rare at the beginning of words, generally 
consonantal; but it may be used for vocalic I where needed 
to distinguish one word from another allied word without i, e.g., 
syh = B. cyiojl, but sh = B. Clj^.cy : also, especially in late texts 
for final I (S. e). 

' = <, , ^ ( fl 'aiyin). The ancient value being lost, this 

often in II S. only marks an CO or other vowel. 

w = T (<2), J6 {£{)■, the former used in the body, the latter 
at the beginning of words. OT, very rarely vocalic, 

b= .^ (J(2))L(J(^),^ (J^\). ^. 

p = a_ (n) n. 

f = ^ (^^) q. 

m = o (^), :b (^) AX. 

~^'^^j, O VO (3J It. 

275 X 2 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHy^iOLOGY. [1899. 

1 = y {-^^) ^• 

h = / (ra) &• 

h = ;(!), f (for 10 2,. 

h = -r, (*>— ) ^, ^ (I S. = ^, "^ in II. S. some- 
times cy), J^ (^) ^ (in II S. sometimes oj). <s. (®) cy. 
Achmimic o^ covers the whole series. ItaHcised h generally 
means oJ. 

s = 1 (P), ^ and ^ (— ) C. 

§ = A (c=3a), 3, CM) a- 

k = <^ i'^^^) J^. <^(<^is marked k). 

q = t- (^) K, in II S. also P (U •)• 

g = >u_ (S) S. O = B. X. (In some late texts a— is generally- 
used for this.) 

t = ^, ^ (o, cz^), i> (r;) X. 

= -^ (^^O S. X = B. 6^(rare). 

z =,^(i\)x. 




276 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



NOTES ON MYTHOLOGY. 

ElLEITHYIA IN EgYPT. ThE GoD OF BUSIRIS. HeRMES 

Trismegistus. 

By F. Ll. Griffith. 

Eileithyia in Egypt. — I wish to draw attention in the following 
notes to some curious coincidences, on the chance that other 
students may be led to investigate the subject and bring it into a 

clearer light. In Hieroglyphs, p. 60, 1 have referred to I the bicor- 

nate uterus of animals — the badge of Meskhent, the goddess of birth, 
and hieroglyph for " cow " and for " womb " — and especially to its use 

instead of the two feathers 7 K on the head of Anzti. These two 
feathers seemed to be a substitute for I and I proposed {I.e.) to see 
a connection with it in yi y , the badge of the nome of "EiXeidvia in 

late texts, as also in the -^(?/^^i' or /^i-,^^ amulet. The Meskhent- 
badge seems almost certainly on the head of Anzti in the tomb of 
Ptahhetep, confirming the instance quoted from Mar., Ab., I, p. 78. 
A facsimile of the injured sign will be published in the forthcoming 
Ptahhetep I. It is also very curious that the only estate name of 

® 
Ptahhetep in the nome of Anzet (Busiris) bears the name Nekhen, 

which seems intentionally adopted to correspond to Nekhen (Hiera- 

conpolis) in the nome of /K (Eileithyia). On a late coffin, 

Hawara, PI. II, Nekhebt, like Eileithyia, is said to guard the babe 
in the mother's womb. The vulture, emblem of Nekhebt, is the 

sign for " mother " in hieroglyphs, and | a debased form of the 

Meskhent-symbol, in Ptolemaic writing ;;/, probably obtains its 
value as representing m . t "mother," the "matrix," being called in 

the Ebers Papyrus " mother of mankind," m . t-rmt 'V\ Jj "^^ ^^ <?, 

even in the case of animals, e.g., Eb. Ixv, 11. 

277 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

The god of Busiris. — Anzti means the god of the nome Anzet 
Yk m il' , just as Zehuti (Thoth) means the god of the nome Zehut 

^^ M ill . As Thoth of the nome-capital Z. ~ , Hermopohs 

""^ © 

Magna, is referred to in the one case, so Osiris of the nome-capital 



Busiris, is referred to in the other, and 1% (for the forms of 
which see Ptahhetep I.) is therefore the figure of the anthropo- 
morphic Osiris (Anzti) of Dedu, just as ^^ is the figure of the ibis- 
god Thoth. Osiris of Dedu seems from his head-dress to be a god 
of birth, or of renewed birth, while Osiris of Abydos (who always 
follows him in the funerary formulae) is of death. Such connexion 
between birth and death is usual in nature deities, whether solar or 
of vegetation. In somewhat later times the figure of this Osiris is 

the regular determinative of [|ci(l "ruling prince," a term applied 

only to the living being. This word (I ll (JO ra is also spelt J^ , 

which may indicate that the god was sometimes in crocodile form, 
or at least connected with crocodiles, and for this the sign of water 
V!&)$!k or T=r ., with which the name of his district Anzet is usually 
determined, is very significant {cf. also Osiris Aty in late times in the 

Faiyum j (] 1 (j(] t ^ C^^^£] , Haivara, PI. II, Kahun, PI. XXV, 



often written with lA^ Hawara, PI. IV, sometimes with 11 for ll, 

Hawara, PI. V, Mon. JDiv., PI. 39). " He who is in Anzet" in the 
Pyramid texts is entitled " chief of his nomes," Fyr. W., 256 = N. 
717, and more definitely " Anzeti, head of the Eastern nomes," 

° '^ fflK □ -k ^ , TV. 299 = T. 146 = Af. 199 = TV. 543. 

In this passage he is associated with " Anubis, head of the Wester- 
ners" .^::a [|][^#.^^, who has the very same title that Osiris of 

Abydos holds. Thus we come to the conclusion that Osiris of Dedu 
is the living King and a god of birth or generation, presiding over 
the nomes of the east or sunrise, while Osiris of Abydos is the dead 
King and King of the Dead, chief of the Westerners in the region 
of the sunset. 

Hermes Trismegistits. — The ancient name of Herrnopolis in 

278 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

Upper Egypt was Z Z Khemen-nu, which is to all appearance to 
® 

be read as the numeral eight with the ordinal ending or suffix, 
" the Eighth." When therefore it is observed that it is the capital of 
the XVth out of XXII nomes in Upper Egypt, it is clear that it was 
counted as the eighth great city or sacred centre reached in Upper 
Egypt going up the river from Lower Egypt, or perhaps starting 
from Memphis. The name is of considerable antiquity, occurring 
on the monuments of the Middle Kingdom, and may be much older 
than that of Memphis, which originated only in the Vlth dynasty. 
The development of eight elemental gods in connexion with Thoth 
(Masp., Origines, pp. 147 ei seqq.) seems later, and is not the end of 
the story, " Hermes Trismegistus " was the ultimate outcome of 
the name " the Eighth " as I hope to show in the forthcoming 
" Demotic Stories of the High Priests of Memphis " (Clarendon 
Press), in a note on // S.,y, 7. 




279 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1S99. 



THE XXIInd EGYPTIAN DYNASTY. 

31^/ October, 1899. 

Dear Mr. Rylands, 

In Dr. Birch's Egypt f 7-0 m the Earliest Times, on page 157, 
is to be found the following statement : " Uasarkan or Osorchon II 
was equally undistinguished during his long reign. The mention of 
an eclipse of the moon, which was expected or happened, occurs in 
an inscription of his successor. This took place on the twenty, 
fourth of the month Choiak of his fifteenth year." Further, we are 
informed the inscription is somewhat mutilated, an imperfection 
which presumably applies rather to the period of the XXIInd 
dynasty in which the eclipse is stated to have occurred, than to the 
actural date on which it took place. 

The month Choiak having been the fourth month of the Egyptian 
year, its twenty-fourth day would be the 1 14th from the commence- 
ment. In the year 747 B.C., with which Ptolemy opens his Canon, 
the Egyptian year began with the 26th February ; and in consequence 
of the Egyptian year invariably containing 365 days only, it would 
commence a day later in the year 749 B.C., which was bissextile 
agreeably to the Julian reckoning. Similarly, eight years earlier, or in 
757 B.C., the Egyptian year began on the 29th February, and again 
in the year 829 B.C., or 72 years earlier, on the i8th March. The 
1 8th March being the ist Thoth, 113 days more brings us to the 9th 
July, on which day there was an eclipse of the moon in the early 
morning; the centre of the eclipse having been at about 3 a.m. in 
the longitude of Cairo, agreeably to our method of computing time. 

The XXIInd dynasty has always presented many difficulties in 
its chronological aspect, and at first sight the identification of this 
eclipse, if we take it as having occurred in the reign of Shashank II, 
the successor of Osorkon II, does not assist in the removal of these 
difficulties. 

280 



Nov. 7] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



The following table gives the kings of the XXI Ind dynasty, with 
the length of their reigns, so far as I have been able to ascertain 
them : — 



Shashank I, 






21 years. 


Birch and Mariett 


Osorkon I, 










Takeleth I, 










Osorkon II, 






23 » 


Mariette. 


Shashank II, 


not 


less than 


15 years. 


Birch, p. 157. 


Takeleth II, 


not less than 


15 years. 


Birch, p. 158. 


Shashank III, 






14 „ 


Mariette. Birch 
51, P- 158. 


Paniai, 






2 „ 


Mariette. 


Shashank IV, 






36 „ 


Birch, p. 159. 



says 



According to Scriptural chronology, the commencement of the 
reign of Shashank is placed not earlier than b.c. 982, or later than 
B.C. 972, with which dates Mariette's estimate of B.C. 980 is quite 
consistent, but it appears evident from the above table that the reign 
of Shashank II was all to soon to be accepted as having commenced 
in the year b.c. 843. It would seem not impossible that Shashank 
III was the monarch in whose reign the eclipse occurred, the 
mutilation of the inscription having left it doubtful which of the two 
was intended. In this case the XXIInd dynasty would close after 
the commencement of the eighth century b.c., a result which is in 
harmony with the estimate that places the epoch of the XXIIIrd 
dynasty in 766. b.c. This is a matter, however, which J am content 
to leave for experts to consider. 

Yours very truly, 

F. E. HASTINGS. 




2«I 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 



NOTE ON A NEW EGYPTIAN KING OF THE XIII 

DYNASTY. 

By Percy E. Newberry. 

When in Upper Egypt last winter, I noticed in the shop of 
Mohammed Mohassib, the famous antiquity merchant of Luxor, 
a very remarkable blue-glaze cylinder, giving the protocol of an 
Egyptian king hitherto unknown, named Amenemhat-senb-ef. 
This interesting relic of antiquity I secured for Lord Amherst of 
Hackney, in whose Collection it is now preserved, and it is by his 
kind permission that I am able to publish an account of it here. 

From inquiries that I made concerning the cylinder, it seems 
certain that it was found at Mohalla, near Gebelen, in Upper 
Egypt, from which place several ancient monuments found their way 
into Luxor dealers' hands during the summer of 1898. 

The inscription cut upon the cylinder gives, with the exception 

of the '^ title, the entire protocol of the king : — 






" Horus, filling the heart of the two lands, Lord of the two diadems > 
seizing his sistrum, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt (Ra- 
seshes-ka) son of Ra, of his body (Amenemhat-senb-ef), giving 
Life eternally." 

As a private name, Amenemhat-senb-ef occurs occasionally on 
monuments of the Xllth and Xlllth dynasties, but it has not 
before been found in a cartouche, and no such king as Ra-seshes-ka 

282 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

is mentioned in any of tiie lists of kings or on any of the monuments 
hitherto discovered.* 

For the present it is impossible to fix precisely the place of this 
new king in Egyptian history, but three facts clearly show that he 
belonged to the group of rulers who reigned over the Lower Nile 
valley during the first half of the Xlllth dynasty. Firstly, the 
nomen is compounded with that of the Xllth dynasty monarchs, 
Amenemhat-senb-ef, '■^ A/nenemhat is his health;" this proves that 
our new king must date from a period subsequent to, but probably 
not far from, Amenemhat IV. Secondly, the prenomen is curious, 
and may be compared with that of Ra-kha-seshes Neferhetep of 
the Xlllth dynasty. Thirdly, the colour and quality of the 
glaze on the cylinder is very similar to that of a broken seal of 
Sebekhetep I, which I was told was found at Mohalla, together with 
the Amenemhat-senb-ef cylinder. I may also add that the cutting 
of the hieroglyphs and their general form remind me of a seal of 
Ameny-Antef-Amenemhat which I once saw in the shop of the 
German Consul at Luxor. 



* It is possible that any one of the broken cartouches of the Turin list of 
Xlllth dynasty kings ending in \J (vide Brugsch and Bouriant, Le Livre des A'o/s, 

Nos. 168, 177, 217) may be restored ( O 1 ^ hj | , but the query is, which 
one? 




283 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL AKCIItEOLOGY. [1899. 



NOTES ON ASSYRIOLOGY. 

Queens' College, Cambridge, 

October 28, 1899. 

Some compounds of Gir deserve attention. My list of names, 
very incomplete of course, contains »"yy-^ ^^TT Tt t?' T S^^ ""Hf" 

n J^I ^, :;^T -Hf- ^"^ -^T n \V r:;^! --T <Igf ^m !-, 

:;^T -iL -^11 -^y y?, -ry^ iin ^y, -yy^ -yyi ebtt <yj3f::. 
-yy^ iin -^ a^. -nyy ?;f ^- -t^, -^yyy ?;[< y?' -yy^ 
-yyi --y a-a- ^v^. -yy^ -yyi w ^^ ^, -yy^ -yyi «, 
-yy^ -yy;4' -yy^ -jn ^y- -yy^ -jn 4, t^] ->f inii. 
-Hyy >^ ^->f' ri^y ->f ^^ :;^ ->f ^ -yyi ^^tt, 

^i-^^ ^, ^i-yyy >r<J|, >:^ ^>f ^^; which I render pro- 
visionally, Girai, Gir-aduhi, Gir-allai, Gir-Baki-umme, Gir-bel-irtua, 
Girusii, Giri-Dadi, Giru-Dadi, Gir-Zapunu, Girhai, Giri-Ba'al, Giri- 
Zakanni, Giri-sarri or Giri-Man, Giritu, Giritte, Girittu, Gir-Nergal, 
Gir-Sa', Gir-Sib, Gir-Parisi, Girtu, Girtum, Gir-Seru. The sign 
^^y may be r^d Rim in every case, but it is rarely distinguishable 
from Ji^^y which has the value GIRL It is very noticeable that 
usually the second element is either expressly given as a god or is 
recognisable as such from other sources. We have thus a list of 
gods, Aduhu, AUai, Bakiumme, Dadi, Zapunu, Ba'al, Zakanni, 
Man (?), Nergal, Sa', Sib, Parisi, and Seru. The other names can 
hardly be of the same formation. Analogy, however, leads one to 
suppose that there were divinities worshipped under the names 
Bakiumme, Man (rf. Mani), Sa', and Sib. The other new gods 
Aduhi, and Parisi arc certain. Zakanni may be a misreading or 
error for Zapuni. Of these conjectural divinities, Baki-ummc might 
lead to a Semitic etymology, ' Mother ol ^Veeping ' ; has the name 
any connection with the story of Niobe ? These compounds of Gir 
are probably Phoenician, North Syrian, or Cilician. The Glossary 

284 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. . [1899. 

of Aramaic Inscriptions, by Rev. S. A. Cook, contains many such 
compounds, some of which may be identical with some of the 
above. 

The god, or goddess, Sib or Zib, named above and written 
»->f- ^, also occurs in the names »-Jf- ^ -^*^, »->f- 4^ *-*{- fy f]^, 
»->f- .^ ^ >->^ J^ ; which I read, Sib-eres, Sib-ilai, and Sib- 
ibni-anni. 

The god Nashu, »^\ ^ >-W, or Nasuh *^\ "^V^fj appears 
in quite a number of names, nearly all of which come from the 
neighbourhood of Harran. The second elements of these com- 
pounds are also worthy of note. We have Nashu-a-a-li, Nashu-gab- 
ri, Nashu-nadin-apal, Nashu-id-ri, Nashu-sama-'-a-ni, Nashu-sa-kap, 
Nashu-katar (ri), Nasuh-li', Nasuh-di-im-ri, Nasuh-di-li-ni, Nasuh- 
la-ii-a-ni, Nasuh-nasir. 

C. H. W. JOHNS. 




285 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 



NOTE ON AN EGYPTIAN BOLT. 

31, Lansdowne Road, 

Clapham Road, S.W., 

Jtdy ■^rd, 1899. 

Dear Mr. Rylands, 

You asked me some time ago for a drawing of the Egyptian 
bolt which I have, this I now enclose. The material is acacia 
wood, and apparently has never been painted ; the long and cross 
sections will explain the method by which it is fixed to the plate on 
which it slides ; the plate was fastened to the door by four pegs. 
This bolt probably belonged to a cupboard or cabinet, as it is not 
strong enough for house-work, its length is 8^ inches. I regret 
that I can give you no information concerning Egyptian locks or 
bolts, but I think little or nothing is known about them ; there is a 
bolt on a small door in the Gizeh Museum. I beheve they are not 
at all common ; the only thing I may point out is, that from the bolt 
was derived the hieroglyphic sign — h— , and that in the earlier well 
drawn examples it is shown thus , not as a papyrus ; and Prof. 

Petrie's theory is that the nick in the middle was for sealing the 
bolt with a piece of string passed over it to a seal above and below. 

Believe me, 

Yours very truly, 

E. TOWRY WHYTE. 



The next Meeting of the Society will be held at 37, Great 
Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C., on Tuesday, 5th December, 
1899, at 4.30 p.m., when the following Paper will be read : — 

General Hastings : — Biblical Chronology. The Historical 
Period. Kings : Judges. 

286 




-^^«ne 




u 
o 



Nov. 7] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Members having duplicate copies, will confer a favour by presenting them to the 

Society. 

Alker, E., Die Chronologie der Bucher der Konige und Paralipomenon im 
Einklang mit der Chronologie der Aegypter, Assyrer, Babylonier und Medei . 

Amelineau, Histoire du Patriarche Copte Isaac. 

Contes de I'Egypte Chretienne. 

La Morale Egyptienne quinze siecles avant notre ere. 

Amiaud, La Legende Syriaque de Saint Alexis, I'homme de Dieu. 

A., AND L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 

et Assyriernes. 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 2 parts. 



Baethgen, Beitrage zur Semitischen Religionsgeshichte. Der Gott Israels und 

die Gotter der Heiden. 
Blass, a. F., Eudoxi ars Astronomica qualis in Charta Aegyptiaca superest. 
BOTTA, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847-1850. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler. Vol. 
I— III (Brugsch). 

Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publics pas 

11. Brugsch et J. Dlimichen. (4 vols., and the text by Diimichen 
of vols. 3 and 4.) 
BUDINGER, M., De Colonarium quarundam Phoeniciarum primordiis cum 

Hebraeorum exodo conjunctis. 
BuRCKHARDT, Eastern Travels. 

Cassel, Paulus, Zophnet Paneach Aegyptische Deutungen. 
Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1873. 
DiJMlCHEN, Historische Inschriften, &c., ist series, 1867. 

2nd series, 1869. 

Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1886. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1862. 2 vols., folio. 



Ebers, G., Papyrus Ebers. 

Erman, Papyrus Weslcar. 

fitudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 

Gayet, E., Steles de la XII dynastic au Musee du Louvre. 

Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele. Folio, 1877. 

Vingt-quatre Tablettes Cappadociennes de la Collection de. 

Grant-Bey, Dr., The Ancient Egyptian Religion and the Influence it exerted 

on the Religions that came in contact with it. 
Haupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze, 
HOMMEL, Dr., Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. 1892. 



Nov. 7] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1890. 

Jastrow, M., a Fragment of the Babylonian " Dibbarra " Epic. 

Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier. 

Jeremias, Tyrus bis zur Zeit Nubukadnezar's Geschichtliche Stcizze mit beson- 

derer Berucksichtigung der Keilschriftlichen Quellen. 
Joachim, H., Papyros Ebers, das Alteste Buch iiber Heilkunde. 
Johns Hopkins University. Contributions to Assyriology and Comparative 

Semitic Philology. 
Krebs, F., De Chnemothis nomarchi inscriptione Aegyptiaca commentatio. 
Lederer, Die Biblische Zeitrechnung vom Auszuge aus Aegypten bis zum 

Beginne der Babylonische Gefangenschaft mit Beriicksichtigung der Re- 

sultate der Assyriologie und der Aegyptologie. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments Eg}'ptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
LEFfeBURE, Le Mythe Osirien. 2'"^ partie. "Osiris." 

Legrain, G. , Le Livre des Transformations. Papyrus demotique du Louvre. 
Lehmann, Samassumukin Konig von Babylonien 668 v. Chr., p. xiv, 173; 

47 plates. 
Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, Sec, 1880. 
Maruchi, Monumenta Papyracea Aegyptia. 
Muller, D. H., Epigraphische Denkmaler aus Arabien. 
NooRDTZiG, Israel's verblijf in Egj-pte bezien int licht der Egyptische out- 

dekkingen. 
PoGNON, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa. 
Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 
ROBiou, Croyances de I'Egypte a I'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologie des Lagides. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

ScHAEFFER, Commentationes de papyro medicinali Lipsiensi. 

SCHOUW, Charta papyracea graece scripta Musei Borgiani Velitris. 

ScHROEDER, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Strauss and Torney, Der Altagyptische Gotterglaube. 

ViREY, P., Quelques Observations sur I'Episode d'Aristee, a propos d'un 

Monument Egyptien. 
VisSER, I., Hebreeuwsche Archaeclcgie. Utrecht, 1891. 
\Valther, J., Les Decouvertes de Ninive et de Babylone au point de vue 

biblique. Lausanne, 1890. 
\ViLCKEN, M., Actenstucke a^ der Konigl. Bank zu Theben. 
WiLTZKE, De Biblische Simson der Agyptische Horus-Ra. 
Winckler, Hugo, Der Thontafelfund von El Amarna. Vols. I and II. 

Textbuch-Keilinschriftliches zum Alten Testament. 

Weissleach, F. H., Die Achaemeniden Inschriften Zweiter Art. 

\Vesseley, C, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes von El Fajum. 

Zeitsch. der Deutscben Morgenl. Gesellsch., Vol. XX to Vol. XXXII, 1866 

to 1878. 
Zimmern, H., Die Assyriologie als Hiilfswissenschaft lUr das Studium des Altcn 

Testaments. 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



In 8 Parts. Price 53. each. The Fourth Part having been issued, the Price is 
now Raised to j£s for the 8 Parts. Parts cannot be sold separately. 

The Egyptian Book of the Dead. 

Complete Translation^ Commentary^ and Notes, 
By the late SIR P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Knt. {President); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

^ Scries of ^Slates of \\^t Figncttts of tj^e ftiffcrtnt OTtapKrs. 

The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 

To be completed in Five Parts. 

Parts 1, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
each part is now raised to ;j^i 10.$-.; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) £\ \s. 

Price 7s. 6d. Only a Limited Number of Copies have been Printed. 

THE PALESTINIAN SYRIAC VERSION OF THE HOLY 

SCRIPTDRES. 

Four Recently Discovered Portions (together with verses from the 
Psalms and the Gospel of St. Luke). Edited, in Photographic Facsimile, 
from a Unique MS. in the British Museum, with a Transcription, Transla- 
tion, Introduction, Vocabulary, and Notes, by 

REV. G. MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., 

Assistant in the Department of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. in the British 
Museum ; formerly Tynvhitt Hebrew Scholar. 



Subscribers' names to be Addressed to the Secretary. 



Society of Biblical Archaeology. 



COUNCIL, 1899. 



President. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, LL.D., &c., &c. 

Vice-Presidents, 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess ok Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon, Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halsbuky. 

Arthur Gates. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A,, &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. T. K. Cheyne, D.D. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S, 

Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A, 

Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albert Lovvy, LL.D., &c. 



Rev. James Marshall, M.A. 
Claude G. Montefiore. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
J. Pollard. 

Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F.R.S. 
&c. 



Honorary Treasurer — BERNARD T. BOSANQUET. 
Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 
Honorary Secretary for Foreign Correspondence — Rev. R. GwynnE, B.A. 
Ho7iorary Librarian — 

HAKKISON AND SONS, I'KINTERS IN OKUINARV TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN'S LANE. 



VOL. XXI. Part 8. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY 

OF 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



VOL. XXL TWENTY-NINTH SESSION. 

Seventh Meeting, December ^th, 1899. 

4^ 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Sir H. H. Howorth, K.C.S.I., M.P.— On the Earliest Inscrip- 
tions from Chaldea {plate) 289-302 

Percy E. Newberry. — Extracts from my Note Book : — 

1. The Story of Sanehat and the Inscription of Amenemheb : 

a Correction 303 

2. The Persea Tree in Ancient Egypt (;^/rt/f) 303 

3. A Stone Vase of Ptahmes, High Priest at Memphis under 

Amenhetep III (plate) 305 

4. A Statue of User,Vezir of Upper Egypt under Thothmes III 306 

Rev. C. H. W. Johns. — Babylonian Weights and Measures 308 

F. W. Read. — A Supposed Eclipse of the INIoon, under the 

XXtli Eg>'ptian Dynasty 309, 310 

F. Legge. — The Sign | (Nutir or Neter) 310,311 

Walter L. Nash. — Egyptian Models of Fish (^plates) 311, 312 

~^-^ 

PUBLISHED AT 

THE OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY, 

37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1899. 
No. CLXIV. 



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A few complete sets of the Transactions and Proceedings still remain for 
sale, which may be obtained on application to the Secretary, W. H. Ryland.s, 
F.S.A., 37, Great Kus.scll Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 



The Index to this Volume of PROCEEDINGS 
(Vol. XXI) will be issued in March next. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



TWENTY-NINTH SESSION, 1899. 



Sixth Meeting, 5 th December, 1 899. 
Joseph Pollard, Esq., Member of Council, 



IN THE CHAIR. 



■%'.^r- 



The Chairman referred to the loss the Society had 
recently suffered by the death of — 

Professor Ch. de Harlez, 

One of the Honorary Members, who had for many 
years taken great interest in its welfare. 



The following Presents were announced, and thanks 
ordered to be returned to the Donors : — 

From the Publisher : — Mr. David Nutt. Egyptian Chronology. 
An attempt to conciliate the ancient schemes, and to educe a 
rational system. By F. G. Fleay. 8vo. London. 1899. 

[No. CLXiv.] 287 Y 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

From F. Legge, Esq. : — Babylonian Expedition of the University 
of Pennsylvania. Series A. Cuneiform Texts. Edited by 
H. V. Hilprecht. Volume IX. Fol. Philadelphia. 1898. 

The Temple of Mut in Asher. By Margaret Benson 

and Janet Gourlay. 8vo. London. 1899. 

A History of Egypt (Vol. IV) under the Ptolemaic 



Dynasty. By J. P. Mahaffy. 8vo. London. 1899. 
A History of Egypt (Vol. V) under Roman Rule. By 



J. Grafton Milne, M.A. 
From the University of Upsala : — J. Johansson. Profeten Hosea, 

ofversattning och utlaggning. 8vo. Upsala. 1899. 
Sven Herner. Den Mosaiska Tiden. Undersokning 

hvad somar mosaiskt i dekalogerna och forbundsboken. Folio. 

Lund. 1899. 
The following has been purchased by the Council for the 
Library : — 

The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. By Sir 

J. Gardner Wilkinson, D.C.L., &c. New edition, revised and 

corrected by Samuel Birch, LL.D., D.C.L., &c. 3 vols. 8vo. 

London. 1878. 



The following Candidates were elected Members of the 
Society : — 

George Alexander Pirie, M.A., M.D., 43, Tay Street, Dundee. 
Fayette L. Thompson, Pastor of the First Methodist Episcopal 

Church, Jackson, Mich., U.S.A. 
Francis Davidson Outram (late Roy. Engineers), A.M.I.C.E., The 

Manor Lodge, Worcester Park, Surrey. 
J. H. Ernest While, The Elms, Mancy, Sutton Coldfield. 



A Paper by General Hastings was read, entitled, " Biblical 
Chronology, The Historical Period." Kings : Judges. 

Remarks were added by Sir H. H. Howorth, Dr. Caster, 
Rev. James Marshall, the Secretary, and Chairman. 

The thanks of the Meeting were voted for this com- 
munication. 

288 



Dec. 51 PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



ON THE EARLIEST INSCRIPTIONS FROM CHALDEA. 

Part I. 
By Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

The very early inscriptions from Chaldea written in ideographs 
have been much neglected by English writers. Mr. Houghton a 
good many years ago wrote a paper in our Transactions upon them, 
but this is now necessarily out of date. Since then Mr. Sayce and 
Mr. Ball have at different times made brilliant suggestions in regard 
to individual interpretations, but there has been no systematic essay 
on the subject. Yet the subject is not a very difficult one. It does 
not involve a profound knowledge of any language. For the 
peculiarity of ideographic writing is, that the characters representing 
ideas, and not primarily words or sounds, can be read off in any 
language equally well once we know what the ideas represented are. 
The only race which still uses an ideographic script is the Chinese, 
and it is often a puzzle to people to be told that a Japanese student 
can read a Chinese book quite easily without knowing the Chinese 
language at all. He, in fact, reads the characters off in his own 
speech by what has been termed the method of pasigraphy, and the 
puzzle has of course a simple explanation enough. A picture of a 
horse means a horse to everybody ; one person may call it eqtcus, 
another cheval, another /yc^r^, but the idea is the same to all. Hence 
the interpretation of ideographic writing is primarily not a linguistic 
exercise at all, but an exercise in learning the meaning of pictures, 
in learning what ideas are represented by certain ideographs, and it 
is primarily indifferent what sounds we attach to the characters, 
the really important matter being their mental meaning, the ideas 
they convey to the mind. 

This being so, the interpretation of the earliest inscriptions from 
Chaldea resolves itself not into an example of reading an unknown 
tongue, but of interpreting a certain number of pictures. 

This has been attempted in two ways : First, by guessing in an 
empirical way from the shapes of the characters at what their mean- 
ing really was; and, secondly, by a scientific analysis of them, 

289 Y 2 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899- 

such as that recently pubhshed by Dehtsch, and to which I will 
presently return. 

The former method has been a great deal too popular and too 
much practised, and has led to a great deal of fantastic writing. The 
fact is, that it is not possible to represent thought or language by 
pictorial representations alone. A vast mass of our thought and 
language are abstract, and we can make no mental pictures of them 
at all, and consequently if we are to record our thoughts graphically, 
the characters we use must in a great mass of cases be symbolical, 
or allusive or suggestive, and carry a vicarious and not a direct 
meaning. This is very obvious, and has been pressed home very 
much by Delitsch. 

No doubt a certain number of simple ideographs can be made 
to represent objects more or less directly, generally by a kind of 
shorthand, in which, to speak figuratively, a leaf represents a tree, 
or some marked feature of an object represents the whole, but this 
class of ideographs is a very limited one, and was so limited from 
the beginning. 

Not only so, but these very pictorial ideographs speedily had to ' 
do service in an indirect way, and to represent ideas suggested by the 
object originally represented, but in themselves separate and distinct 
ideas. Thus the same character, according to its context, assumes 
more than one meaning, and when read off was read off originally as 
we have to read it off now by a different word. Take for instance the 
character ^. This originally meant doubtless what it pictorially 
represents, namely a star (/;/;//), but the character also got the 
secondary meaning of sky (««), and it also represented the idea of 
God (ditigir), and became in fact the determinative of God. So again 
^ a suggestion of a primitive circle necessitated by the linear form of 
the writing, represented the sun, the day, and light. These charac- 
ters when read off were read therefore as entirely different words 
according to the particular meaning intended. Hence no doubt 
arose the embarrassing polyphony of the subsequent writing, when 
the characters had ceased to be ideographs, and represented sounds 
phonetically ; the same character having several sounds, being, that 
is to say, polyphonic. 

Simple concrete objects can be thus represented partially by 
directly imitative ideographs, and by allusive or suggestive ideographs. 
It is only, however, a very limited number of simple thoughts that 

290 



Dfx. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

can be expressed in this way : the greater part of our ideas and 
of language consists of ideas too shghtly concrete to be thus re- 
presented, and the consequence is, that in writing a language ideo- 
graphically a great number of the ideas have to be represented not 
by simple, but by compound characters, which have individually 
lost or ceased to have a directly pictorial character, and when com- 
bined are rather symbolical and typical in the original sense of that 
word. This class of compound characters forms in part a great 
proportion of the known ideographs. Take rain, for instance ; rain 
is represented by a compound character made up of two others, one 
of which represents water, and the other sky. Sky + water is not a 
bad allusive way of suggesting rain, but it will be seen that the 
character thus compounded is in no sense a picture of rain. Again, 
take the ideograph for tear : this is represented by the character 
for water added to that for eye. Thus rain = sky-water, tear = eye- 
water, etc., etc. ; and here I venture to enter a caveat against what 
seems to be an accepted conclusion with some. It has been assumed 
in some quarters that those who used them, had only these figurative 
expressions for tear and rain, and not actual names, and used only 
descriptive epithets and not names for the things in question. We 
must carefully discriminate therefore between the ideas as repre- 
sented in the ideograms when analysed, and the names by which the 
objects themselves were known. To this we shall have to revert 
presently. 

The thing I want to emphasize at present is, that while an 
analysis of the compound ideograms will give us a fair notion of 
their original meaning, it is no clue at all to the word or name by 
which that meaning was expressed : that clue we can only get from 
some list of names and words written phonetically; "The Grand 
Old Man " might very well be the analysis of a complicated ideogram, 
and would be perfectly intelligible to the reader, but it would not 
represent the sound or word by which the ideogram was read off by 
one of his disciples, that word would be Gladstone. Manifold errors 
have occurred from overlooking this fact, and mistaking descriptive 
phrases for names. 

It will be remembered again, that in the Chaldean, as in other 
systems of ideographic writing, it was early seen that it was con- 
venient to have a method of defining the generic or class meaning 
of a name, as well as its specific meaning. Thus certain characters, 
in addition to their initial meaning, became the generic marks by 

291 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1899. 

which a whole class was separated and marked off, and are known 
as determinatives. Here again there has been some misleading 
writing with many writers. It is customary to read off these deter- 
minatives as if they formed part of the compound names in which they 
occur, but it is very doubtful whether they were ever read at all. 
They formed no part of the names of the objects themselves : thus a 
district or a town was discriminated by the use of the particle ki, in 
such a case meaning 7irl)s in genere. Objects made of wood had the 
particle gish attached to them, meaning ligniun in genere^ but we 
do not say "wooden table," "wooden chair," when we speak of tables 
and chairs, we take the wooden for granted, and so I have little 
doubt did those who read off the early ideographs, and it is incon- 
sequent therefore to read Kish ki, or Girsti ki, or Gish ban ki. Again, 
an early and easy form of representing the plural was by dupli- 
cating the ideogram ; thus a mountain was represented by three 
triangles, and mountains in the plural by six. It has befen supposed 
that because kur was the name for a mountain in the primitive 
speech of Babylonia, that knr kur was its plural, but this is by no 
means certain ; it is, in fact, very improbable ; it seems to me that 
it is, in fact, mistaking the necessary ideographic for the actual 
spoken linguistic plural. 

In the allied languages of the Mongols and Turks the plural is 
marked by a regular affix and not by the clumsy process of dupli- 
cating the word, and I have no doubt it was the same with the 
primitive language of Chaldea. 

In addition to the plural, this ideographic writing had also an 
especial method of marking an intensive or superlative, such as the idea 
answering to great or many or extensive. What the Germans call a 
potenz, and which the old Assyrians described as gu-nu ; thus a giant 
or a great " swell," to use a boy's phrase, would be marked by some 
character, for man, intensified with what is called a giani sign. A 
concrete case will illustrate what I mean. One of the characters for 
"man" is a secondary meaning of a sign originally a i>hallus, and 
which remained virtually unaltered in Assyrian, It takes the form of 

, I , or ^ • In order to intensify this a very 

common gitnu sign is continually used, which consists in adding 
three or four parallel lines to the original ideogram, such as Hjjf- or 
— ym ■) in either case meaning a "great man." If it is intended 
to represent a still greater man, a second gunu sign is added, thus 

292 



Dec. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 



= . Characters answering to these three stages are to be 

found in the inscriptions. Two of them are common enough. 

This is not the only gunu sign, but it is the most usual one, and 
will sufifice as an example. 

Again, certain characters are conjunctive merely and unite other 
characters, not being themselves pronounced. Thus, as I have just 
said, the phallic character for man is ' or I ■, the corres- 
ponding character for woman is ^ _ ^vhen the idea of marriage 

or union is to be expressed, these two are united by a conjunctive 
oblong character, thus [^{"^. 

Again, we must remember, what is really a most elementary fact, 
namely, that these inscriptions which are arranged in parallel 
columns, in which the separate ideas are sometimes inclosed in 
special and particular cases or oblong compartments, were always 
read from top to bottom of each column, while the colunms were 
read off successively from right to left, and that as generally printed 
we must take the inscriptions and set them on end if we are to see 
the characters as they were originally written. 

In this respect, as in almost every other, the ideograms of 
Chaldea are precisely similar to those of China, which are still in 
use, and which are an excellent guide not only to their proper method 
of interpretation, but, as M. Terrien de la Couperie and Mr. Ball 
have shown, to more profound and far-reaching conclusions. Whether 
experience will confirm or not the results of the minuter and more 
detailed comparison of the civilization and culture of Chaldea and 
of early China may be doubtful, but there cannot be a doubt, if the 
doctrine of probabilities has any value, that the script of the two 
countries was connected together. It agrees in every detail. Both 
are read in columns from top to bottom. In both cases the columns 
are read from right to left. In both the ideograms are composed of 
simple and compound ideograms, made up of lines or wedges, of 
which the former are often pictorial. In both we have the use of 
determinatives, etc., etc. 

Let us however revert : The true and scientific key to the 
interpretation of the early Chaldean ideograms is to be found in the 
fact that they were presently adopted and slightly changed and 
generalized by a race, the Babylonian, speaking a different language, 
and which adopted them in a great measure not as ideograms at all, 

293 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

but as syllabic characters. They took over the characters with 
the sounds to which they had in fact become attached. They were 
taken over in fact phonetically. In a great number of cases we are 
able to find the early Babylonian equivalents of the Chaldean ideo- 
graphs, and they are so little changed that there is no difficulty in 
the identification. Inasmuch as we know the phonetic value of many 
of the characters as used by the Babylonians, and in this way know 
their meaning, the key is in such cases very obvious and verifiable. 
In this way we are daily adding to our knowledge of these characters, 
and no one has used this inductive method more satisfactorily than 
Delitsch. I am under great obligations to him. I do not, of course, 
mean that when taken over, the Babylonians always took over the 
early ideograms and used them phonetically ; Babylonian writing to 
the very latest times contains numbers of real ideograms. What I 
mean is that they did so in a great number of cases. 

Lastly, I would remark that inasmuch as the early inscriptions 
are rectilinear, that is, the ideographs are composed of straight lines 
only, we must remember in examining those among them which are 
pictorial, that the rounded or curved outlines of certain objects have 
to be represented by a convention, in which straight lines have to 
take the place of curves. 

With these preliminary and elementary, but not altogether un- 
necessary remarks, I would now turn to the characters themselves, 
and I think it better (instead of following Delitsch's plan, which is 
excellent for the purpose he had in view) not to give a logically 
complete analysis of the characters, but to plunge in medias res and 
proceed with the analysis of certain inscriptions, and for this purpose 
to turn to the very earliest inscriptions available, namely, some of 
those found by the American exploring expedition at Nippur. 

These occur for the most part upon broken pieces of calcite vases, 
and when complete almost if not quite invariably begin and end with 
two phrases respectively common to them all, which we can hardly 
doubt, from the corresponding phrases upon objects of a somewhat 
later date, in which the inscriptions are written phonetically and in 
Semitic, are in fact phrases of dedication. This a priori view has 
been amply confirmed in many ways. 

The first line of these very early inscriptions nearly always contains 
the name of the god, and in many cases it is a god whose name is 

represented by the three characters ^ 

294 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., December, \\ 




<flL-|'<$^ 




Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. N.S. XVIII, 3. Plates 42 and 43. 



Dec. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

The first of these, as we have seen, was the determinative of God, 
which in Shumerian was written di/igir, but, as I have said, it was 
probably not pronounced when reading the name, but simply used 
as a determinative. 

The meaning of the second character has long ago been known. 
We owe its complete analysis to Delitsch, who, as we have seen, has 
shown that it is merely the ideogram for man with two giimi or 
intensive marks attached to it, and when analyzed reads /u + gci^ + 
gal. Gal is the intensive, and lugal may possibly be the original 
sound of the ideogram, but this is doubtful. Inasmuch as another 
special ideogram was invented for the same idea, this one, we have 
reason to believe, may have been read E?i, also meaning a great 
man, or Lord, answering to the Assyrian Enu or beln. 

The third character presents us with a difficulty : it is the ordinary 
ideogram for a house, E, and I cannot find any other pictorial 
meaning for it. Since one of the appellations by which the god of 
Nippur was known was certainly Eii li/, or the Lord of Ghosts, or as 
read, doubtless // ///, in accordance with the harmony of consonants, 
it has been assumed* by almost every Assyriologist that the ideograms 
in question ought to be read as En HI or In lil. I have never been able 
to see how the sound /// can be attached to the character in question, 
and I see that Delitsch, in his recent work, seems equally puzzled. I 
do not doubt that En lil or In lil, i.e.. Lord of Ghosts, was one of 
the names of the god in question, as " Lord of the Land " also was 
one of his appellations : what I maintain is, that the ideogram 
really shows that " Lord of the House" was also one of his synonyms, 
or rather appellatives, for we do not really know what his actual 
name was ; until vve do so, we may continue, with the above caveat, 
to call him E?i lil. May I venture further, with great deference, to 
differ in one point from my friend Professor Sayce, and to suggest 
here that by the " God of Ghosts " it does not follow that his 
subjects were the dwellers in the Nether world ; the ghosts in 
question were apparently terrestrial ghosts, who walked or floated 
about the earth, and not subterranean ones. The god in question was 
a mundane god, and not a god of Hades ; he answered to Bel and 
to Jupiter, and not to the master of the Infernal regions, and it 
was in the wastes of Idum^ea and not beneath them that Lilath had 
her realm. Let us however move on. 

* Since writing this paper, Mr. Pinches has pointed out to me two passages 
in later inscriptious, where the god is distinctly called 11-111. 

295 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1S99. 

The characters in the second line of our inscription are 

The first of these ideograms, it will be seen, is also twice con)- 
pounded with the intensifying adjective, the so-called guiin character 
gal. The rest of the ideogram, as was long ago recognized, repre- 
sents a puppet, and is a conventional way of drawing a man. The 
character sometimes occurs with only one of the giinu marks ; thus 
in Hilprecht II, No. 87, col. i, 11. 6 and 30, we have ly^^j^ ^^ ,while 
in No. 86, 1. 3, we have =| A/^-^ . 

This character is therefore compounded of Lu (man) 4- 
gal + gal = very great man. That it was pronounced lugal 
is possible, but it may be that it was read off by some other 
word, as its complement before mentioned was, and this may 
have been En. 

Turning to the remaining characters, we first have a double set 
of three triangles. Three triangles, or miniature moun ains, were 
in fact the ideogram for a mountain, read Kur ; and the duplicated 
character was the plural of Khj'. It is not likely, as I have said, that 
this was kur/mr, but probably some word like kiert, t being in 
Mongolian a very ordinary plural affix. 

The remaining ideogram is a compound one, and occurs with 

variants in which the two elements appear separately as I-— and 

I I (see Hilprecht, II, p. 39, col. i, 1. 37, variant, and tt I I , 

id., p. 41, col. iii, 1. 15, variant). Delitsch has discussed these two 
elements, and differs somewhat in his interpretation from Hilprecht. 
They both see in the first character an epitome of |j|H=. Hilprecht 

sees in it a form of the ideogram for a net, namely, ~%~ , while 

Delitsch, with more probability, explains it as a canal, or a series 
of canals. The other character they both explain as a derived 
meaning, and as representing the process of filling. Thus the two 
characters make up the compound meaning of " irrigation ; " and, as 
Oppert and Amiaud long ago suggested, probably represent fertile or 
cultivated land as contrasted with wild and mountainous country. 
In Shumerian such a cultivated plain was called /'ar ra, and was 
apparently sometimes shortened into ra. 

The whole line of characters, when thus analyzed, reads " Great 

296 



Dec. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 

Lord, or King of mountains and cultivated lands," i.e., of "the 
land " as a whole. 

Let us now turn to the next line of our inscription, 1. No. 3. 
This reads : 



^ =#' % -# 



The first of these characters we have already analyzed. It 
represents the idea Great Lord, and is conventionally read E?i. The 
second one has been long ago explained, from its Old Babylonian 
form, as meaning the heart (Shumerian Shag, Assyrian libbii) ; and I 
prefer the old analysis of it, namely, that it represents something in 
the midst of the body, to Delitsch's newer explanation, making it 
an early picture of the heart itself (^. cit., 189-190). 

The third character has been read Sag by Hilprecht. Delitsch, 

who discusses it, shows, from a number of examples, how nearly it 

approaches that representing Ka, the mouth (183). In a variant, 

pi. 43, fig. 91, it is represented thus ^|fU-, and it is there united 

to theprevious character. 

This seems to iiie to make it plain that the two characters, this 
and the preceding one, are not to be vocalized separately, and 
treated as representing separate syllables, as Hilprecht and Delitsch 
have treated them, but as a compound ideogram, whose pronuncia- 
tion we do not at present know, and which I would represent by x. 

The next character doubtless represents here either the syllable 
imd, a star, or " an" heaven. Hilprecht reads it in the latter way, 
and he is probably right. 

The last character, which occurs more perfectly on fragment 91, 
is a well known ideogram representing the word na, meaning a stone 
(Delitsch, 124). I shall have more to say of this particle presently. 

The use of this particle seems to show that the God of heaven, 
or heaven itself, was known as An, the Assyrian Ann, and not as 
Anna, to the Shumerians. If the God had been called Anna, the 
particle would be redundant. 

The line then reads En x an na. 

Hilprecht translates the whole ideogram as, " Lord is ihe king 
of heaven." Lord is plain enough, and so is heaven, but how the 
characters he reads SJiag sag can be translated King, I do not know. 
It seems to me, further, that the name is phonetically written, and 
not a mere appellative, as he makes it. 

297 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. [1899. 

The next line of the inscription is as follows : — 

Here the first character and the third are the same, and we have 
already analyzed it and shown that it represents the idea, " great 
Lord," and the sound En. 

The second character, as has long been known, represents the 
sound of Ki (Delitsch, 174). It means a district or city, and when 
placed at the end of a name is generally used as a determinative for 
a district or city. 

The third character is a compound one. It has been well 
analyzed by Delitzsch ^^, or standing upright ^ represents a plant 
in general, se, pictorially. The second part of the character, which 
also occurs as ^, as A- , and as /S, was sounded 7ii (Delitsch, 
127). 

The united ideograms were not sounded se ni, however, bat 
were sounded gi, meaning a reed {id.). 

I cannot, however, see how Hilprecht gets the meaning " Land 
of canals and reeds " out of the three ideograms, A7, the land, and 
.{,7, reed, are plain enough, but how the character E71 can represent 
a canal, I do not see. I notice that in the Expository Times 
for 1897, p. 89, Hilprecht divides the name into Ki ■\-e-\- 7igi, which 
analysis I cannot understand. 

This line of the inscription seems to me most interesting, on 
several grounds. In the first place, if the reading Xi en gi is 
established, and few things seem more certain, it amply confirms the 
reading of the second character as Eti. In the next place, it seems 
to show that phonetic writing goes back to what at present is the very 
beginning of history, in Babylonia, for the three ideograms which form 
the name occur here clearly not as ideograms, but as syllables, and 
were probably read off as Kiengi, the whole line reading, " Lord of 
Ki-en-gi." 

The last line preserved on fragment 90 is unfortunately mutilated. 
The first character was clearly /// gal {i.e., king), in the same form as 
it occurs in 1. 2, already described. Of the second character only 
fragments remain, which are too uncertain to be read. The whole 
inscription, when thus analyzed, reads : — 

" [To] the God En lil, the king of the Land, En .v an na, Lord of 
Ki-en-gi, king of .v." 

298 



Dec. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

It no doubt concluded, as all the other similar inscriptions con- 
clude, with a dedicatory phrase. 

Let us now turn to fragment 91 in Hilprecht's work. The first 
line of this fragment is mutilated, but enough remains of the characters 
to enable us to reconstruct it as it was originally, namely : — 



^ 



It is an exact replica of 1. 6 in fragment No. no in Hilprecht's 
second volume, except that the last character there stands upright, 

thus ^^ , which is clearly only a variation. 

This character, which is read la (see Delitsch, 151), apparently 
marks the dative, and answers to the preposition to. The three earlier 
characters correspond to those forming the first line in the previous 
inscription already analyzed. The whole line therefore reads : Eii HI 
la, or En e la. 

It is curious and unusual that the next line should not embody 
one of the many titles or appellatives of the god ; but in it we are at 
once presented with four out of five characters like those in 1. 3 of 
fragment 90, and which represent the same king's name, Eii x an, the 
last character, na, being partly broken off. 

The third line reads : — 



1^ ^ f^ €> 



The last character in this line, as we have seen, is the determina- 
tive of town or district, ki. 

The second and third characters occur elsewhere united, thus 
forming a word or name (see Hilprecht inscription 87,001. i,line 23 ; 
compare also col. ii, 1. 6 to 1. to ; see also Delitsch, 146 and 147) ; 
and no doubt, as the determinative shows, they define some town or 
district. 

The conjoint characters have been discussed by Delitsch {op. cif., 
146 and 147), who says they must be read as kiss/iatu, meaning 
powerful, mighty. They are accepted by Hilprecht and Thureau 
Dangian as representing the place-name of Xish ; and I see no 
reason to question the reading. It is supported by a fragment in the 
British Museum, where the primitive ideograms are explained in 
Assyrian (see T.S.B.A., VI, 454, col. i, n. 6), which Mr. King has 
verified for me. 

299 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

The first character is mutilated in fragment 91, but it occurs in a 
perfect form in 92, the inscription on which was originally a replica 

of, and partially overlapped with 91. There it occurs as Q^ ^|t> . 

This is clearly a compound ideogram. 

Hilprecht reads the two characters as Nig-ga, and translates them 
" booty," in which he is supported by Winckler ; but I would 
venture to suggest that the latter character seems to represent the 
word bur, with the intensive or gunu attached, as it is analyzed by 
Delitsch on pp. 72 and 73, with the meaning, inter alia, of a vessel 
or cup, which would exactly suit the nature of the offering in 
question. It seems more consonant with early forms of thought 
that the object should be specifically mentioned by a concrete term, 
than that an abstract word like booty or plunder should be used. 
This is only a conjecture, however. 

If this last be the right reading, the whole line would read : 
" To the God En HI, En x an 7ia, this cup (or booty ?) from 

Kish " When perfect, the inscription no doubt ended with 

the dedicating phrase. 

A third inscription, namely, 92, also a fragment, overlaps with the 
last one, and no doubt the fragment of calcite on which it occurs 
came from a vase with the same inscription. Its first line corres- 
ponds with the last line of the previous inscription. Its second line 
contains two characters. The second is a simple one, and is the 
one we have already analyzed as meaning "heart," i.e., shag. The 
" first one is very complicated, and we have variants of it. In the present 

inscription it is thus represented \T I | |', while in fragment 102, 

1. 4, it is represented thus <^ — H\j_ , and in fragment 104, 1. 4, as 



as meanmg 



<] [J 1. Hilprecht reads it as gul, and translates it ? 

"evil," the two characters being thus explained as meaning "evil 
of heart." Winckler queries this meaning. At present it must be 
accepted as purely tentative and speculative. 

All we can positively say is, that it probably conceals some 
appellative of the town of Kish, or perhaps some term of opprobium 
applied to it. 

The concluding line is the one which in fact concluded all these 

300 



Dec. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

inscriptions when they are perfect, and there can be no doubt that 
it is the dedicatory phrase. It runs thus : 

II ^/ 



^ -^]> 



The characters have been generally read, a inu na shub. The 
penultimate character is frequently absent, and the phrase is ap- 
parently complete without it. 

The character -<=> ^^'^ know, from the later Babylonian 

inscriptions, represents the syllable nn, with the meaning of stone ; 
and Delitsch, I think, explains it reasonably as compounded of two 
characters whose meaning is well known, i.e., — , meaning the unit 

one, and ^^ meaning the earth or a district, and when combined 

meaning simply a piece of the earth, i.e., a stone (Delitsch, t 24-1 25). 
The character is doubtless used here phonetically. 

Turning to the other characters in this last line, the first one is the 
well known ideogram for water, with the sound of a. 

The second character has given rise to a considerable polemic 
between Delitsch and Hilprecht, in which I think the former has 
the best of the argument. Hilprecht identifies the character with an 
arrow marked with what he considers to be the signs of ownership, 
namely, the crossed lines, and quotes a similar usage among the 
North American Indians. 

Delitsch, on the other hand, urges that the syllable viu, which this 
character undoubtedly represents, nowhere in Shumerian or Assyrian 
means an arrow, and that we have a character for arrow which is 
formed differently, namely, -^ . 

Delitsch further proves, I think, that the character in question is 
a compound one, and made up of ■ - y , sounded bad, and meaning 
to open or an opening (<?/. cit., 109), and the crossed lines ^ . 

The compound character w^as afterwards condensed into >N \ 

meaning a road or a way, and derived from the notion of cross 
roads. The two characters, when combined, would thus mean 
"opening the way." Delitzsch further suggests tentatively that 
when thus combined, and with the sound Jin/, the character was 
equivalent in meaning to " name." 

The last character, of which the Old Babylonian form is a close 
imitation, bore the sound oi shub. 

301 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCH.'EOLOGY. [1899. 

The collocation of the several ideograms in this line, which, so 
far as I can see, cannot be compounded into a phrase with a 
meaning, if we treat them as ideograms, seems to make it pretty 
clear that the whole line is written phonetically. This is again 
supported by the irregular occurrence of the particle na, as I have 
mentioned ; and it seems probable, therefore, that the characters 
a mu na shub, or shortly, a mu shul?, were so pronounced, and 
represent the commanding verb in these inscriptions, which can 
have no other meaning than offered or dedicated. I may have more 
to .say about it on another occasion. 

The whole inscription on fragment 92 therefore reads " \x] this 
vase from Kish, evil (?) of heart, dedicated or offered " ; and reading 
the two fragments together we get the inscription fairly complete, 
thus : " To the God En ///, E?i x an na, dedicates this vase [or 
this booty] from Kish^ evil (?) of heart." 




Dec. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 



EXTRACTS FROM MY NOTEBOOKS (I). 
By Percy E. Newberry. 

1. The Story of Sanehat and the Inscription of Amen- 
EMHEB : A correction. FoLir years ago when tracing the famous 
inscription of Amenemheb which records the death of Thothmes III, 

I found that Ebers' reading of jn, in the well-known passage de- 
scribing the king's ascent to heaven, was evidently not the right one. 
The text runs thus : — renpet Liv abd in pert aqy kher hen en scfen 
hati Ra-inen-kheper niaa kheru seher ef er pet khneni aten 

T>> ? J L=a ^^ <2>- 1 % > " the year 54 the last day of the 

third month of Pert, under the majesty of the King Ra-men-kheper 
(Thothmes III) justified. He flew up to heaven and joined the 
sun's disk, the divine absorbed into its maker." The 

signs after | are mutilated, but I concluded from what was left of 

the uppermost one that the group should be read 15 iicter hau^ not 
Q neter shemsu. Remembering that there was a parallel passage in 

the opening lines of the Story of Sanehat, I determined to examine 
the original of the beginning of that tale in the Museum of Gizeh 
with the result that my conjecture is clearly correct. The Gizeh 

Ostracon gives in Hieratic characters iJ^xL JT ^ v\ '^ 

Im (^ III IJ^_r^) 

neter haii abkhii, etc. The beautiful passage describing the death 
of the king ought therefore to be read : " He flew up to heaven 
and joined the sun's disk, the divine-linihs were absorbed into their 
Maker." 

2. The Persea-tree of Ancient Egypt. In the private 
tombs of the XVIIIth and later Dynasties at Thebes, a medium- 

303 z 



Dec. 5] 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



[1899. 



sized yellow fruit, nearly ovoid in shape and with a 4-divided calyx, 
is often represented among the offerings piled up on or before 

the altars in front of the deceased 
(fig. i). In festival scenes of the 
same period we see the fruit held 
in the hand by the guests, and 
sometimes it is held to the nose 
(in the same way as the lotus 
flower is so often depicted), as if 
the guest was enjoying its sweet 
perfume {see Plate I). The same 
fruit is very often represented 
either protruding from a lotus 
flower, or surrounded with flowers 
in the great garlands figured in XVIIIth Dynasty tombs, and in the 
time of Amenhetep III and Akhenaten little flatish models of the 
fruit made in glazed faience were commonly used as pen- 
dants to necklaces (fig. 2). A fragment of a glazed tile 




Fie. I. 




Fig- 3- 



(fig. 3) of about the same date as the 
pendants also bears a figure of the ^'S- 2. 
same fruit upon a background of leaves. I 
have often wondered what the fruit could be, 
but last winter I was fortunate 
enough to procure at Luxor a 
number of well preserved ancient 
specimens of the fruit of Miimisops Schimperi, Hochst., 
or Kummel, L. (fig. 4), and in them I at once 
recognised the little yellow fruit figured in the 
tombs. ^'S' 4- 

No species oi Miimisops is now found in the Valley of the Lower 
Nile : six species occur in tropical Africa and two {M. Kiiiiitnel and 
Schimperi) in Abyssinia.* Twigs and leaves of M. Sc/iimperi have 
often been found in the tombs of all dates, from the Xllth Dynasty 
downwards to Grneco-Roman times,t and it is probable that the 
■fruits which I procured at Luxor belong to this species. I have not 
seen any fresh specimens of the fruit, but they are described as 




* Judex Keweusis, Vol. 11, p. 246. 

t Newberry, in Hawara, BiaJu/m and Arsinoe, p. 48 ; cf. also Kahuii, Giirob 
and Ilaii'ara, p. 49. 



PLATE I. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., December^ i{ 



/--; 




Dec. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

being bright yellow in colour, very sweet to the taste and, like the 
flowers, powerfully aromatic* 

Dr. Schweinfurth has already produced evidence to show that 
the M. Schimperi was the Persea of the ancients, and some of the 
classical writers appear to have confounded it with the Persica or 
peach. Dioscorides notes that the persea tree was "found in Egypt, 
that it bore an edible fruit and flourished more particularly in Upper 
Egypt." Pliny's description {^Hist. Nat., XV, 13) is very confused. 
Strabo (XVII, ii, 2) writes that "the persea grows in Egypt and 
in Ethiopia : it is a lofty tree and its fruit is large and sweet." 
Diodorus (I, i) says : " [In Egypt] there are divers sorts of trees, 
amongst which those called Persica [read persea], whose fruit is of 
wonderful sweetness : this plant was brought out of Ethiopia f by 
the Persians when Cambyses conquered those places. . . . After the 
falling of the waters they gather the fruits called Bates, which for 
their sweet and delightful taste are, at entertainments, served up at 
the last course as delicious fruits. "| The ancient Egyptian name of 
the tree has not yet been identified with any certainty. It was 
introduced into Egypt sometime during the Xllth Dynasty,§ or 
perhaps even earlier, and it appears to have been still known 
in the Nile Valley as late as the time of Ibn el Beithar (13th 
century a.d.).I| 

3. A Stone Vase of Ptahmes, High Priest at Memphis 
UNDER Amenhetep III. When looking over Mr. W. Nash's 
interesting collection of Egyptian antiquities a few weeks ago, I 



* Richard, Flora Abyssinicce, Vol. IIj pp. 22 and 23 ; cf. Roxburgh, Coro- 
maiidel Plants, Ps. 14 and 15 ; Emin Pa'sha in Central Africa, p. 159, etc. 

t It is probable that Cambyses introduced the peach tree into Egypt, but it 
certainly was not brought from Ethiopia, for the peach, like the apricot, does not 
thrive in a very hot climate. The native country of the peach is China, and it 
was introduced into the western world by way of Persia, whence its name 
(Persica, perce, peach). I have identified many peach stones among the vegetable 
remains of the Hawara cemetery of Grjeco-Roman date, and at Beni Hasan I found 
some stones of perhaps the early Coptic period. Cf. for the history of the peach 
tree, my paper in Prof. Petrie's Ha'wara, Biahimi and Arsinoe. 

Z Compare the group from a feast-scene in Plate I. 

§ Kahiin, Gurob and Haioara, p. 49. 

II The I^j lebakh of the old Arab herbalists. The tree whicli bears that 

name at the present day in Egypt is the Albezzia Lehbek, a native of India, intro- 
duced about the beginning of the present century, and now very common, 
especially about Cairo. 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

noticed a curiously shaped vase {see Plate II) in hard crystalline 
limestone bearing the following inscription : — 

P^v"^^ §f ° Iflr ^^'"' ^'^ —"'^ ^-^"'^^ Ptah-mes, "the 
Xd'w-priest, the iir Jdicrp //^wZ-priest Ptah-mes." The first title is 
that of the officiating priest at great religious ceremonies, the second 
that of the High Priest of Ptah at Memphis. Several high priests 
bearing the name Ptah-mes are known, but from the cutting and 
form of the hieroglyphs, I should be inclined to identify the original 
owner of Mr. Nash's vase with Ptahmes, son of Tahutimes, High 
Priest and Vezir of Lower Egypt under Amenhetep III. Of this 
great official we have (1) his statue in grey granite in the Museum 
of Florence, (2) his stela from Memphis in the same Museum, 
(3) his fine basalt palette from Sakkara in the Louvre, (4) his cubit- 
measure, kohl-pot,* kohl stick,* and several small stone pots bearing 
his name at Leyden. A white stone scarab-seal, bearing the name 
of this Ptahmes is preserved in the British Museum ; it is said to 
have come from Memphis. 

4. A Statue of User, Vezir of Upper Egypt under 
Thothmes III. — In the Museum of the Louvre there is a statue 

of a certain ©] ^^ , " Governor of the city (i.e., Thebes) and 

Vezir named j 1 <:z> User. The figure is represented squatting, 

the arms are crossed over the knees, the right hand is closed, the 
left hand open lies flat upon the right knee. The wig and features 
are finely chiselled, but the whole of the lower part of the statue has 
been broken off and is missing. It is probably of greyish-black 
granite, but as the whole surface has been covered with a coating of 
grey paint, this is impossible to determine. The height of the statue 
is 3 feet 2 inches. Down the front of the legs is the following 
inscription giving (i) the de hetep seten and (2) the perert her 7iz 
formulae for offerings at stated festivals! for the benefit of User's 
ka, and (3) User's address to posterity : — 

* I am not sure whether these two objects are in the Leyden Museum : they 
are figured along with some of the Leyden antiquities in the Hay and Burton 
M.SS. in the British Museum, Add. MS., 25655 ff. 58, 65; and Add. MS., 
29848, f. 8. 

t The list of festivals i^iven here is fairly full and, with the exception of the 
last-mentioned but one — the iiah khait "feast of replenishing the altars" — they 
all occur in my Beni Ilasa)!, I, pp. 53 and 54. 

306 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., December, 1899, 



PLATE II. 




STONE VASE OF PTAHMES. 

In the collection of Walter L. Nash, Esq., F.S.A. 



Dec. 5] 



PROCEEDINGS. 



[1899. 



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AAAAAA I AiWsAA 



."=1111 









From its style the statue cannot well be earlier than the begin- 
ning of the XVIIIth Dynasty, and that it is pre-Akhenaten in date 
is apparent from the fact that the name of the god Amen, in each 
instance in which it occurs, has been erased and re-inserted. The 

name of T , Thebes, it should also be noted, has suffered a Uke 

mutilation and been again restored. Its date, therefore, must be 
between the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty and the time of 

.3^7 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCILEOLOGY. [1S99. 

Akhenaten's heresy towards the end of the same dynasty. For- 
tunately, we can fix it exactly from other monuments known of this 
vezir. His tomb at Thebes is dated in the reign of Thothmes III, 
and a stela in the Gizeh Museum names him as vezir in the 21st 
year of Thothmes III. According to an inscription in the tomb of 
his steward, he died in the 28th year of Thothmes III.* 



BABYLONIAN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

In the numerous and excellent works that have appeared bearing 
on Assyrian and Babylonian 'Weights and Measures, I have up to 
the present failed to find any statement of the size of the most 
common of all Assyrian land measures, the homer, imeru, ^T^. 
My own investigations show that the homer contained do KA, which 
was stated by Dr. Peiser, in his admirable Skizze der Bahyloinschen 
Gesellschaft, if my memory is correct. They also show that the 
KA contained 300 square cubits or ainmatu. This I imagine was 
10 SA-HI-A or 10 GAR-ZUN, and the GAR-ZUA' was an area 
of six cubits long and five cubits wide. These views may be ancient 
and well known, but I should be obliged if any reader of P.S.B.A. 
could furnish a reference to some author who has shown them to be 
tenable. 

At the same time it would be a favour if any one could show 
what was the size of the KA as a measure of capacity. We know 
that a sheep or a man would eat a KA or two of corn a day, but 
that is not a very definite measure. We may assume that a KA of 
corn was needed to sow a KA of land, but that is also a vague 
quantity to me, even when we see that a KA was 300 square cubits. 

C. H. W. JOHNS. 

Queens' College, Cambridge, 
December 11, 1899. 

* User was an uncle of the great Rekhmara, and a full biography of him will 
appear in my forthcoming volume, entitled The Official Life of Rekhmara. 



30S 



Dec. s] proceedings. [1899. 



A SUPPOSED ECLIPSE OF THE MOON UNDER THE 
XXHnd EGYPTIAN DYNASTY. 



It is always unsafe to base an argument upon a statement in a 
popular handbook, as General Hastings does in his recent com- 
munication {Proceedings, XXI, 2 So). He seems also to have 
misunderstood the passage quoted. When Birch says that an 
eclipse of the moon is mentioned in an inscription of "his 
successor," and that it took place in " his fifteenth year," " his " in 
both cases equals " Osorkon's." It is clear that Birch is not telling 
us what took place under Shashank II, as that monarch is dealt with 
in his proper order. Birch's statement, then, (whatever its value) is 
that an eclipse of the moon took place on the 24th Choiak, in the 
fifteenth year of Osorkon II. 

It may be interesting to recall the opinions that have been at 
different times expressed in regard to this eclipse. Some of these 
are collected in Chabas's valuable paper entitled " Une Eclipse sous 
le regne du pere de Tiklat II" ("Melanges Egyptologiques," 2nd 
Series, 73). It appears that the date in the inscription has been 
read as 24th Choiak, 24th Mesori, and 25th Mesori ; and the date of 
the eclipse according to our reckoning has been given as 4th April, 
945 B.C., ist April, 927 B.C., and nth March, 841 B.C. The 
difference of opinion as to the monarch intended has been no less 
marked ; Osorkon II, Shashank II, and Takelet II have all been put 
forward by different scholars. 

But worse remains. The eclipse has been at one time claimed as 
an eclipse of the moon, and at another as an eclipse of the sun ; and 
Chabas argued with great force that the inscription has no reference 
to astronomical phenomena of any kind. Even Brugsch, who pro- 
claimed his belief in the eclipse to be quite unaffected by Chabas's 
criticism, made the somewhat startling change in date from 24th 

.309 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

Choiak in the fifteenth year of Osorkon II to 25th Alesori in the 
fifteenth year of Takelet II. The earher opinion is that followed 
by Birch in the passage quoted by General Hastings, 

It must be confessed that on the whole the outlook for those who 
seek to establish Egyptian chronology on an astronomical foundation 
is not encouraging. Several dates have been claimed as absolutely 
fixed on astronomical grounds, but I do not think that one has 
secured acceptance among scholars generally. It can hardly be 
anticipated that the claim made by Dr. Borchardt (as reported by 
Mr. Legge in his interesting account of the last Congress of 
Orientalists, Proceedings, XXI, 263, 264) to have fixed the earliest 
absolute date in history will meet with any better fate. 

F. W. READ. 



Gray's Inn, 
4/h Jatuiary, 1900. 

THE SIGN 1 {NUTIR or NETER). 

Dear Mr, Rylands, 

I see that Dr. Budge in his lately-published book Egyptian 
Religion, again raises the question of this sign, which he considers 
equivalent to our English word god, connoting, as he thinks, the ideas 
of self existence and the i)ower of renewing life, ^Vithout going into 
the latter statement, I should like to say that the use of the axe as a 
symbol of divinity is supposed by anthropologists to extend to many 
other nations besides the Egyptian, and to go back to very early 
times indeed. Thus, the late Adrian de Longperier published an 
agate cylinder from Assyria {Bulletin archcol. de PAt. 1855? P* 

1 01) showing a priest in Chaldaean garb offering sacrifice to an axe 
standing upright upon an altar, a monument which may be useful to 
those who would derive the Egyptian hieroglyphs from Chaldaea. 
But the axe also appears as a symbol, and presumably a symbol of 
divinity, on the megaliths of Brittany, in the prehistoric remains of 

.^10 



Dec, 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1899. 

the funereal caves of the Marne (de Mortillet, Did. des sciences 
anthropol., p. 564), of Scandinavia (de Cartailhac, L'dge de priere, 
etc., p. 49), and of America {Mem. de la Soc. Roy. de Antiquaires 
du Nord, 1880, N.S., pp. 173 and 174). The fact that the axe 
appears on these monuments not as the representation of an object 
in daily use but for religious or magical purposes, is shown by the 
fact that it is often found as a pendant and of such materials as gold, 
lead, and even amber; while that it is often represented with the 
peculiar fastenings of the earlier flint weapon shows that its symbolic 
use goes back to the neolithic and perhaps the paleoHthic age. It 
is now, I think, generally accepted that the use of the stone axe 
precedes that of the flint arrow-head or flint knife ; and it thoroughly 
agrees with the little we know of the workings of the mind of primi- 
tive man that this, the first weapon that came into his hands, should 
have been the first material object to which he offered worship. If 

this view be accepted, it will follow that the sign j is an ideogram 

merely, and was probably used as such long before any system of 
phonetics came into being. 

Yours very faithfully, 

F. LEGGE. 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN MODELS OF FISH. 
By Walter L, Nash. 

It would be interesting to identify the various kinds of fish of 
ancient Egypt, which are either depicted on the monuments or 
represented by models in bronze and other materials. I give 
photographs of all the models which I possess or which have been 
lent to me for the purpose. Perhaps those who have models of other 
fish will be willing to add to the series. For the names of the fish 
I am indebted to Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., of the Natural 
History Museum. The small steatite dish, fig. 4, and the bronze 
fish-shaped bottle, fig. 5, were, he thinks, probably intended for the 
Tilapia nilotica^ the '•'■ Bolti" of the Egyptians, but the characteristics 

311 2 A 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. [1899. 

necessary for identification are either wanting, or badly represented. 
The bronze fish, fig. 6 (for the photograph of which I am indebted 
to Mr. Lajcelles, for whom it was taken by his friend Mr. Gardner), 
in the Harrow School Museum. I beheve it to be the fish 
represented by the wood-cut in Sir G. Wilkinson's " Ancient 
Egyptians" (Vol. Ill, page 343, new edition). Sir. G. Wilkinson 
describes it as a Lepidotus ; and he adds that the Cyprinus 
Lepidotus^ which is synonymous with Barhus bynni, of the " Des- 
cription de ri^gypte," was the "Benni" of the Ancient Egyptians. 
Other examples of the Barkus hynni are shown in figs. 3 and 7. The 
Lates niloticus shown in fig. i, is made of limestone, with the scales 
coloured. A mummied specimen of the same fish is shown in 
fig. 2. In the Proceedings of February, Mr. E. To wry Whyte gave 
an account of his rare specimen of a bronze model of a Lates fish, 
made in the form of a case, in which were enclosed the , remains of 
the mummied fish itself. It would be interesting to know how the 
fish was introduced into the case, the opening in the lower edge 
being so small. Mr. Whyte does not say if there is any sign of 
the case having been made in two parts, and afterwards soldered 
together. 



The Annlver.sary Meeting of the Society will be held at 
37, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, W.C, on Tuesday, 
9th January, 1900, at 4.30 p.m., when the usual business will 
be transacted. 



312 



PLATE 1. 



Proc. Soc. BibL Arch.. Dec, 1899. 








PLATE II. 



Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., Dec, 1899. 







PLATE III. 



Proc. Soc. Bill. Atch., Dec, 1S99. 




WU/x 



^ Fig. 4. Tilapia niloiica 'f (Bolti.) Toilet-tiay. Steatite. Length, 3 




Wb// 



Fig. S. Tilapia nilotica ? (Bolti.) Bronze. Height, 6 ir 



PLATE IV. 



Ptoc. Sec. Bibl. Arch., Dec, \i 




Fig. 6. Barbiis bynni. (Harrow Scliool Museum.] 
Bronze. Length, 3f in. 




Fig. 7. Barbus bynni. Bronze. Length, 4 in. 



Dec. 5] PROCEEDINGS. [1S99. 



THE FOLLOWING BOOKS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE 
LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY. 



Members having duplicate copies, -cvill confe)' a favour by presenting them to the 

Society. 

Alker, E., Die Chronologic der Bucher der Konige und Paralipomenon im 
Einklang mit der Chronologie der Aegypter, Assyrer, Babylonier und Meder. 

Amelineau, Histoire du Patriarche Copte Isaac. 

Contes de I'Egypte Chretienne. 

La Morale Egyptienne quinze siecles avant notre ere. 

Amiaud, La Legende Syriaque de Saint Alexis, I'homme de Dieu. 

A., AND L. Mechineau, Tableau Compare des Ecritures Babyloniennes 

et Assyriennes. 

Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. 2 parts. 



Baethgen, Beitriige zur Semitischen Religionsgeshichte. Der Gott Israels und 

die Gotter der Heiden. 
Blass, A. F., Eudoxi ars Astronomica qualis in Charta Aegyptiaca superest. 
BOTTA, Monuments de Ninive. 5 vols., folio. 1847- 1850. 

Brugsch-Bey, Geographische Inschriften Altaegyptische Denkmaeler. Vol. 
I— III (Brugsch). 

Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, copies sur lieux et publics pas 

II. Brugsch et J. Dumichen. (4 vols., and the text by Diimichen 
of vols. 3 and 4. ) 
Budinger, M., De Colonarium quarundam Phoeniciarum primordiis cum 

Hebraeorum exodo conjunctis. 
BuRCKHARDT, Eastern Travels. 

Cassel, Paulus, Zophnet Paneach Aeg}'ptische Deutungen. 
Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiques. Series I, III. 1862-1S73 
DiJMiCHEN, Historische Inschriften, &c., ist series, 1S67. 

2nd series, 1S69. 

Altaegyptische Kalender-Inschriften, 1SS6. 

Tempel-Inschriften, 1862. 2 vols., folio. 



Ebers, G., Papyrus Ebers. 

Erman, Papyrus Weslcar. 

:6tudes Egyptologiques. 13 vols., complete to 1880. 

Gayet, E., Steles de la XII dynastie au Musee du Louvre. 

GOLENISCHEFF, Die Metternichstele. Folio, 1877. 

Vingt-quaire Tablettes Cappadociennes de la Collection de. 

Grant-Bey, Dr., The Ancient Egyptian Religion and the Influence it exerted 

on the Religions that came in contact with it. 
Haupt, Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze- 
HOMMEL, Dr., Geschichte Babyloniens und Assyriens. 1892. 



Dec. 5] SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. [1899. 

Jastrow, M., a Fragment of the Babylonian "Dibbarra" Epic. 

Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier. 

Jeremias, Tyrus bis zur Zeit Nubukadnezar's Geschichtliche Skizze mit beson- 

derer Berucksichtigung der Keilschriftlichen Quellen. 
Joachim, H., Papyros Ebers, das Alteste Buch iiber Iluilkunde. 
Johns Hopkins University. Contributions to Assyriology and Comparative 

Semitic Philology. 
Krebs, F., De Chnemothis nomarchi inscriptione Aegj'ptiaca commentatio. 
Lederer, Die Biblische Zeitrechnung vom Auszuge aus Aegypten bis zum 

Beginne der Babylonische Gefangenschaft mit Beriicksichtigung der Re- 

sultate der Assyriologie und der Aegyptologie. 
Ledrain, Les Monuments ^^gyptiens de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
Lef^bure, Le Mythe Osirien. a'""^ partie. "Osiris." 

Legrain, G., Le Livre des Transformations. Papyrus demotique du Louvre. 
Lehmann, Samassumukin Konig von Babylonien 668 v. Chr., p. xiv, 173; 

47 plates. 
Lepsius, Nubian Grammar, &c., 1880. 
Maruchi, Monumenta Papyracea Aegyptia. 
MiJLLER, D. H., Epigraphische Denkmaler aus Arabien. 
Noordtzig, Israel's verblijf in Egypte bezien int licht der Egyptische out- 

dekkingen. 
Pognon, Les Inscriptions Babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa, 
Rawlinson, Canon, 6th Ancient Monarchy. 
ROBIOU, Croyances de I'Egypte a I'epoque des Pyramides. 

Recherches sur le Calendrier en Egypte et sur le chronologic des Lagides. 

Sainte Marie, Mission a Carthage. 

Sarzec, Decouvertes en Chaldee. 

Schaeffer, Commentationes de papyro medicinali Lipsiensi. 

SCHOUW, Charta papyracea graece scripta Musei Borgiani Velitris. 

ScHROEDER, Die Phonizische Sprache. 

Strauss and Torney, Der Alfagyptische Gotterglaube. 

ViREY, P., Quelques Observations sur I'Episode d'Aristee, a propos d'un 

Monument Egyptian. 
ViSSER, I., Hebreeuwsche Archaeologie. Utrecht, 1891. 
Walther, J., Les Decouvertes de Ninive et de Babylone au point de vue 

biblique. Lausanne, 1890. 
WiLCKEN, M., Actenstiicke aus der Konigl. Bank zu Theben. 
WiLTZKE, De Biblische Simson der Agyptische Horus-Ra. 
Wincki.er, Hugo, Der Thontafelfund von El Amarna. Vols. I and II. 

Textbuch-Keilinschriftliches zum Alten Testament. 

Weissleach, F. H., Die Achaemeniden Inschriften Zweiter Art. 

Wesseley, C, Die Pariser Papyri des Fundes von El Fajum. 

Zeitsch. der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellsch., Vol. XX to Vol. XXXII, 1866 

to 1878. 
ZiMMERN, II., Die Assyriologie als Hiilfswissenschaft liir das Studium des Alten 

Testaments. 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHJEOLOGY PUBLICATIONS. 



In 8 Parts. Price Ss. each. The Fourth Part having been issued, the Price is 
now Raised to j£s for the 8 Parts. Parts cannot be sold separately. 

The Egyptian Book of the Dead. 

Complete Translation^ Commentary, and Notes. 
By THE LATE SIR P. LE PAGE RENOUF, Knt. {President); 

CONTAINING ALSO 

^ ^crifs of ^Slates of tf)e Fipcttcs of tj^e different ODtaptErs. 

The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates from 

Balawat. 

[Shalmaneser II, B.C. 859-825.] 

To be completed in Five Parts. 

Parts 1, II, III, and IV have now been issued to Subscribers. 

In accordance with the terms of the original prospectus the price for 
each part is now raised to j[^\ \os. ; to Members of the Society (the original 
price) £1 IS. 

Price 7s. 6d. Only a Limited Number of Copies have been Printed. 

THE PALESTINIAN SYRIAC VERSION OF THE HOLY 

SCRIPTURES. 

Four Recently Discovered Portions (together with verses from the 
Psalms and the Gospel of St. Luke). Edited, in Photographic Facsimile, 
from a Unique MS. in the British Museum, with a Transcription, Transla- 
tion, Introduction, Vocabulary, and Notes, by 

REV. G. MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., 

Assistant in the Department of Oriental Pri7ited Books and MSS. in the British 
Miisetmi ; formerly Tynvhitt Hebrew Scholar. 



Subscribers' names to be Addressed to the Secretary. 



Society of Biblical Archeology. 



COUNCIL, 1899. 



President, 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, LL.D., &c., &c. 

„ Vice-Presidents. 

The Most Rev. His Grace The Lord Archbishop of York. 

The Most Noble the Marquess of Bute, K.T., &c., &c. 

The Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

The Right Hon. Lord Halskury. 

Arthur Gates. 

F. D. Mocatta, F.S.A., &c. 

Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., M.D., &c. 

Alexander Peckover, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, D.D., Canon of Canterbury. 



Council. 



Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. T. K. Cheyne, D.D. 

Thomas Christy, F.L.S. 

Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S. 

F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A. 

Gray Hill. 

Rev. Albert Lowy, LL.D., <S:c. 



Rev. James Marshall, M.A. 
Claude G. Montefiore. 
Prof. E. Naville. 
J. Pollard. 

Edward B. Tylor, LL.D., F. R.S., 
&c. 



Honorary Treasurer — BERNARD T. BOSANQUET. 
Secretary — W. Harry Rylands, F.S.A. 
Honorary Secretary for Foreig7i Correspondence — Rev. R. Gwynne, B.A. 
Honorary Librarian — 

HAKKISON AND SONS, I'KINTERS IN OKUINARY TO HER MAJESTY, ST. MARTIN'S LANE. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Vol. Page 

Aa, scarabs of ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 151 

Aahmes, wife of Thothmes I, scarab of ... ... ... ... XXI. 80 

Aa-htp-ra, scarabs of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI, 151 

Aba, son of Bakna, his name in an inscription at El Kab ... ... XXI. 112 

Abesukh (Heb. Abishua') XXI. 23 

"Above " and " Below," in Coptic, note on XXI. 249 

Abydos and Negadah, recent discoveries at XXI. 183 

/^(/ar, the word ... ... ... .-■ ... ... ... ... XXI. 79 

Adgi, a Babylonian deity, corresponding to the Shuhite Hadad- 

Rimnion ... ... .. ... ••• ... ... ... XXI. 25 

Aha, /^?«^, his tomb at Negadah ... XXI. 189 

Allai, ^;- Alai, an Assyrian deity XXI. 254 

TXT . • ., ( G) fT"^ was the Moeiis of 

Amenemhat III, his throne name ^ U I tt 1 -.r^.T 

V /wwNA r J Herodotus ... XXI. 55 

Amenemhat-senb-ef, king, his name on a blue glazed cylinder ... XXI. 282 

Amenhotep III, historical scarabs of ... ... ... XXI. 155 

,, ,, ,, comparative rarity of ... ...XXI. 155, i56 

,, ,, scarab of, relating the hunting of wild cattle ... XXI. 156 

,, III and IV, the Mitannian wives of ... ... ... XXI. 265 

Amma, the land of, the Ammo of the Old Testament XXI. 198 

Amurru, an Amorite god ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 23 

Analysis of fatty matter found by Dr. Petrie among "New 

Race " remains at Naqada ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 79 

Anentuf, scarab of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 154 

Ankh-ta, scarab of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 154 

An-ma-an-i-la, an Accadian king ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 161 

Anuket, ^^iii/f55, the plumes on the head of ... ... ... ... XXI. 266 

Anupt, an Egyptian deity ... ... ... ... .. ... XXI. 240 

Apepa, scarabs of ... ... ... ... ••■ ... ... XXI. 153 

Apophis, the Pharaoh of Joseph, a king of the XVIIth dynastry XXI. 55 

Apuat, an Egyptian deity XXI. 240 

Aranna, city XXI. 196 

Ardi-Belit, called "Crown Prince " in Nineveh, B.C. 694 XXI. 174 

Arphaxad, to be looked for among the Sute ... ... ... .. XXI. 24 

Asher, Napthali, and Joseph, the blessings on XXI. 242 

Ashteroth-Karnaim ... ... ... ••• ••• ••■ ••■ XXI. 173 

A 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



Assyrian names often derived from tiie date of birth... 
,, ,, ,, „ ,, day of birth ... 

Assyriological Notes, by Dr. Hommel... 

by Rev. C. IT. W. Johns .., 
Assyriolology, notes on ... 
Asur-nadin-Sum, son of Sennacherib 
Asur-Sum-uSabsi, son cf Sennacherib ... 
Ate, her name in a Pahnyrene inscription 
Ate-natan, his name in a Palmyrene inscription 
Ayda'an, the name of, in a Pahnyrene inscription 



Vol. ] 


Page 


... XXI. 


254 


... XXI. 


254 


. XXI. 


115 


XXI. 140, 


1 254 


... XXI. 


284 


... XXI. 


174 


... XXI. 


174 


.. XXI- 


70 


... XXI. 


70 


... XXI. 


69 



B. 



r>abylonian Chronological Tablet, the new 

,, ,, ,, written in the reign of 

Ammi-zadok 
„ ,, ends with the death of 

Samsi-iluna... 
,, ,, ,, gives a complete 

chronological register 

of the earlier reigns 

of the first dynasty of 

Babylon 

,, ,, ,, written in Sumerian ... 

,, ,, ,, translation of the text of 

,, ,, ,, discrepancies between 

it and the Dynastic 

Tablet 

,, king, a new, of the first dynasty of Babylon 
,, Weights and Measures 
Bar'an, his name in a Palmyrene inscription ... 
Barbits hyniii, the " Benni" fish of the Ancient Egyptians 
liat-heli, her name in a Palmyrene inscription 
/)t'«;i'/ the, an ancient Egyptian fish ... 
Bes, the plmnes on the head of... 
Bibilical text written in abbreviations ... 
lioissier, A, communication from 
Bolha, his name in a Palmyrene inscription ... 
Bolt, an Egyptian, note on 

Bold, the, an Egyptian fish 

Brodrick, Miss M., Ph.D., communication from 
Busiris, the god of 



XXI. 10 
XXI. II 
XXI. II 



XXI. 


II 


XXI. 


II 


XXI. 


II-I7 


XXI. 


18 


XXI. 


158 


XXI. 


308 


XXI. 


71 


XXI. 


312 


XXI. 


72 


XXI. 


312 


XXI. 


266 


XXI. 


261 


XXI. 


34 


XXI. 


71 


XXI. 


286 


XXI. 


3" 


XXI. 


26 


XXI. 


278 



c. 



Cabul, the land of * 

Casdim, a Biblical term for the people of Chaldea 



XXI. 
XXI. 



177 
23 



INDEX. 



Chaklea, on the earliest inscriptions from 
Chaldean inscriptions from Nippur 

,, ,, ,, ,, nearly always begin 

name of a God 
Chedorlaomer, note on ... 
Cherubim, the, typify the winds 
Chesed and Casdim, the, of the Old Testament 
Cheyne, Dr. T. K., communications from 
Christ, medallion bearing the image of, with a derisive li 

scription 
Chronological table of Dungi II 

„ ,, „ translation of 

,, ,, Fur-sin II 

,, ,, ,, translation of 

Church, Altar, and Tank, consecration of according to the 

the Coptic-Jacobile Church 
Cook, Stanley, A., B.A. , communications from 
Coptic cloth, woven with the full-face portrait of a man 
Council and Officers, 1899 
Crum, W. E., communication from 
Cylinder, a, of Pepi I 
Cylinder-seal, an interesting 





Vol. Page. 




XXI. 289 




XXI. 294 


with the 






XXI. 294 




XXI. 256 




XXI. 262 




XXI. 23 


... XXI. 


177, 242, 246 


ebrew in- 






XXI. 263 




XXI. 19 




XXI. 19-21 




XXI. 21 




XXI. 21 


Ritual of 






XXI. 88 


XXI. £8, 170 




XXI. 264 




XXI. 9 




XXI. 247 




XXI. 170 




XXI. 168 



D. 



Dad-ka-ra, scarabs, of ... 
Dad-nefer-ra, scarab of ... 
Dancing worship 
Demotic, transliteration of 
Den, /C'/;/^i, tomb of 

„ ,, stele of 
Dja, king, tomb of 

,, ,, stele of 
Dudumes, his cartouche on a stone at El Kab 
,, the personal name of Dad-nefer-ra 
Dungi II, chronological table of 

Dynasty, Egyptian, XVIII, began B.C. 1490, according to 
Lieblein 

Dynasty, XXII, the Egyptian ... ... 

,, ,, list of kings of... 



... XXI. 


149 


... XXI. 


154 


... XXI. 


253 


... XXI. 


273 


... XXI. 


184 


... XXI. 


186 


... XXI. 


IS5 


... XXI. 


187 


... XXI. 


III 


... XXI. 


154 


... XXI. 


19 


Prof. J. 




... XXI. 


59 


... XXI. 


280 


... XXI. 


281 



E. 



E-Girsu, chief god of the city of Girsu 
Egyptian bronze mummy case for a fish 
,, deities, notes on some 



XXI. 165 
XXI. 82 
XXI. 239 



Vol. 


Page. 


XXI. 


1 08 


XXI. 


2S2 


XXI. 


143 


XXI. 


265 


XXI. 


277 


XXI. 


49 


XXI. 


III 


XXI. 


25 


XXI. 


53 



4 SOCIETY OK RIRI.ICAL ARCH.-'EOLOGY. 

Eg}'plian king, a new, the predecessor of Kheops 

,, ,, of the XIII dynasty, a new, note on... 

,, musical instrument, an 

,, objects found in Isaic toml)S in France 

Eileithyia in Egypt 

Eisenlohr, Prof. Dr. A., communication from 
1",I Kab, old Empire inscriptions from 

Emu, a Shuite deity, corresponding to the Babylonian Nergal 
I'Exode des Hebreux, continued from Vol. XX. 28S 
Exodus the, of the Hebrews, occurred in the last years of 

Amenophis III ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 53 



Fables, deux, Assyriennes ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 34 

Fish, ancient Egyptian models of ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 311 

Eraser, G. W. , communications from ... ... ... ... XXI. 143, 148 

" Fuller's meal," mentioned in Assyrian contracts ... ... ... XXI. 255 

" P'ulling " clothes, an organized trade in Assyria and Babylonia ... XXI. 255 

Fu-ab-ra, scarab of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 153 

„ his tomb at Dashur ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 153 



G. 



Gar-znn, an Assyrian land measure 

Genealogies found in inscriptions at El Kab, list of some 

Girparunda, a Hittite king 

Gosen, the country of, was situated in the valley of Tumilat 

,, „ was cultivated and inhabited, in the time of 

the Flyksos 
Griffith, F. LI., M.A., F.S.A., communications from 
GuSki, or Kuski, Accadian name for gold 



H. 



Hadad-Rimmon, a Shuhite deity 

Haggagu, his name in a Palmyrene inscription 

Hadirat Aha, his name in a Palmyrene inscription ... 

Hamathite inscriptions, the period to which they belonf 

Hastings, General Y. E. , communication from 

Ilatasu, Queen, bas-reliefs relating to ... 

I layes Ward, Dr., letter from ... 

Head, the, notes on the hieroglyphics of 

Hebreux, I'exode des, continued from Vol. XX. 288 

Hebrew words, the, "l^C'X AND "IIJD) »"te on the ... 



... XXI. 


308 


... XXI. 


114 


... XXI. 


202 


... XXI. 


58 


ane of 




XXI. 


53 


XXI. 269, 273, 


277 


... XXI. 


159 



XXI. 


25 


XXI. 


73 


XXI. 


71 


XXI. 


213 


XXI. 


280 


XXI. 


26s 


XXI. 


8d 


XXI. 


269 


XXI. 


53 


XXI. 


246 





5 


Vol. : 


Page. 


.. XXI 


278 


.. XXI. 


269 


.. XXI. 


194 


.. XXI. 


224 


.. XXI. 


308 


XXI. IIS 


, 224 


.. XXI. 


141 


.. XXL 


187 



INDEX. 

Hermes Trismegistus ... ... 

Hieroglyphics, notes on ... 
Hittite notes 

,, inscriptions, notes on the 
^^w£r, the, an Assyrian land measure 
Hommel, Prof. Dr. , communications from 
Hor-em-heb, a high official under Tut-ankh-Amen ... 
Horus-names in tombs at Abydos 
Howorth, Sir H. H., K.C.I.E., F.K..S., F.S.A., communication 

from XXI. 289 

Hyksos, the, finally expelled from Egypt at the end of the XVII 

dynasty XXI. 53 



Igitlim (/r^(^. Joktheel) " the priest of Ammru " XXI. 23 

Ilesukh, a judge of the land of Khana XXI. 23 

,, his name corresponds with that of Abesukh (Heb. Abishua') 

and Yazi-Dagon ... ... ... ... ... ... .-• XXI. 23 

Immerum, an Accadian king ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 161 

Inscriptions, Palmyrene, some recent ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 68 

„ Old Empire, from El Kab XXI. iii 

Iripu, "the messenger," a witness to the Khana Contrjcts . . XXI. 24 

Isarlim (Israel) king of Khana XXI. 23 

Israelites, on the origin of the ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 268 



J. 

Johns, Rev. C. H. W., communications from XXI, 79, 172, 174, 254, 284, 308 

K. 

/Ta, an Assyrian land measure ... 
,, also a measure of capacity ... 
Kaka, scarabs of . . . 
Karnaim, the, of Genesis, and of I and II Maccabees, was a double 

peaked mountain, sacred to Ashteroth ... 
Karnak, discoveries at ... 
Karyaten, inscriptions from 

Kasda, a city of the Sute, or Bedawin 

Kastubila, king of Kazallu 

Kazallu, situated on the west bank of the Euphrates, north of 
Babylon 
, , the revolt of, crushed by Sargon of Akkad ... 
Kedabeg, truncheon with a Hittite mscription found m a tomb at... 
Khabiri, the, of the Tel-el- Amarna letters 



XXI. 


308 


XXI. 


308 


XXI. 


149 


XXI. 


173 


XXI. 


141 


XXI. 


73-78 


XXI. 


23 


XXI. 


19 


XXI. 


19 


XXI. 


19 


XXI. 


238 


XXI. 


268 


2 





Vol. 


Pace. 


XXI. 


112 


XXI. 


22 


XXI. 


22 



6 SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 

Kha-m-uas, his name on a stone at El Kab 

Khana, a contract from the country of 

is written in Babylonian 

,, ,, the proper names in, show 

that the language of Ihe 

country was Semitic ... XXI. 23 

jj J, ,, ,, refers to the sale of house 

property in the "city of 
the country of Kas(daim)" XXI. 23 
Khana names, are provided with the mimation preserved in the 

Minsan dialect of South Arabia 

Khata-tirra, city 

Khattina. a Hittite kingdom, formerly read Patina 

Kha-user-ra, scarabs of 

Khepsh-sed, ^7K^, tomb of 

,, ,, stele of 

Khian, scarabs of... 

Khirpa, cjVj, identified with Aleppo 

Khisa-.sapa, «V/ ... 

Khufu, the name of, on a graffito 

Kis, «'//, capture of by Sumu-la-ilu 

,, dependent on the non-Babylonian kingdom of Kazallu 
Kres p^"^ (burial) cut on a wall of a tomb adjoining that of Pepi 

Ankh 

Al!/^«Wflr, Accadian name for silver 



Lapana, fz/y ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 197 

Lates ni/oiicus, an Egypiisin fish XXI. 312 

Latus niloticusyfj/i, Egyptian bronze mummy case for a XXI. 82 

Legge, F,, communications from XXI. 183, 261, 310 

Library, donations lo the XXI. 2, 52, 83, 145, 146, 181, 1S2, 258, 259, 2S7, 288 
,, purchases for the ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 288 

Lieblein, Prof. J., communication from XXI. 53 

Lubarna, a Hittite king... XXI. 201 

Zw^fl/ J:^^ Accadian character for king XXI. 160 

Lu-Su-Pa-Mes, the official title XXI. 172 

,, to be read "Mukilapati" XXI. 172 

M. 

Maa-ab-ra, scarabs of ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 149, 151 

Mal6kath, her name in a Palmyrene inscription XXI. 69 

Malku, his name in a Palmyrene inscription XXI. 71 

Marion, son of El (ah-b) el Hairan, his name in a Palmyrene inscrip- 
tion ... XXI. 70 



. XXI. 


23 


. XXI. 


202 


. XXI. 


200 


XXI. 149, 


151 


,. XXI. 


I8S 


,. XXI. 


187 


XXI. 149, 


151 


.. XXI. 


196 


.. XXI. 


196 


.. XXI. 


no 


. XXI. 


19 


.. XXI. 


19 


31 

.. XXI. 


28 


.. XXI. 


159 



INDEX. 

Members, deceased, notices of: 

Beechey, Rev. Canon St. Vincent 

de Harlez, Prof. Ch 

Lewis, Prof. T. Hayter, F.S.A., &c. 

Menant, J., Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur, &c. ... 

Simpson, W. 

,, election of XXL 3, 52, 84, iz 

,, nomination of ... ... ... ... XXL 2, 52,1 

Menephthah, the stele of; generally called the " Israel Stele " 

Menes tablet, the, found in the tomb of Aha, at Negadah ... 

Men nefer, pyramid of Pepi I, alluded to in the tomb of Pepi Ankh 

Merut, wife of Pepi Ankh (Khua) 

Meskhent, Egyptian goddess of birth, her badge, the bi-cornate 

uterus 
Minsean dialect, the, of South Arabia ... 

,, ,, ,, ,, traces of, found in Hebrew ... 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, the names 

Milcom and Jerahmeel ... 
Mitanni, kingdom 
Mokimu, his name in a Palmyrene inscription ... ... XXL 

Moloch, or Milcom, a west Semitic god 

Moon, a supposed eclipse of the, in the XXIInd Egyptian dynasty 

Morton, Miss A. Anderson, communication from 

Mosaic Ritual, the sanitary effect of the 

il/M >tJ^ Accadian character for " Year " 

.Musical instrument, an Egyptian 

Mythology, notes on 



N. 

Naki'a, mother of Esarhaddon XXL 174 

Nash, W. L., F.S.A., communications from ... ... ... XXL 80, 170, 311 

Nebi, scarabs of XXL 151, 152 

Nefert-anket-ra-en-nub, scarab of XXL 153 

Negadah and Abydos, recent discoveries at XXL 183 

Nehesi, scarab of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XXL 153 

Nergal, a Babylonian deity XXL 25 

Newberry, Percy E., communications from ... ... ... XXL 282,303 

Nutir or Neter "^ , the sign XXI. 310 



O. 

Offord, J., communications from XXI. 142, 239, 256 

Opis, the fortress of XXI. 19 

" Orantes," Egyptian, note on XXI. 251 

Orientalists, the Congress of, I S99 XXI. 261 





7 


Vol. Pagb. 


XXI. 


257 


XXL 


287 


XXI. 


I 


XXI. 


257 


XXI. 


258 


^7, 182, 


, 28S 


H, 182, 


260 


XXI. 


266 


XXI. 


191 


XXI. 


28 


XXI. 


26 


XXI. 


277 


XXI. 


23 


XXI. 


23 


XXI. 


23 


XXI. 


199 


68, 69, 73 


XXI. 


160 


XXI. 


309 


XXI. 


26 


XXI. 


266 


XXI. 


160 


XXI. 


143 


XXI. 


277 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHjEOLOGY. 



Pachomius, the name, note on ... 

Pa-kha-mer, bronze seal of 

Palmyrene inscriptions, some recent ... 

Papyrus-roll, notes on the hieroglyphics for ... 

Pa-ra-her-ament-uf, scarab of ... 

Pepi scarabs, the name to be read "Shesha "... 

Pepi I, cylinder of 

Pepi II, scarabs of 

Pepi Ankh (Khua) ihe tomb of, near Sharona 

,, ,, ,, note by Mr. Fraser ... 

,, ,, ,, list of titles held by... 

,, his name on a stone at El Kab 
Persea tree, the, of ancient Egypt 
Petu Amen, the tomb of 

,, ,, probably of the 26th dynasty 



his name written 



u 



Vol. Pack. 


... XXI. 


247 


... XXI. 


155 


XXI. 68, 


170 


... XXI 


269 


... XXI. 


154 


... XXI. 


148 


... XXI. 


170 


... XXI. 


149 


... XXI. 


26 


... XXI. 


143 


... XXI. 


28 


... XXI. 


III 


... XXI. 


303 


... XXI. 


33 


... XXI. 


33 


... XXI. 


33 


158, 164, 


, 168 


... XXI. 


63 


... XXI. 


63 


... XXI. 


239 


... XXI. 


80 


ine 

... XXI. 


30s 


... XXI. 


21 



Pinches, T. G., communications from... ... ... XXI 

Pithom, cify, built by the Hebrews in the reign of Thothmes III 

,, ,, liuilt in the Wady Tumilat 

Price, F. G. Hilton, Dir. SA., communications from 
Psammetic-JNeith, portrait-statue of 
Ptahmes, High Priest at Memphis under Amenhetep III, a stone 

vase of 
Pur-sin II, chronological table of 



Qa, itng, tomb of ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 185 

stele of XXI. 186 



K. 



Raamses, city, built by the Hebrews in the reign of Thothmes III 

Ra-en-ka, scarabs of 

Ra-seshes-ka, ^?;?f 

Read, F. \V., communication from 

Ro-anti, the Egyptian name of a Wadi near El Kab 

Royal titles in tombs at Abydos 

Rukhasina, ctij/ ... 

Rylands, W. li., F.S. A., communications from 



II XXI. 


63 


.. XXI. 


149 


.. XXI. 


282 


.. XXI. 


309 


.. XXI. 


108 


.. XXI. 


1S7 


.. XXI. 


196 


XXI. 80, 


175 



INDEX. 



S. 



/§a-/n'-a, an Assyrian land measure 

Salisbury, the Lord Bishop of, communication from 

Samuel, on the name of ... 

Sanehat, the story of, and the Inscription of Amenemheb, a 
correction 

Sapa-lulvi, a Hittite king 

Sarisu, city 
Sartu, the 'word 



Vol Page. 
XXI. 308 



XXI. 
XXI. 

XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 



86 
262 

303 

201 

196 

79 



Sayce, Rev. Prof. A. H., LLD., communications from XXI. 10, 108, no, 141 

194 
XXI. 80 
XXI. 148 
\%, 149, 150 
XXI. 151 



XXI. I. 



Scarab of Aahmes, wife of Thuthmes I 

Scarabs, notes on... 

,, scroll pattern on, probable date of 

,, vertical line pattern on, probable date of 

Seal-cylinder, belonging to Ur. Hayes Ward ... 
Secretarj-'s report, 1898 ... 
Semquen, scarab of 

Sennacherib, the Biblical account of the murder of 

Seraphim and Cherubim, on the 

Seraphim, the, typify lightning 

Set, an Egyptian deity... 

Shahashuta, scarabs of ... ... ... ... ... ... .•• 

Sharu, the name of a king, on a grafhto found near El Kab 

,, the Soris of Manetho 
Shasha, scarabs of 
Shell, an engraved 
Shuites, an early Babylonian document relating to the 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, written in the 

time of 

Khammurabi 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, relates to the 

affairs of 

Babylonia in 

the west ... 

), ,, ., ,, ,, ,, translation ... 

Sin-ikisam, Babylonian ambassador to the Shuites ... ... ... XXI. 

Sippara, the fortress of ... ... ... ... ... .. ... XXL 

S-kha-n-ra, scarabs of ... ... ... ... XXI. 149, 

S-ment-ab-ra, cowroid of ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 

Snefru, his name on objects found in a tomb at El Kab ... ... XXI. 

Soldier, the, notes on the hieroglyphics for ... ... ... .., XXI. 

Sukhi, or Shuhites (Job ii, 11), a revolt meditated by the ... ... XXI. 

Sumu-la-ilu, the " fortress of Babylon," built iu the 5th year of his 

reign... .. ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 

,, the city of Kis taken iu the 13th year of his reign ... XXI. 



XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 
XXI. 



XXI. 



225 

4 

151 
174 

262 
262 

239 
152 

109 
no 

151 

175 

24 



24 



XXI, 
XXI. 



24 

24-25 

25 

19 

151 

153 

"3 
270 

24 

19 
19 



lO SOCIETY OF RIBLICAL ARCH/EOLOGY. 

Vol. Page 

Sumu-la-ilu, the fortress of Sippara built in his 29th year ... ... XXI. 19 

,, ,, Opis ,, ,, 31st year ... ... XXI. 19 

Sute, the XXI. 23 

,, e.\tended across Mesopotamia ... ... ... ... XXI. 23 

,, adjoined the eastern frontier of ljal)ylonia ... ... ... XXI. 23 



T. 



Tammil, his name in a Palmyrene inscription 

Tarkondemos, proposed new explanation of the bilingual inscription 

Temple overseers, the names of, on a tal)k't belonging to Major 

Mockler Ferryman ... 
Teta-ankh, his name on a stone at El Kab 
Thothmes III, the oppressor of the Hebrews 

,, ,, represented conducting the funeral of Hatshepsu, on 

a sculpture at Karnak 
Tilapia ni/olica, the " Bold''' fish, of the Ancient Egyptians 
Tirqua, " the city of the country of " ... 

Trua, a monastery dedicated to St. Thedorc, in the district of Tura XXI 
Tulkulti-Mer, king of Khana ... 
Tumurri, ci/y 
Tunip, city 



U. 

Uah-ka-ra, Bakenrenf, scarab of 
Uazed, scarabs of 

Ukku, rZ/'j' 

Unas, scarabs of ... 

U.ser, a vezir of Upper Egypt, under Thothmes III, a statue of 
Usertesen I, stated to be a descendant of Antef-Aa, in an inscrip- 
tion at Karnak ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 141 



Veneti, the name taken by the llittites of Cappadocia ... ... XXI. 202 

" Vertical line " ornamentation of scarabs ... ... ... ... XXI. 151 



W. 

Walker, J. II., communication from ... ... ... ... ... XXI. 79 

Way, Rev. J. P., Babylonian tablet belonging to XXI. 158 



XXI. 


73 


XXI. 


204 


XXI. 


164 


XXI. 


III 


XXI. 


53 


XXI. 


141 


XXI. 


3" 


XXI. 


-3 


XXI. 


89 


XXI. 


22 


XXI. 


203 


XXI. 


199 



XXI. 


154 


XXI. 


151 


XXI. 


203 


XXI. 


149 


XXI. 


306 



INDEX. 



II 



Weights and measures, Babylonian 

Whyte, E. Towry, M.A. , F.S.A., communications from 



Vol. Page. 

... XXI. 308 

XXI. 82, 143 286 



Xisuthros, the Babylonian Noah 



XXI. 267 



Yabliya, a Shuite deity 

Yaddai, his name in a Palmyrenp inscription 

Yanoem of the Menepthah Stele 

Yapeqher, scarabs of ... 

Yarhai, his name in a Palmyrene inscription . . . 

,, statue of, mentioned in a Palmyrene inscription 
Yazi-Daeon 



... XXI. 25 

.„ XXI. 71 

... XXI. 142 

XXI. 149, 151 

... XXI. 70 

... XXI. 71 

... XXI. 23 



z. 



Z.abd'ate, his name in a Palmyrene inscriprion 

Zemira, his name in a ,, ,, 

Zimri-Khammu, the second element of the name is the equivalent 

of the Hebrew DJ? ••• 
Zimri-Khanata, the second element of the name perhaps represents 

a Canaanitish Anata or ri3J? the goddess Anath 



XXI. 


71 


XXI. 


72 


XXI. 


25 


XXI. 


25